Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Women

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The Islamic tradition has much to say about women and their relation to men. The main, most prominent message is crystal clear: women are the followers of men who are their leaders, and it is their job to obey all that the menfolk in their lives tell them; their place socially is in most ways below that of a man. This is due to the woman's deficient intelligence vis-a-vis men. Due to this deficiency, women are the majority of inhabitants of hell. Women, though, can please their Lord by pleasing their husband. It is the woman's duty to submit sexually and in every other fashion to her husband, and to keep him constantly sexually gratified, so as to keep him from straying from the marriage. If a wife is not sufficiently pleasing to her husband or is rebellious, the husband has many remedies including beating her. Although the wife has many duties, she also has rights; she is entitled to food, shelter, and protection as well as the mahr from her husband, and the husband's lust is limited: it is not permissible to engage in anal sex even within an Islamic marriage.  

Men and women in the Quran

Umm Salamah prompts some verses

Hadiths record that Umm Salamah prompted a couple of Quran verses directly addressing or about women.

Narrated Umm 'Umarah Al-Ansariyyah: that she came to the Prophet (ﷺ) and said: "I do not see bu that everything is for the men, and I do not see anything being mentioned for the women." So this Ayah was revealed: 'Indeed the Muslim men and the Muslim women, the believing men and the believing women... (33:35)'
For Muslim men and women,- for believing men and women, for devout men and women, for true men and women, for men and women who are patient and constant, for men and women who humble themselves, for men and women who give in Charity, for men and women who fast (and deny themselves), for men and women who guard their chastity, and for men and women who engage much in Allah's praise,- for them has Allah prepared forgiveness and great reward.
Narrated 'Amr bin Dinar: from a man among the children of Umm Salamah, from Umm Salamah that she said: "O Messenger of Allah! I have not heard Allah mentioning anything about women and emigration." So Allah, Blessed and Most High, revealed: "Never will I allow to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female. You are members one of another (3:195)."
And their Lord hath accepted of them, and answered them: "Never will I suffer to be lost the work of any of you, be he male or female: Ye are members, one of another: Those who have left their homes, or been driven out therefrom, or suffered harm in My Cause, or fought or been slain,- verily, I will blot out from them their iniquities, and admit them into Gardens with rivers flowing beneath;- A reward from the presence of Allah, and from His presence is the best of rewards."

Men and women are garments for one another

Permitted to you, on the night of the fasts, is the approach to your wives. They are your garments and ye are their garments. Allah knoweth what ye used to do secretly among yourselves; but He turned to you and forgave you; so now associate with them, and seek what Allah Hath ordained for you, and eat and drink, until the white thread of dawn appear to you distinct from its black thread; then complete your fast Till the night appears; but do not associate with your wives while ye are in retreat in the mosques. Those are Limits (set by) Allah: Approach not nigh thereto. Thus doth Allah make clear His Signs to men: that they may learn self-restraint.

Mothers

Be kind, grateful and dutiful to your Mothers

We have enjoined on man kindness to his parents: In pain did his mother bear him, and in pain did she give him birth. The carrying of the (child) to his weaning is (a period of) thirty months. At length, when he reaches the age of full strength and attains forty years, he says, "O my Lord! Grant me that I may be grateful for Thy favour which Thou has bestowed upon me, and upon both my parents, and that I may work righteousness such as Thou mayest approve; and be gracious to me in my issue. Truly have I turned to Thee and truly do I bow (to Thee) in Islam."
Narrated Al-Mughira bin Shu`ba: The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "Allah has forbidden for you, (1) to be undutiful to your mothers, (2) to bury your daughters alive, (3) to not to pay the rights of the others (e.g. charity, etc.) and (4) to beg of men (begging). And Allah has hated for you (1) vain, useless talk, or that you talk too much about others, (2) to ask too many questions, (in disputed religious matters) and (3) to waste the wealth (by extravagance).

Give companionship to your Mothers

It was narrated that Abu Hurairah said: “A man came to the Prophet (ﷺ) and said: “O Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), tell me, which of the people has most right to my good companionship?' He said: 'Yes, by your father, you will certainly be told.' He said: 'Your mother,' He said: 'Then who?' He said: Then your mother.' He said: 'Then who?' He said: Then your mother.' He said: 'Then who?' He said: Then your father.' He said: 'Tell me, O Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) about my wealth- how should I give in charity?' He said: 'Yes, by Allah (SWT) you will certainly be told. You should give in charity when you are still healthy and greedy for wealth, hoping for a long life and fearing poverty. Do not tarry until your soul reaches here and you say: “My wealth of for so-and-so,” and “My wealth of for so-and-so,” and it will be for them even though you dislike that.'”

Reward for gifting a slave to your mother

Abdullah bin Buraidah narrated from his father: "I was sitting with the Prophet when a woman came to him and said: 'O Messenger of Allah! I gave a slave girl to my mother in charity and she died.' He said: 'Your reward is already established, and your right to inherit her has returned it (that Sadaqah) to you.' She said: 'O Messenger of Allah! There was a month of fasting due on her, shall I perform the fast for her?' He said: 'Fast on her behalf.' She said: 'O Messenger of Allah! She never performed Hajj, shall I perform Hajj for her?' He said: 'Yes, perform Hajj on her behalf.'"

Characteristics of Women

Limits of Women

Men are above and in charge of women

And it is for the women to act as they (the husbands) act by them, in all fairness; but the men are a step above them.
Men are in charge of women, because Allah hath made the one of them to excel the other, and because they spend of their property (for the support of women). So good women are the obedient, guarding in secret that which Allah hath guarded. As for those from whom ye fear rebellion, admonish them and banish them to beds apart, and scourge them. Then if they obey you, seek not a way against them. Lo! Allah is ever High, Exalted, Great.
Narrated Abu Bakra: During the battle of Al-Jamal, Allah benefited me with a Word (I heard from the Prophet). When the Prophet heard the news that the people of the Persia had made the daughter of Khosrau their Queen (ruler), he said, "Never will succeed such a nation as makes a woman their ruler."

Women are Weak

Narrated Anas bin Malik
The Prophet had a Had (a camel driver) called Anjasha, and he had a nice voice. The Prophet said to him, "(Drive) slowly, O Anjasha! Do not break the glass vessels!" And Qatada said, "(By vessels') he meant the weak women."

Women are Deficient in Intelligence

According to Yunus--Ibn Wahb--Ibn Zayd (commenting on God's word: "And he whispered"): Satan whispered to Eve about the tree and succeeded in taking her to it; then he made it seem good to Adam. He continued. When Adam felt a need for her and called her, she said: No! unless you go there. When he went, she said again: No! unless you eat from this tree. He continued. They both ate from it, and their secret parts became apparent to them. He continued. Adam then went about in Paradise in flight. His Lord called out to him: Adam, is it from Me that you are fleeing? Adam replied: No, my Lord, but I feel shame before You. When God asked what had caused his trouble, he replied: Eve, my Lord. Whereupon God said: Now it is My obligation to make her bleed once every month, as she made this tree bleed. I also must make her stupid, although I created her intelligent (halimah), and must make her suffer pregnancy and birth with difficulty, although I made it easy for her to be pregnant and give birth. Ibn Zayd continued: Were it not for the affliction that affected Eve, the women of this world would not menstruate, and they would be intelligent and, when pregnant, give birth easily.
According to Ibn Humayd--Salamah--Muhammad b. Ishaq--Yazid b. 'Abdallah b. Qusayt--Sa'id b. al-Musayyab: I heard him swear by God unequivocally: As long as Adam was in his right mind, he did not eat from the tree. Eve, however, gave him wine to drink, and when he was drunk, she led him to the tree, and he ate from it.
al-Tabari (d. 923), Franz Rosenthal; W. Montgomery Watt, eds, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. I, SUNY Press, pp. 280-281, ISBN 0-88706-562-7, 1989, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n1/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 1, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, pp. 111-112, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: The Prophet said, "Isn't the witness of a woman equal to half of that of a man?" The women said, "Yes." He said, "This is because of the deficiency of a woman's mind."
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: Once Allah's Apostle went out to the Musalla (to offer the prayer) o 'Id-al-Adha or Al-Fitr prayer. Then he passed by the women and said, "O women! Give alms, as I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-fire were you (women)." They asked, "Why is it so, O Allah's Apostle ?" He replied, "You curse frequently and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. A cautious sensible man could be led astray by some of you." The women asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What is deficient in our intelligence and religion?" He said, "Is not the evidence of two women equal to the witness of one man?" They replied in the affirmative. He said, "This is the deficiency in her intelligence. Isn't it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during her menses?" The women replied in the affirmative. He said, "This is the deficiency in her religion."
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri On 'Id ul Fitr or 'Id ul Adha Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) went out to the Musalla. After finishing the prayer, he delivered the sermon and ordered the people to give alms. He said, "O people! Give alms." Then he went towards the women and said. "O women! Give alms, for I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-Fire were you (women)." The women asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What is the reason for it?" He replied, "O women! You curse frequently, and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. O women, some of you can lead a cautious wise man astray." Then he left. And when he reached his house, Zainab, the wife of Ibn Masud, came and asked permission to enter It was said, "O Allah's Apostle! It is Zainab." He asked, 'Which Zainab?" The reply was that she was the wife of Ibn Mas'ub. He said, "Yes, allow her to enter." And she was admitted. Then she said, "O Prophet of Allah! Today you ordered people to give alms and I had an ornament and intended to give it as alms, but Ibn Masud said that he and his children deserved it more than anybody else." The Prophet replied, "Ibn Masud had spoken the truth. Your husband and your children had more right to it than anybody else."

Women have 'Awrat

Ali reported the Prophet saying: 'Women have ten ('awrat). When she gets married, the husband covers one, and when she dies the grave covers the ten.
Kanz-el-'Ummal, Vol. 22, Hadith No. 858
A woman is closest to God's face, if she is found in the core of her house. And the prayer of the woman in the house is better than her prayer in the mosque.
Ihy'a 'Uloum ed-Din by al-Ghazali[1]

Character of Women

Women are like a rib so be kind to them

Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "The woman is like a rib; if you try to straighten her, she will break. So if you want to get benefit from her, do so while she still has some crookedness."
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should not hurt (trouble) his neighbor. And I advise you to take care of the women, for they are created from a rib and the most crooked portion of the rib is its upper part; if you try to straighten it, it will break, and if you leave it, it will remain crooked, so I urge you to take care of the women."
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah 's Apostle said, "Treat women nicely, for a women is created from a rib, and the most curved portion of the rib is its upper portion, so, if you should try to straighten it, it will break, but if you leave it as it is, it will remain crooked. So treat women nicely."
AbuHuraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Woman is like a rib. When you attempt to straighten it, you would break it. And if you leave her alone you would benefit by her, and crookedness will remain in her. A hadith like this is reported by another chain of narrators
Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported: Woman has been created from a rib and will in no way be straightened for you; so if you wish to benefit by her, benefit by her while crookedness remains in her. And if you attempt to straighten her, you will break her, and breaking her is divorcing her.
Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who believes in Allah and the Hereafter, if he witnesses any matter he should talk in good terms about it or keep quiet. Act kindly towards woman, for woman is created from a rib, and the most crooked part of the rib is its top. If you attempt to straighten it, you will break it, and if you leave it, its crookedness will remain there. So act kindly towards women.

Women lack virtue

"If you relax the woman's bridle a tiny bit, she will take you and bolt wildly. And if you lower her cheek-piece a hand span, she will pull you an arm's length... Their deception is awesome and their wickedness is contagious; bad character and feeble mind are their predominant traits... Mohammad said: 'The likeness of a virtuous woman amongst women is like a red-beaked crow among a hundred crows."[2]
al-Ghazali, Ihy'a 'Uloum ed-Din, Dar al-Kotob al-'Elmeyah, Beirut, Vol II, Kitab Adab al-Nikah, p. 51.

Women come in the form of a Devil

Jabir reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) saw a woman, and so he came to his wife, Zainab, as she was tanning a leather and had sexual intercourse with her. He then went to his Companions and told them: The woman advances and retires in the shape of a devil, so when one of you sees a woman, he should come to his wife, for that will repel what he feels in his heart.
When a woman comes she comes in the form of a devil.
Ihya' 'Uloum ed-Din by al-Ghazali[3]

An Evil Omen is in a Woman

Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar: I heard the Prophet saying. "Evil omen is in three things: The horse, the woman and the house."
Narrated Sahl bin Sad Saidi: "Allah's Apostle said "If there is any evil omen in anything, then it is in the woman, the horse and the house."

Women who seek divorce are Hypocrites

Thawban narrated that: The Prophet said: "The women who seek a Khul are hypocrites."

Most of Hell's inhabitants are women

Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: Once Allah's Apostle went out to the Musalla (to offer the prayer) o 'Id-al-Adha or Al-Fitr prayer. Then he passed by the women and said, "O women! Give alms, as I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-fire were you (women)." They asked, "Why is it so, O Allah's Apostle ?" He replied, "You curse frequently and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. A cautious sensible man could be led astray by some of you." The women asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What is deficient in our intelligence and religion?" He said, "Is not the evidence of two women equal to the witness of one man?" They replied in the affirmative. He said, "This is the deficiency in her intelligence. Isn't it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during her menses?" The women replied in the affirmative. He said, "This is the deficiency in her religion."
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: The Prophet said: "I was shown the Hell-fire and that the majority of its dwellers were women who were ungrateful." It was asked, "Do they disbelieve in Allah?" (or are they ungrateful to Allah?) He replied, "They are ungrateful to their husbands and are ungrateful for the favors and the good (charitable deeds) done to them. If you have always been good (benevolent) to one of them and then she sees something in you (not of her liking), she will say, 'I have never received any good from you."
Imran b. Husain reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Amongst the inmates of Paradise the women would form a minority.
Usama b. Zaid reported that Allah's Messenger (way peace be upon him) said: I stood at the door of Paradise and I found that the overwhelming majority of those who entered therein was that of poor persons and the wealthy persons were detained to get into that. The denizens of Hell were commanded to get into Hell, and I stood upon the door of Fire and the majority amongst them who entered there was that of women.
Ibn Abbas reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: I had a chance to look into the Paradise and I found that majority of the people was poor and I looked into the Fire and there I found the majority constituted by women.
[Muhammad said]A woman, who at the moment of death enjoys the full approval of her husband, will find her place in Paradise'.
Ihya' 'Uloum ed-Din by al-Ghazali[4]
Narrated Usama: The Prophet said, "I stood at the gate of Paradise and saw that the majority of the people who entered it were the poor, while the wealthy were stopped at the gate (for the accounts). But the companions of the Fire were ordered to be taken to the Fire. Then I stood at the gate of the Fire and saw that the majority of those who entered it were women."
Narrated Usama: The Prophet said, "I stood at the gate of Paradise and saw that the majority of the people who entered it were the poor, while the wealthy were stopped at the gate (for the accounts). But the companions of the Fire were ordered to be taken to the Fire. Then I stood at the gate of the Fire and saw that the majority of those who entered it were women."
Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abbas: ... The Prophet replied, "I saw Paradise and stretched my hands towards a bunch (of its fruits) and had I taken it, you would have eaten from it as long as the world remains. I also saw the Hell-fire and I had never seen such a horrible sight. I saw that most of the inhabitants were women." The people asked, "O Allah's Apostle! Why is it so?" The Prophet replied, "Because of their ungratefulness." It was asked whether they are ungrateful to Allah. The Prophet said, "They are ungrateful to their companions of life (husbands) and ungrateful to good deeds. If you are benevolent to one of them throughout the life and if she sees anything (undesirable) in you, she will say, 'I have never had any good from you.' "
Abu Huraira narrated: "We were at his place [Muhammad's] and the people either boasted or reminded one another. He said, 'Men in paradise are more than in hell.'
Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 2:507
Out of 99 women, one is in paradise and the rest are in hell
Kanz al-`ummal, 22:10
`Abdullah Ibn `Amr narrated: "O women! Give alms and ask pardon [from God] frequently, as I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of hell were you." "One of them asked, 'Why, Messenger of God, are we the majority of the dwellers of hell?' He replied, 'You curse frequently and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you.' "[5]
Imara Ibn Huzaima narrated: "While we were with `Amr Ibn al-`As on a pilgrimage or an `Umra, he said, "While we were with the Messenger of God in this mountain path, he said, 'Look! Do you see anything?' We answered, 'We see ravens; one is white-footed with red legs and peak.' The Messenger of God said, `No woman will enter paradise unless she is like this raven in comparison to the rest of the ravens.' "
Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 4:197,205
[The apostle said] 'Then I saw women hanging by their breasts. These were those who had fathered bastards on their husbands.'
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, p. 186, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 1, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 406, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
"[Muhammad said] A believing woman is the same among women as a white-footed raven among the ravens. Fire has been created for the senseless, and women are the most senseless of all."
Kanz al-`ummal, 22:11
Abu Huraira narrated "The first band entering paradise will be like the full moon, and the ones that will follow them will be like the best star in the heavens. Each man will have two wives of the wide-eyed houris; the marrow of their bones can be seen through the flesh and the bones"
Sura al-Nisa' 4:218
It was narrated from Abu Umamah that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “There is no one whom Allah will admit to Paradise but Allah will marry him to seventy-two wives, two from houris and seventy from his inheritance from the people of Hell, all of whom will have desirable front passages and he will have a male member that never becomes flaccid (i.e., soft and limp).’”
Men will enter into paradise after a short conversation with God. They will go to their dwelling-places where their wives will welcome them. Their wives will ask them about the secret of their glamorous beauty which they did not possess before they left their dwelling-places. They will answer them, saying that they have sat down with their Lord, and therefore they have the right to it.[6]

Characteristics of Good Wives

Does not Annoy her Husband

It was narrated from Mu'adh bin Jabal that: the Messenger of Allah said: "No woman annoys her husband but his wife among houris (of Paradise) safs: 'Do not annoy him, may Allah destroy you, for he is just a temporary guest with you and soon he will leave you and join us."' (Hasan)

Obeys her Husband

The virtuous wife, if her husband bids her, she obeys him; if he looks at her, she pleases him; if he gives her an oath; she fulfils it, and if he is absent from her, she guards herself and his property.
Mishkat al-Masabih, Book 1, duty towards children Hadith Number 43

Comes to him immediately when called for sex

Talq bin Ali narrated that The Messenger of Allah said: “When a man calls his wife to fulfill his need, then let her come, even if she is at the oven.” (Darussalam: Sahih)

Has a Pretty Face and a Cheap Dowry

The best women are those who have the prettiest faces and the cheapest dowry.
Ihya' 'Uloum ed-Din by al-Ghazali[7]

Sexually Satisfies and Does her Home Duties

The good wife is out of this world because she helps free you to concentrate on the life to come. She does that by doing her house duties (instead of the husband having to do them), and by satisfying the husband sexually so protecting him from sexual temptation.
Ihya' 'Uloum ed-Din by al-Ghazali[8]
Your wives are as a tilth unto you; so approach your tilth when or how ye will; but do some good act for your souls beforehand; and fear Allah. And know that ye are to meet Him (in the Hereafter), and give (these) good tidings to those who believe.

Characteristics of Women

Passing Women will Annul Prayers

Narrated 'Aisha: The things which annul the prayers were mentioned before me. They said, "Prayer is annulled by a dog, a donkey and a woman (if they pass in front of the praying people)." I said, "You have made us (i.e. women) dogs. I saw the Prophet praying while I used to lie in my bed between him and the Qibla. Whenever I was in need of something, I would slip away. for I disliked to face him."
Narrated 'Aisha: The things which annual prayer were mentioned before me (and those were): a dog, a donkey and a woman. I said, "You have compared us (women) to donkeys and dogs. By Allah! I saw the Prophet praying while I used to lie in (my) bed between him and the Qibla. Whenever I was in need of something, I disliked to sit and trouble the Prophet. So, I would slip away by the side of his feet."

Women are a fitnah to Men

Narrated Usama bin Zaid: The Prophet said, "After me I have not left any fitnah (affliction/trial) more harmful/severe to men than women."
Usama b. Zaid reported Allah's Messenger as saying: I have not left after me any (chance) of turmoil more injurious to men than the harm done to the men because of women.
Usama b. Zaid b. Harith and Sa'id b. Zaid b. 'Amr b. Naufal both reported Allah's Messenger as saying: I have not left after me turmoil for the people but the harm done to men by women.

Women Betray their Husbands because of Eve

Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "But for the Israelis, meat would not decay and but for Eve, wives would never betray their husbands."
Hammam b. Munabbih said: These are some of the ahadith which Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) narrated to us from Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), and one of these (this one): Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Had it not been for Bani Isra'il, food would not have become stale, and meal would not have gone bad; and had it not been for Eve, a woman would never have acted unfaithfully toward her husband.

Women and Menstruation

Menstruation is a Punishment

According to Yunus--Ibn Wahb--Ibn Zayd (commenting on God's word: "And he whispered"): Satan whispered to Eve about the tree and succeeded in taking her to it; then he made it seem good to Adam. He continued. When Adam felt a need for her and called her, she said: No! unless you go there. When he went, she said again: No! unless you eat from this tree. He continued. They both ate from it, and their secret parts became apparent to them. He continued. Adam then went about in Paradise in flight. His Lord called out to him: Adam, is it from Me that you are fleeing? Adam replied: No, my Lord, but I feel shame before You. When God asked what had caused his trouble, he replied: Eve, my Lord. Whereupon God said: Now it is My obligation to make her bleed once every month, as she made this tree bleed. I also must make her stupid, although I created her intelligent (halimah), and must make her suffer pregnancy and birth with difficulty, although I made it easy for her to be pregnant and give birth. Ibn Zayd continued: Were it not for the affliction that affected Eve, the women of this world would not menstruate, and they would be intelligent and, when pregnant, give birth easily.
According to Ibn Humayd--Salamah--Muhammad b. Ishaq--Yazid b. 'Abdallah b. Qusayt--Sa'id b. al-Musayyab: I heard him swear by God unequivocally: As long as Adam was in his right mind, he did not eat from the tree. Eve, however, gave him wine to drink, and when he was drunk, she led him to the tree, and he ate from it.
al-Tabari (d. 923), Franz Rosenthal; W. Montgomery Watt, eds, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. I, SUNY Press, pp. 280-281, ISBN 0-88706-562-7, 1989, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n1/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 1, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, pp. 111-112, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 

Menstruation is a pain

Pickthal: They question thee (O Muhammad) concerning menstruation. Say: It is an illness, so let women alone at such times and go not in unto them till they are cleansed. And when they have purified themselves, then go in unto them as Allah hath enjoined upon you. Truly Allah loveth those who turn unto Him, and loveth those who have a care for cleanness. Shakir: And they ask you about menstruation. Say: It is a discomfort; therefore keep aloof from the women during the menstrual discharge and do not go near them until they have become clean; then when they have cleansed themselves, go in to them as Allah has commanded you; surely Allah loves those who turn much (to Him), and He loves those who purify themselves.

The Value of Women

Equality of Women

Women are Inferior to Men

Men have authority over women because God has made the one superior to the other, and because they spend their wealth to maintain them. Good women are obedient. They guard their unseen parts because God has guarded them. As for those whom you fear disobedience, admonish them and send them to beds apart and beat them. Then if they obey you, take no further action against them. Surely God is most high.
Women who are divorced shall wait, keeping themselves apart, three (monthly) courses. And it is not lawful for them that they should conceal that which Allah hath created in their wombs if they are believers in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands would do better to take them back in that case if they desire a reconciliation. And they (women) have rights similar to those (of men) over them in kindness, and men are a degree above them. Allah is Mighty, Wise.

A Woman's witness and inheritance is half that of men

Call in two male witnesses from among you, but if two men cannot be found, then one man and two women whom you judge fit to act as witnesses.
“Allah directs you in regard of your Children’s (inheritance): to the male, a portion equal to that of two females…. These are settled portions ordained by Allah.
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: The Prophet said, "Isn't the witness of a women equal to half that of a man?" The women said "yes". He said "This is because of the deficiency of the women's mind."
O womenfolk, you should ask for forgiveness for I saw you in bulk amongst the dwellers of Hell. A wise lady said: Why is it, Allah’s Apostle, that women comprise the bulk of the inhabitants of Hell? The Prophet observed: ‘You curse too much and are ungrateful to your spouses. You lack common sense, fail in religion and rob the wisdom of the wise.’ Upon this the woman remarked: What is wrong with our common sense? The Prophet replied, ‘Your lack of common sense can be determined from the fact that the evidence of two women is equal to one man. That is a proof.

Women will Never be Fulfil her Husband's Rights Over Her

If a woman offered one of her breasts to be cooked and the other to be roasted, she still will fall short of fulfilling her obligations to her husband. And besides that if she disobeys her husband even for a twinkling of an eye, she would be thrown in the lowest part of Hell, except she repents and turns back.[9]
If blood, suppuration, and pus, were to pour from the husband's nose and the wife licked it with her tongue, she would still never be able to fulfil his rights over her.
al-Suyuti[10]

Men are Favored

Men are the ones that should be in charge of women because some have been favoured more than others.
Abu Bakr Ibn `Ali al-Jassas, Ahkam al-Qur'an (Cairo, 1347 A.H.), 3:471ff. al-Sabuni, 2:433.

Women were Equal Before Islam

Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas: ...We, the people of Quraish, used to have authority over women, but when we came to live with the Ansar, we noticed that the Ansari women had the upper hand over their men, so our women started acquiring the habits of the Ansari women. Once I shouted at my wife and she paid me back in my coin and I disliked that she should answer me back....

Women Will Never Successfully Rule Nations

Narrated Abu Bakra: During the battle of Al-Jamal, Allah benefited me with a Word (I heard from the Prophet). When the Prophet heard the news that the people of the Persia had made the daughter of Khosrau their Queen (ruler), he said, "Never will succeed such a nation as makes a woman their ruler."

"You Have Made Us (i.e. Women) Dogs."

Narrated 'Aisha: The things which annul the prayers were mentioned before me. They said, "Prayer is annulled by a dog, a donkey and a woman (if they pass in front of the praying people)." I said, "You have made us (i.e. women) dogs. I saw the Prophet praying while I used to lie in my bed between him and the Qibla. Whenever I was in need of something, I would slip away. for I disliked to face him."
Narrated 'Aisha: The things which annual prayer were mentioned before me (and those were): a dog, a donkey and a woman. I said, "You have compared us (women) to donkeys and dogs. By Allah! I saw the Prophet praying while I used to lie in (my) bed between him and the Qibla. Whenever I was in need of something, I disliked to sit and trouble the Prophet. So, I would slip away by the side of his feet."
Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas: Ikrimah reported on the authority of Ibn Abbas, saying: I think the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said: When one of you prays without a sutrah, a dog, an ass, a pig, a Jew, a Magian, and a woman cut off his prayer, but it will suffice if they pass in front of him at a distance of over a stone's throw.

Virgins are Preferred over Matrons

Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: When I got married, Allah's Apostle said to me, "What type of lady have you married?" I replied, "I have married a matron' He said, "Why, don't you have a liking for the virgins and for fondling them?" Jabir also said: Allah's Apostle said, "Why didn't you marry a young girl so that you might play with her and she with you?'
Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar: A woman was my wife and I loved her, but Umar hated her. He said to me: Divorce her, but I refused. Umar then went to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and mentioned that to him. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Divorce her.

Status of Women

Women can be possessed as slaves

Narrated Anas: The Prophet stayed for three rights between Khaibar and Medina and was married to Safiya. I invited the Muslim to h s marriage banquet and there wa neither meat nor bread in that banquet but the Prophet ordered Bilal to spread the leather mats on which dates, dried yogurt and butter were put. The Muslims said amongst themselves, "Will she (i.e. Safiya) be one of the mothers of the believers, (i.e. one of the wives of the Prophet ) or just (a lady captive) of what his right-hand possesses" Some of them said, "If the Prophet makes her observe the veil, then she will be one of the mothers of the believers (i.e. one of the Prophet's wives), and if he does not make her observe the veil, then she will be his lady slave." So when he departed, he made a place for her behind him (on his and made her observe the veil.
Abu Wajza Yazid b. 'Ubayd al-Sadi told me that the apostle gave 'Ali a girl called Rayta d. Hilal b. Hayyan b. 'Umayra b. Hilal b. Nasira b. Qusayya b. Nasr b. Sad b. Bakr; and he gave 'Uthman a girl called Zaynab d. Hayyan; and he gave 'Umar a girl whom 'Umar gave to his son 'Abdullah.
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, p. 593, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 490, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 

Women are your captives

These statements are reported of Muhammad's farewell sermon (see similarly Sunan Ibn Majah 3:9:1851 and Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2:10:1163).

And now, people, you acquire certain rights over your wives, and they do you. The right you acquire over them is that they should not let someone you hate sleep in your beds, and not to commit a manifest obscenity [or adultery]. If they do [commit it], then God has given you permission to leave them alone in their beds and give them a beating, though not too hard. If they give over, they get their provision and clothing with kindness; I command you good-will for your wives, for they are your captives(1) that do not own anything of their own. You have taken them by the faithfulness of God, and made their sexual organs lawful for you by the words of God."
Ibn Hisham, al-Sira al-nabawiyya[11]
Now then, O people, you have a right over your wives and they have a right over you. You have [the right] that they should not cause anyone of whom you dislike to tread on your beds; and that they should not commit any open indecency. If they do, then Allah permits you to shut them in separate rooms and to beat them, but not severely. If they abstain from [evil], they have the right to their food and clothing in accordance with the custom. Treat women well, for they are [like] domestic animals with you and do not possess anything for themselves. You have taken them only as a trust from Allah, and you have made the enjoyment of their persons lawful by the word of Allah, so understand and listen to my words, O people.
The History of al-Tabari, Vol. 9, pp. 112-113

Women are Toys

Omar [one of the Khalifs] was once talking when his wife interjected, so he said to her: 'You are a toy, if you are needed we will call you.'
Al-Musanaf Vol. 1 Part 2, p. 263
[Mohammad said] The woman is a toy, whoever takes her let him care for her (or do not lose her)[12]

Women are a tilth for men to approach when and how they will

Your wives are as a tilth unto you; so approach your tilth when or how ye will; but do some good act for your souls beforehand; and fear Allah. And know that ye are to meet Him (in the Hereafter), and give (these) good tidings to those who believe.
Narrated Mu'awiyah ibn Haydah: I said: Apostle of Allah, how should we approach our wives and how should we leave them? He replied: Approach your tilth when or how you will, give her (your wife) food when you take food, clothes when you clothe yourself, do not revile her face, and do not beat her.

A Virgin's Silence is her Consent to Marriage

Narrated Abu Haraira: Allah's Apostle said, "A lady slave should not be given in marriage until she is consulted, and a virgin should not be given in marriage until her permission is granted." The people said, "How will she express her permission?" The Prophet said, "By keeping silent (when asked her consent)." Some people said, "If a man, by playing a trick, presents two false witnesses before the judge to testify that he has married a matron with her consent and the judge confirms his marriage, and the husband is sure that he has never married her (before), then such a marriage will be considered as a legal one and he may live with her as husband."
Narrated 'Aisha: I asked the Prophet, "O Allah's Apostle! Should the women be asked for their consent to their marriage?" He said, "Yes." I said, "A virgin, if asked, feels shy and keeps quiet." He said, "Her silence means her consent."

Muhammad did not shake hands with women

Muhammad bin Munkadir said that he heard Umaimah bint Ruqaiqah say:

“I came to the Prophet (ﷺ) with some other women, to offer our pledge to him. He said to us: ‘(I accept your pledge) with regard to what you are able to do. But I do not shake hands with women.’”


Barren Women

Do not marry barren women

Narrated Ma'qil ibn Yasar: A man came to the Prophet (ﷺ) and said: I have found a woman of rank and beauty, but she does not give birth to children. Should I marry her? He said: No. He came again to him, but he prohibited him. He came to him third time, and he (the Prophet) said: Marry women who are loving and very prolific, for I shall outnumber the peoples by you.
Narrated Ma'qil bin Yasar: It was narrated that Ma'qil bin Yasar said: "A man came to the Messenger of Allah and said: 'I have found a woman who is from a good family and of good status, but she does not bear children, should I marry her?' He told him not to. Then he came to him a second time and he told him not to (marry her). Then he came to him a third time and he told him not to (marry her), then he said: 'Marry the one who is fertile and loving, for I will boast of your great numbers.'"

Worth of a barren woman

It was narrated from 'Abdullah bin 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "An omen is in a dwelling, a woman or a horse." Abu Dawud said: This tradition was read out to al-Harith b. Miskin and I was witness. It was said to him that Ibn Qasim told him that Malik was asked about evil omen in a horse and in a house. He replied: There are many houses in which people lived and perished and again others lived therein and they also perished. This is its explanation so far as we know. Allah knows best. Abu Dawud said: 'Umar (ra) said: A mat in a house better than a woman who does not give birth to a child.

The Husband's Rights

Sovereignty of Men's Right

The Husband's Rights are Divine

It was narrated that: Abdullah bin Abu Awfa said” When Muadh bin Jabal came from Sham, he prostrated to the Prophet who said: 'What is this, O Muadh?' He said: 'I went to Sham and saw them prostrating their bishops and patricians and I wanted to do that for you.' The messenger of Allah said: 'Do not do that. If I were to command anyone to prostrate to anyone other than Allah, I would have commanded women to prostrate to their husbands. By the one in who hand is the soul of Muhammad! No woman can fulfill her duty towards Allah until she fulfills her duty towards her husband. If he asks her (for intimacy) even if she is on her camel saddle, she should not refuse.' “(Hasan)
Reported by Abu Dawood, Ahmad, Tirmizi, Ibn Magah and Ibn Haban.
Had I ordered anybody to prostrate before any one, I would have ordered women to prostrate before their husbands on account of men's rights over the women ordained by Allah.
Mishkat al-Masabih Section 'Duties of husband and wife', Hadith No. 70

Women Must Please their Husbands

It was narrated that from Musawir Al Himyari from his mother that: she heard Umm Salamah say: “I heard the Messenger of Allah say: 'Any woman who dies when her husband is pleased with her, will enter Paradise.' ”(Hasan)
There are three (persons) whose prayer will not be accepted, nor their virtues be taken above: The runaway slave until he returns back to his master, the woman with whom her husband is dissatisfied, and the drunk until he becomes sober.
Al-Suyuti commenting on Quran 4:34
Whosoever female dies while her husband is pleased with her, will enter Paradise.
Mishkat al-Masabih Book I, Section 'Duties of husband and wife', Hadith No. ii, 60
The prophet once said to a woman: 'Watch how you treat your husband for he is your Paradise and your Hell.
Kanz- el-'Ummal, Volume 22, Hadith Number 868

Husband´s Rights

The Husband's Desires Must be Immediately Met

Abdullah bin Abu Awfa said “...the messenger of Allah said: '... If [the husband] asks her (for intimacy) even if she is on her camel saddle, she should not refuse.'” (Hasan)
Talq bin Ali narrated that The Messenger of Allah said: “When a man calls his wife to fulfill his need, then let her come, even if she is at the oven.”
Your wives are as a tilth unto you; so approach your tilth when or how ye will; but do some good act for your souls beforehand; and fear Allah. And know that ye are to meet Him (in the Hereafter), and give (these) good tidings to those who believe.

Men have a Right to Rape their Female Slaves, even if they have Husbands

And those who preserve their chastity
Save with their wives and those whom their right hands possess, for thus they are not blameworthy;
Qur'an 70:29-30
For if a man purchases a slave girl, the purchase contract includes his right to have sex with her.[13]
This contract is primarily to own her and secondarily to enjoy her sexually.[14]
"Abu Sai’d al-Khudri said : The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) sent a military expedition to Awtas on the occasion of the battle of Hunain. They met their enemy and fought with them. They defeated them and took them captives. Some of the Companions of the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) were reluctant to have intercourse with the female captives because of their pagan husbands. So Allah, the Exalted, sent down the Qur’anic verse: (Sura 4:24) "And all married women (are forbidden) unto you save those (captives) whom your right hands possess." That is to say, they are lawful for them when they complete their waiting period.(1479)"
Salamah said “We went out (on an expedition) with Abu Bakr. The Apostle of Allaah(ﷺ) appointed him commander over us. We attacked Fazarah and took them from all sides. I then saw a group of people which contained children and women. I shot an arrow towards them, but it fell between them and the mountain. They stood; I brought them to Abu Bakr. There was among them a woman of Fazarah. She wore a skin over her and her daughter who was the most beautiful of the Arabs was with her. Abu Bakr gave her daughter to me as a reward. I came back to Madeenah. The Apostle of Allaah(ﷺ) met me and said to me “Give me the woman, Salamah. I said to him, I swear by Allaah, she is to my liking and I have not yet untied he garment. He kept silence, and when the next day came the Apostle of Allaah(ﷺ) met me in the market and said to me “Give me the woman, Salamah, by Allaah, your father. I said the Apostle of Allaah, I have not yet untied her garment. I swear by Allaah, she is now yours. He sent her to the people of Makkah who had (some Muslims) prisoners in their hands. They released them for this woman.
Narrated Ruwayfi' ibn Thabit al-Ansari: Should I tell you what I heard the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) say on the day of Hunayn: It is not lawful for a man who believes in Allah and the last day to water what another has sown with his water (meaning intercourse with women who are pregnant); it is not lawful for a man who believes in Allah and the Last Day to have intercourse with a captive woman till she is free from a menstrual course; and it is not lawful for a man who believes in Allah and the Last Day to sell spoil till it is divided.
Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: If one of you marries a woman or buys a slave, he should say: "O Allah, I ask Thee for the good in her, and in the disposition Thou hast given her; I take refuge in Thee from the evil in her, and in the disposition Thou hast given her." When he buys a camel, he should take hold of the top of its hump and say the same kind of thing.
Narrated Mu'awiyah ibn Haydah: I said: Apostle of Allah, from whom should we conceal our private parts and to whom can we show? He replied: conceal your private parts except from your wife and from whom your right hands possess (slave-girls)...
‘Ata said, ‘There is no harm in fondling with one’s pregnant (1) slave-girl without having sexual intercourse with her. Allah said: ‘Except with their wives and the (women captives) whom their right hands possess (for in this case they are not to be blamed).’" Footnote (1) says, "Pregnant from another man, not her present master."
Sahih Bukhari vol.3 ch.113 after no.436
"Narrated Ibn Muhairiz: I entered the Mosque and saw Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri and sat beside him and asked him about Al-’Azl (i.e. coitus interruptus). Abu Sai’id said, ‘We went out with Allah’s Apostle for the Ghazwa [battle] of Banu Al-Mustaliq and we received captives from among the Arab captives and we desired women and celibacy became hard on us and we loved to do coitus interruptus. So when we intended to do coitus interruptus, we said, ‘How can we do coitus interrupts before asking Allah’s Apostle who is present among us?’ We asked (him) about it and he said, ‘It is better for you not to do so, for if any soul till the Day of Resurrection is predestined to exist, it will exist."
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: That while he was sitting with the Prophet a man from the Ansar came and said, "O Allah's Apostle! We get slave girls from the war captives and we love property; what do you think about coitus interruptus?" Allah's Apostle said, "Do you do that? It is better for you not to do it, for there is no soul which Allah has ordained to come into existence but will be created."
...Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (Allah her pleased with him) reported that at the Battle of Hanain Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent an army to Autas and encountered the enemy and fought with them. Having overcome them and taken them captives, the Companions of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) seemed to refrain from having intercourse with captive women because of their husbands being polytheists. Then Allah, Most High, sent down regarding that:" And women already married, except those whom your right hands possess (iv. 24)" (i. e. they were lawful for them when their 'Idda period came to an end).
...Abu Sirma said to Abu Sa'id al Khadri (Allah he pleased with him): 0 Abu Sa'id, did you hear Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) mentioning al-'azl? He said: Yes, and added: We went out with Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) on the expedition to the Bi'l- Mustaliq and took captive some excellent Arab women; and we desired them, for we were suffering from the absence of our wives, (but at the same time) we also desired ransom for them. So we decided to have sexual intercourse with them but by observing 'azl (Withdrawing the male sexual organ before emission of semen to avoid conception). But we said: We are doing an act whereas Allah's Messenger is amongst us; why not ask him? So we asked Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), and he said: It does not matter if you do not do it, for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will be born.

Men May Marry up to Four Women

If you fear you can not treat orphans (girls) with fairness, then you may marry other women who seem good to you: two, three or four of them. But if you fear that you can not maintain equality among them, marry only one or any slave girls you may own, that will be more suitable. And give the women their dower as a free gift; but if they, of their own good pleasure, remit any part of it to you, eat it with enjoyment, take it with right good cheer and absorb it (in your wealth).

This did not apply to Ali, Muhammad's son-in-law, who was limited to one wife since Ali was married to Fatima, who was Muhammad's daughter.

Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhrama: I heard Allah's Apostle who was on the pulpit, saying, "Banu Hisham bin Al-Mughira have requested me to allow them to marry their daughter to Ali bin Abu Talib, but I don't give permission, and will not give permission unless 'Ali bin Abi Talib divorces my daughter in order to marry their daughter, because Fatima is a part of my body, and I hate what she hates to see, and what hurts her, hurts me."

Man's Right to Divorce


Sahih Bukhari Volume VII, Book of Wedlock (marriage), under chapter heading: The saying of a man to his brother (in Islam), [A]man may say to his brother (in Islam), 'Have a look at either of my wives (and if you wish), I will divorce her for you.

The hadith in the chapter is as follows:

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

`Abdur-Rahman bin `Auf came (from Mecca to Medina) and the Prophet (ﷺ) made a bond of brotherhood between him and Sa`d bin Ar-Rabi` Al-Ansari. Al-Ansari had two wives, so he suggested that `Abdur- Rahman take half, his wives and property. `Abdur-Rahman replied, "May Allah bless you with your wives and property. Kindly show me the market." So `Abdur-Rahman went to the market and gained (in bargains) some dried yoghurt and some butter. After a few days the Prophet (ﷺ) saw `Abdur-Rahman with some yellow stains on his clothes and asked him, "What is that, O `Abdur-Rahman?" He replied, "I had married an Ansari woman." The Prophet (ﷺ) asked, "How much Mahr did you give her?" He replied, "The weight of one (date) stone of gold." The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "Offer a banquet, even with one sheep."


The son of 'Omar reported: I had a wife under me whom I loved but whom 'Omar disliked. He told me: 'Divorce her'. But I refused. Then 'Omar came to the Messenger of Allah and notified it to him. The messenger of Allah told me: 'Divorce her'.
Mishkat al-Masabih, Book 1, duties of parents, Hadith No. 15

Men have the Right to Accuse their Wives of Lewdness

And for those who launch a charge against their spouses, and have (in support) no evidence but their own,- their solitary evidence (can be received) if they bear witness four times (with an oath) by Allah that they are solemnly telling the truth;
And the fifth (oath) (should be) that they solemnly invoke the curse of Allah on themselves if they tell a lie.

Men Should Not to be Asked Why they Beat their Wives

While a similar hadith is graded da'if (weak) (Sunan Abu Dawud 11:2142 "The Prophet (ﷺ) said: A man will not be asked as to why he beat his wife. "), a hadith graded hasan (the 2nd highest level of authenticity according to traditional scholars of hadith, below sahih) quotes Muhammad saying that a man should not be asked why he beats his wife.

It was narrated that Ash'ath bin Qais said: "I was a guest (at the home) of 'Umar one night, and in the middle of the night he went and hit his wife, and I separated them. When he went to bed he said to me: 'O Ash'ath, learn from me something that I heard from the Messenger of Allah" A man should not be asked why he beats his wife, and do not go to sleep until you have prayed the Witr."' And I forgot the third thing."

Men Will Have Sex With Many Female Virgins In Heaven

Lo! those [men] who kept their duty will be in a place secure amid gardens and water springs, attired in silk and silk embroidery, facing one another. Even so (it will be). And We shall wed them unto [huris] fair ones with wide, lovely eyes.
Qur'an 44:51-54
Therein are those of modest gaze, whom neither man nor jinni will have touched before them. Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? (In beauty) like the jacynth and the coral-stone.
Qur'an 55:56-58
Companions restrained (as to their glances), in (goodly) pavilions;
Lo! for the duteous is achievement - Gardens enclosed and vineyards, And voluptuous [i.e. Kawa'eb, Kawa'eb means swelling and firm, not sagging] women of equal age; And a full cup. There hear they never vain discourse, nor lying
Qur'an 78:31-35
Muhammad reported that some (persons) stated with a sense of pride and some discussed whether there would be more men in Paradise or more women. It was upon this that Abu Huraira reported that Abu'l Qasim (the Holy Prophet) (may peace be upon him) said: The (members) of the first group to get into Paradise would have their faces as bright as full moon during the night, and the next to this group would have their faces as bright as the shining stars in the sky, and every person would have two wives and the marrow of their shanks would glimmer beneath the flesh and there would be none without a wife in Paradise.
This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira through another chain of transmitters.
This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira through another chain of transmitters that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: The (members of the) first group which would get into Paradise will have their faces as bright as stars in the sky. They would neither pass water, nor void excrement, nor will they suffer from catarrh, nor will they spit, and their combs would be made of gold, and their sweat will be musk, the fuel of their brazier will be aloes, and their wives will be large-eyed maidens and their form would be alike as one single person after the form of their father (Adam) sixty cubits tall.
Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The first group of my Ummah to get into Paradise would be like a full moon in the night. Then those who would be next to them; they would be like the most significantly glittering stars in regard to brightness, then after them (others) in ranks. They would neither void excrement, nor pass water, nor suffer from catarrh, nor would they spit. And their combs would be made of gold, and the fuel of their braziers would be aloes and their sweat would be musk and their form would be the form of one single person according to the length of their father sixty cubits tall. This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Ibn Abi Shaiba with a slight variation of wording.
The Holy Prophet said: 'The believer will be given such and such strength in Paradise for sexual intercourse. It was questioned: O prophet of Allah! can he do that? He said: "He will be given the strength of one hundred persons.
Mishkat al-Masabih Book IV, Chapter XLII, Paradise and Hell, Hadith Number 24

Duties of Husband

Giving Payment for Mahr (Dowry)

Narrated Basrah: A man from the Ansar called Basrah said: I married a virgin woman in her veil. When I entered upon her, I found her pregnant. (I mentioned this to the Prophet). The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: 'She will get the dower, for you made her vagina lawful for you.' The child will be your slave. When she has begotten (a child), flog her (according to the version of al-Hasan). The version of Ibn AbusSari has: You people, flog her, or said: inflict hard punishment on him.
Who so gives two handfuls of flour or dates as dowry of his wife has rendered [her] (private parts) lawful.
Mishkat al-Masabih, Book II, Hadith No. 57
If a man has sex with a married woman, by mistake, thinking her to be his wife, he must give her a dowry equal to the dowry given to a woman of her social worth. This dowry becomes the property of the wife and not her husband.[15]

Best husbands are the best to their wives

Narrated 'Aishah: that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "The best of you is the best to his wives, and I am the best of you to my wives, and when your companion dies, leave him alone."

Restrictions Given to Husband

Men May Not Have Anal Sex With Women

The Holy Prophet said, “Anyone who goes to a soothesayer and believes in him or enters a women in the anus has rejected faith in what was revealed unto Muhammad.”[16]
Musnad Ahmed Vol. 1, Pg. 86
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Do not have anal sex with women."[17]
Ahmad, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i, and Ibn Majah
Khuzaymah Ibn Thabit (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Allah is not too shy to tell you the truth: Do not have sex with your wives in the anus."[17]
Ahmad, 5/213
"Cursed is the one who approaches his wife in her rectum"
Ahmad, 2/479; Saheeh al-Jaami', 5865
Ibn Abbas narrated that The Messenger of Allah said: “Allah will not look at a man who enters a man or a woman in the behind.”
Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2:10:1165; Ibn Abi Shaybah, 3/529, classified authentic by At-Tirmidhi
Abu Hurairah narrated that: the Prophet said: "Whoever engages in sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman, or a woman in her anus, consults a soothsayer, then he has disbelieved in what was revealed to Muhammad."
Jami` at-Tirmidhi 1:1:135; See also Saheeh al-Jaami', 5918

Women's Rights

Women´s Rights

Women have the Right to get their Food and Clothes

O Messenger of Allah ! What right has the wife of one among us got over him?' He said: 'It is that you shall give her food when you have taken your food, that you shall clothe her when you have clothed yourself, that you shall not slap her on the face, nor revile her, nor desert her except within the house.

Women have the Right to Not be Hit on the Face

Hakim b. Mu`awiya al-Qushairi quoted his father as telling that he asked, "Messenger of God, what right can any wife demand of her husband?" He replied, "That you should give her food to eat, clothe her when you clothe yourself, not strike her on the face, and do not revile her or seperate from her except in the house." Ahmad, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah transmitted it.
Mishkat Al-Masabih: Volume 2, page 691
Narrated Mu'awiyah al-Qushayri: Mu'awiyah asked: Apostle of Allah, what is the right of the wife of one of us over him? He replied: That you should give her food when you eat, clothe her when you clothe yourself, do not strike her on the face, do not revile her or separate yourself from her except in the house.
Narrated Mu'awiyah ibn Haydah: I said: Apostle of Allah, how should we approach our wives and how should we leave them? He replied: Approach your tilth when or how you will, give her (your wife) food when you take food, clothe when you clothe yourself, do not revile her face, and do not beat her.
Narrated Mu'awiyah al-Qushayri: I went to the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) and asked him: What do you say (command) about our wives? He replied: Give them food what you have for yourself, and clothe them by which you clothe yourself, and do not beat them, and do not revile them.

A Woman has the Right to get Payment for Sex Forced on her by Mistake

If a man has sex with a married woman, by mistake, thinking her to be his wife, he must give her a dowry equal to the dowry given to a woman of her social worth. This dowry becomes the property of the wife and not her husband.[18]

A Woman has the Right to go to Mosque, but she must take Permission from her Husband

Narrated Salim's father: The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "If the wife of anyone of you asks permission to go to the mosque, he should not forbid her."

Restrictions Given to Women

Muslim Women are Not Allowed to Marry Non-Muslim Men

Wed not idolatresses till they believe; for lo! a believing bondwoman is better than an idolatress though she please you; and give not your daughters in marriage to idolaters till they believe, for lo! a believing slave is better than an idolater though he please you. These invite unto the Fire, and Allah inviteth unto the Garden, and unto forgiveness by His grace, and expoundeth His revelations to mankind that haply they may reme

Women Must have their marriage arranged by a guardian

It was narrated from Aishah that : the Messenger of Allah said: “Any woman whose marriage is not arranged by her guardian, her marriage is invalid, her marriage is invalid, her marriage is invalid. If (the man) has had intercourse with her, then the Mahr belongs to her in return for his intimacy with her. And if there is any dispute then the ruler is the guardian of the one who does not have a guardian.” (Sahih)
It was narrated that: Aisha and Ibn Abbas said: “The Messenger of Allah said: 'There is no marriage except with a guardian.' ”According to the Hadith of Aishah: “And the ruler is the guardian of the one who does not have a guardian. ” (Sahih)
It was narrated from Abu Musa that: the Messenger of Allah said: “There is no marriage except with a guardian.” (Sahih)
Women who partake in a marriage not arranged by a guardian are adulteresses
It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that: the Messenger of Allah said: “No woman should arrange the marriage of another woman, and no woman should arrange her own marriage. The adulteress is the one who arranges her own marriage.” (Sahih)

Women cannot travel long journeys except with her mahram

Narrated Ibn Abbas: That he heard the Prophet saying, "It is not permissible for a man to be alone with a woman, and no lady should travel except with a mahram (i.e. her husband or a person whom she cannot marry in any case for ever; e.g. her father, brother, etc.)." Then a man got up and said, "O Allah's Apostle! I have enlisted in the army for such-and-such Ghazwa and my wife is proceeding for Hajj." Allah's Apostle said, "Go, and perform the Hajj with your wife."

Women Cannot Fast Extra, or Allow Someone to Enter their Home without Husband’s Permission

Narrated AbuSa'id al-Khudri: A woman came to the Prophet (peace be upon him) while we were with him. She said: Apostle of Allah, my husband, Safwan ibn al-Mu'attal, beats me when I pray, and makes me break my fast when I keep a fast, and he does not offer the dawn prayer until the sun rises. He asked Safwan, who was present, about what she had said. He replied: Apostle of Allah, as for her statement "he beats me when I pray", she recites two surahs (during prayer) and I have prohibited her (to do so). He (the Prophet) said: If one surah is recited (during prayer), that is sufficient for the people.(Safwan continued:) As regards her saying "he makes me break my fast," she dotes on fasting; I am a young man, I cannot restrain myself. The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said on that day: A woman should not fast except with the permission of her husband.(Safwan said:) As for her statement that I do not pray until the sun rises, we are a people belonging to a class, and that (our profession of supplying water) is already known about us. We do not awake until the sun rises. He said: When you awake, offer your prayer
"Any woman who fasts without the permission of her husband, and he desired her for a certain thing but she refused, God will record three major sins against her."
Kanz al-`ummal, 22:2
Abu Hurairah narrated that: The Prophet said: "A woman may not fast a day - other than in the month of Ramadan - while her husband is present, except with his permission."

A woman cannot give away anything in her house without husband's permission

Narrated AbuUmamah: AbuUmamah heard Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) say in the course of his sermon in the year of the Farewell Pilgrimage, "A woman must not give anything away from her husband's house without her husband's permission." He was asked whether she might not even give away food and replied, "That is the most excellent property we possess."
Tirmidhi transmitted it.

A Menstruating Woman is Not Allowed to Stay in the Mosque

(She might be able to enter it briefly though.)

It was narrated that Ibn 'Umar said: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'No one who is sexually impure and no woman who is menstruating should recite Qur'an.'"
It was narrated that Jasrah said: "Umm Salamah told me: 'The Messenger of Allah entered the courtyard of this mosque and called out at the top of his voice: 'The mosque is not permissible for anyone who is sexually impure or any woman who is menstruating.'
A limited mourning period
Abu Dawud vol.1 footnote 111
Narrated Ibn Abbas: That he heard the Prophet saying, "It is not permissible for a man to be alone with a woman, and no lady should travel except with a Muhram (i.e. her husband or a person whom she cannot marry in any case for ever; e.g. her father, brother, etc.)." Then a man got up and said, "O Allah's Apostle! I have enlisted in the army for such-and-such Ghazwa and my wife is proceeding for Hajj." Allah's Apostle said, "Go, and perform the Hajj with your wife."
Narrated Um Salama: A woman was bereaved of her husband and her relatives worried about her eyes (which were diseased). They came to Allah's Apostle, and asked him to allow them to treat her eyes with kohl, but he said, "She should not apply kohl to her eyes. (In the Pre-Islamic period of Ignorance) a widowed woman among you would stay in the worst of her clothes (or the worst part of her house) and when a year had elapsed, if a dog passed by her, she would throw a globe of dung, Nay, (she cannot use kohl) till four months and ten days have elapsed." Narrated Um Habiba: The Prophet said, "It is not lawful for a Muslim woman who believes in Allah and the Last Day to mourn for more than three days, except for her husband, for whom she should mourn for four months and ten days."
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet (p.b.u.h) said, "It is not permissible for a woman who believes in Allah and the Last Day to travel for one day and night except with a Mahram."

Menstruating Women are Not Allowed to Perform Tawaf

Narrated 'Aisha: We set out with the Prophet for Hajj and when we reached Sarif I got my menses. When the Prophet came to me, I was weeping. He asked, "Why are you weeping?" I said, "I wish if I had not performed Hajj this year." He asked, "May be that you got your menses?" I replied, "Yes." He then said, "This is the thing which Allah has ordained for all the daughters of Adam. So do what all the pilgrims do except that you do not perform the Tawaf round the Ka'ba till you are clean."

Duties of Women

Women Must Immediately Fulfill their Husbands Desires

Talq bin Ali narrated that The Messenger of Allah said: “When a man calls his wife to fulfill his need, then let her come, even if she is at the oven.”
Your wives are as a tilth unto you; so approach your tilth when or how ye will; but do some good act for your souls beforehand; and fear Allah. And know that ye are to meet Him (in the Hereafter), and give (these) good tidings to those who believe.

Women Must be Obedient to their Husbands to Enter Heaven

It was narrated that from Musawir Al Himyari from his mother that: she heard Umm Salamah say: “I heard the Messenger of Allah say: 'Any woman who dies when her husband is pleased with her, will enter Paradise.' ”(Hasan)
There are three (persons) whose prayer will not be accepted, nor their virtues be taken above: The runaway slave until he returns back to his master, the woman with whom her husband is dissatisfied, and the drunk until he becomes sober.
Muslim Scholar Al-Suyuti while commenting on Quran 4:34
The prophet once said to a woman: 'Watch how you treat your husband for he is your Paradise and your Hell.
Kanz- el-'Ummal, Volume 22, Hadith Number 868

Women Must have their Faces Veiled

Narrated 'Aisha: [...] While I was sitting in my resting place, I was overwhelmed by sleep and slept. Safwan bin Al-Muattal As-Sulami Adh-Dhakwani was behind the army. When he reached my place in the morning, he saw the figure of a sleeping person and he recognized me on seeing me as he had seen me before the order of compulsory veiling (was prescribed). So I woke up when he recited Istirja' (i.e. "Inna lillahi wa inna llaihi raji'un") as soon as he recognized me. I veiled my face with my head cover at once, and by Allah, we did not speak a single word, and I did not hear him saying any word besides his Istirja'. He dismounted from his camel and made it kneel down, putting his leg on its front legs and then I got up and rode on it. [...]
Narrated Safiya bint Shaiba: 'Aisha used to say: "When (the Verse): "They should draw their veils over their necks and bosoms," was revealed, (the ladies) cut their waist sheets at the edges and covered their faces with the cut pieces."

See Also

Translations

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References

  1. Ihy'a 'Uloum ed-Din by Ghazali, Dar al-Kotob al-'Elmeyah, Beirut, Vol II, Kitab Adab al-Nikah, p. 65
  2. This is classified as a Sahih (authentic) narration and quoted by Imam Ahmad and al-Nasai.
  3. Ihya' 'Uloum ed-Din by Ghazali, Dar al-Kotob al-'Elmeyah, Beirut, vol. II, Kitab Adab al-Nikah, P.33
  4. Ihya' 'Uloum ed-Din by Ghazali, Dar al-Kotob al-'Elmeyah, Beirut, vol. II, Kitab Adab al-Nikah, p. 64
  5. al-Bukhari, Haidh 6, Zakat 44; Muslim, Iman 132, `Iydain 4,19; Ibn Maja, Fitan 19; al-Darimi, Wudhu' 104, Salat 224; Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, 1:307,423,425,436; 3:318.
  6. al-Suyuti, Fath al-kabir fi dsamm al-ziyada ila al-Jami` al-saghir (Cairo, n.d.), 3:255
  7. Ihya' 'Uloum ed-Din by al-Ghazali, Dar al-Kotob al-'Elmeyah, Beirut, vol. II, Kitab Adab al-Nikah, p. 45.
  8. Ihya' 'Uloum ed-Din by Ghazali, Dar al-Kotob al-'Elmeyah, Beirut, vol. II, Kitab Adab al-Nikah, p. 35.
  9. Tuffaha, Ahmad Zaky, Al-Mar'ah wal- Islam, Dar al-Kitab al-Lubnani, Beirut, first edition, 1985, p. 176. It is also quoted in Al-Musanaf by Abu Bakr Ahmad Ibn 'Abd Allah Ibn Mousa Al-Kanadi who lived 557H., vol. 1 part 2, p. 255.
  10. Suyuti, commenting on Q. 4:34
  11. Ibn Hisham, al-Sira al-nabawiyya (Cairo, 1963), 4:251.
  12. Tuffaha, Ahmad Zaky, Al-Mar'ah wal- Islam, Dar al-Kitab al-Lubnani, Beirut, first edition, 1985, p. 180
  13. Abd ar-Rahman al-Gaziri, al-Fiqh 'ala al-Mazahib al-Arba'a, Dar al-Kutub al-'Elmeyah, 1990, vol. 4, p. 89
  14. Abd ar-Rahman al-Gaziri, al-Fiqh 'ala al-Mazahib al-Arba'a, Dar al-Kutub al-'Elmeyah, 1990, vol. 4, p. 89
  15. 'Abd ar-Rahman al-Gaziri, al-Fiqh 'ala al-Mazahib al-Arba'a, Dar al-Kutub al- 'Elmeyah, 1990, vol. 4, p. 8.
  16. Referenced by Shaikh Abdullah Faisal in "100 Fabricated Hadiths" Pg. 85, as sahih.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Fatwa: Islamic Ruling on Anal Sex - IslamOnline, February 22, 2010
  18. 'Abd ar-Rahman al-Gaziri, al-Fiqh 'ala al-Mazahib al-Arba'a, Dar al-Kutub al- 'Elmeyah, 1990, vol. 4, p. 8.