Coran, hadith et savants : la coexistence pacifique

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According to the Islamic historical narrative, the prophet's carrier had two distinct phases, one in Mecca, where his preaching was characterized by a message of peaceful coexistence with the unbelievers combined with preaching on the nature of their sin, shirk, combined with warning of hell fire, and a second phase in Medina, where he was as much of a military figure leading a campaign of conquest as a religious preacher. As such, the scholars have classified the verses of the Qur'an into "Meccan" and "Medinian" verses. The Meccan verses show a strong impulse to pacifism and peaceful coexistence. This contrasts markedly with later "Medinian" verses such as the sword verse, which extol the believers to Jihad against the unbelievers. According to the doctrine of naskh, since the Meccan verses came to Muhammad first, they are abrogated or cancelled by the later Medinian verses when the two contradict one another. Thus "to you your religion, to me a religion" (Qur'an 109:6) is cancelled by the sword verse "fight and slay the polytheists (literally, those guilty of shirk) wherever you find them, and seize them, beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war)" (Qur'an 9:5).


Religious Tolerance and Coexistence with Other Religions

Pacifism Promoted

Allah has sent Muhammad only to warn non-Muslims.

Say: "O men! I am (sent) to you only to give a Clear Warning:

Leave non-Muslims to their ignorance.

But leave them in their confused ignorance for a time.

It is best if you do not retaliate against your persecutors, but rather seek refuge in Allah.

Repel evil with that which is best: We are well acquainted with the things they say. And say "O my Lord! I seek refuge with Thee from the suggestions of the Evil Ones.

Do not argue with innocent Christians and Jews, but rather emphasize your common monotheism.

And dispute ye not with the People of the Book, except with means better (than mere disputation), unless it be with those of them who inflict wrong (and injury): but say, "We believe in the revelation which has come down to us and in that which came down to you; Our Allah and your Allah is one; and it is to Him we bow (in Islam)."

Invite non-Believers to Islam by preaching to them.

Invite (all) to the Way of thy Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious: for thy Lord knoweth best, who have strayed from His Path, and who receive guidance.

And if ye do catch them out, catch them out no worse than they catch you out: But if ye show patience, that is indeed the best (course) for those who are patient.
Qur'an 16:125-126

Do not readily retaliate when attacked, since Allah will have the evil people destroy themselves.

Seest thou not that We have set the Evil Ones on against the unbelievers, to incite them with fury?

So make no haste against them, for We but count out to them a (limited) number (of days).
Qur'an 19:83-84

Be patient with the evil words that are said by people.

Had it not been for a Word that went forth before from thy Lord, (their punishment) must necessarily have come; but there is a Term appointed (for respite).

Therefore be patient with what they say, and celebrate (constantly) the praises of thy Lord, before the rising of the sun, and before its setting; yea, celebrate them for part of the hours of the night, and at the sides of the day: that thou mayest have (spiritual) joy.
Qur'an 20:129-130 , See also: Quran 38:15-17

Be patient and let the non-Muslims see that Islam is the true religion.

And if We had inflicted on them a penalty before this, they would have said: "Our Lord! If only Thou hadst sent us a messenger, we should certainly have followed Thy Signs before we were humbled and put to shame."

Say: "Each one (of us) is waiting: wait ye, therefore, and soon shall ye know who it is that is on the straight and even way, and who it is that has received Guidance."
Qur'an 20:134-135

Turn away from those who reject Islam and say "Peace" to them.

(Allah has knowledge) of the (Prophet's) cry, "O my Lord! Truly these are people who will not believe!"

But turn away from them, and say "Peace!" But soon shall they know!
Qur'an 43:88-89

Non-Muslims shall have their religion and Muslims shall have their religion.

Say : O ye that reject Faith!
I worship not that which ye worship,
Nor will ye worship that which I worship.
And I will not worship that which ye have been wont to worship,
Nor will ye worship that which I worship.

To you be your Way, and to me mine.
Qur'an 109:1-6

See Also