Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Muhammad
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In Islam Muhammad is known as uswa hasana, al-Insān al-Kāmil, meaning in Arabic that he is the 'perfect human' who is 'worthy of imitation' . As such, all of his deeds, actions, thoughts, and practices are the perfect examplars for all humans in every time in every age. For this reason, his Sunnah or traditions is one of the basic building blocks of Islamic Law (the other being the Qur'an). This tradition is preserved mostly in the Hadith collections of Muhaddiths such as Bukhari, who wrote his books in the middle of the 9th century, and the collectors of the Sira histories of the prophet's military campaigns such as Ibn Ishaq. These sources impart to their readers many ideas, attributes, and habits of the prophet, all of which are held up by the ulemaa' as model behavior for all of mankind.
The hadiths and sirah traditions about Muhammad are largely intended to portray Muhammad in a way that would seem positive to believers of the early Islamic era. From a modern secular point of view, many of these reports do not necessarily present Muhammad in a favourable light. Either way, hadiths and sirah material in general are considered to be very unreliable sources of historical information in modern academic scholarship, as well as by Islamic modernist scholars.
Muhammad had been a Poor Ophan
And He found you lost and guided [you],And He found you poor and made [you] self-sufficient.
Prophet, Messenger, Warner
An example to follow
Obedience to the Prophet
Many other verses implore listeners to obey Allah and his Messenger, which suggests this was an ongoing problem.
Allegations Against Muhammad
A significant number of Quranic verses were of a distinctly personal benefit to the prophet. An example concerns Muhammad's exemption on the limitation of four wives for believing men set out in Quran 4:3.
Good Character and Piety
Mercy and Good Manners
Kindness to Children
Calmness, Pleasantness, Welcoming his Daughter
Dedication to Prayer
Visited his Sick Jewish servant
Importance of Love for the Prophet above All Others
Controversial among some of the believers at the time, the treaty of Hudaybiyyah was an important moment in early Islamic history.
Excusing Blasphemy Killing
He assembled the people and said: I adjure by Allah the man who has done this action and I adjure him by my right to him that he should stand up. Jumping over the necks of the people and trembling the man stood up.
He sat before the Prophet (peace be upon him) and said: Apostle of Allah! I am her master; she used to abuse you and disparage you. I forbade her, but she did not stop, and I rebuked her, but she did not abandon her habit. I have two sons like pearls from her, and she was my companion. Last night she began to abuse and disparage you. So I took a dagger, put it on her belly and pressed it till I killed her.
Thereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Oh be witness, no retaliation is payable for her blood.
See also Sunan an-Nasa'i 5:37:4075
Prophecising about Fighting Jews
A man asked permission to see the Prophet. He said, "Let Him come in; What an evil man of the tribe he is! (Or, What an evil brother of the tribe he is). But when he entered, the Prophet (ﷺ) spoke to him gently in a polite manner. I said to him, "O Allah's Apostle! You have said what you have said, then you spoke to him in a very gentle and polite manner? The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "The worse people, in the sight of Allah are those whom the people leave (undisturbed) to save themselves from their dirty language."
Falling Under the Influence of Magic
Command to Beat Children who Don't Pray
Love and Hate for the Sake of Allah
Fear of Homosexuality
Recommended weeping instead of laughing:
Prohibited laughing at farts:
Laughed after seeing genitals of a killed man:
'Amir b. Sa'd reported oLi the authority of his father that Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) gathered for him on the Day of Uhud his parents when a polytheist had set fire to (i. e. attacked fiercely) the Muslims. Thereupon Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) said to him: (Sa'd), shoot an arrow, (Sa'd), may my mother and father be taken as ransom for you. I drew an arrow and I shot a featherless arrow at him aiming his side that he fell down and his private parts were exposed. Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) laughed that I saw his front teeth.
Laughed while cursing Jews:
Laughed, when someone told him about a dream of having head cut off:
Prohibited telling a lie as a joke:
Prohibited laughing a lot:
It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:“Do not laugh a lot, for laughing a lot deadens the heart.”
Polygamy Disallowed for his Son in Law
I heard Allah's Apostle who was on the pulpit, saying, "Banu Hisham bin Al-Mughira have requested me to allow them to marry their daughter to Ali bin Abu Talib, but I don't give permission, and will not give permission unless 'Ali bin Abi Talib divorces my daughter in order to marry their daughter, because Fatima is a part of my body, and I hate what she hates to see, and what hurts her, hurts me."
Urinating while Facing the Qiblah
The following hadith is used to support the ruling that heads of statues must be destroyed even if they are not idols:
Equal Retaliation for Murder only of Believers
Muhammad is widely reported both to have said that if a Muslim commits murder, then he should be killed as a retribution:
It was narrated from 'Aishah, the Mother of the Believers, that the Messenger of Allah said: "It is not permissible to kill a Muslim except in one of three cases: A adulterer who has been married, who is to be stoned; a man who kills a Muslim deliberately; and a man who leaves Islam and wages war against Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, and His Messenger, who is to be killed, crucified or banished from the land."
But if he murdered a disbeliever, there is no such retaliation:
It was narrated from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: ”A believer should not be killed in retaliation for the murder of a disbeliever, and a person who has a treaty should not be killed during the time of the treaty.”
Killing Post-Pubescent Males of Banu Qurayzah
Women and Children as Collateral Damage
Hadiths record that Muhammad disapproved of the killing of women and children during expeditions (also Sahih Muslim 19:4319).
Although when asked, he excused the probable exposure of women and children to danger during an attack.
A more specific hadith quotes the same narrator stating that this involved women and children who were trampled over with horses during the attack:
"I was informed by As-Sa'b bin Jaththamah who said: " I said: "O Messenger of Allah our horses trampled over women and children of the idolaters." He said: "They are from their fathers.'"[Abu 'Eisa said:] This Hadith is Hasan Sahih.
Speech and Magic
Muhammad said that eloquent speech is magic:
'Two men came from the east and delivered speeches, and the Prophet (ﷺ) said, "Some eloquent speech has the in fluency of magic (e.g., some people refuse to do something and then a good eloquent speaker addresses them and then they agree to do that very thing after his speech). "' (Muhsin Khan translation)
Muhammad said only 4 Arabic words in this hadith ("إِنَّ مِنَ الْبَيَانِ لَسِحْرً"):
إِنَّ (inna) - Indeed
مِنَ (min) - from
الْبَيَانِ (al-bayaan) - eloquent speech
And he was giving eloquent speeches:
The Prophet (swt) said, "I have been given the keys of eloquent speech and given victory with terror.
So he was practicing magic (by his own definition).
Coincidentally, Allah hates "the eloquent one":
Mary Mother of Jesus will be his Wife in Heaven
Muadh was the man. The apostle had put Sa'd in a tent belonging to a woman of Aslam called Rufayda inside his mosque. She used to nurse the wounded and see to those Muslims who needed care. The apostle had told his people when Sa'd had been wounded by an arrow at the battle of the Trench to put him in Rufayda’s tent until he could visit him later. When the apostle appointed him umpire in the matter of B. Qurayza, his people came to him and mounted him on a donkey on which they had put a leather cushion, he being a corpulent man. As they brought him to the apostle they said, ‘Deal kindly with your friends, for the apostle has made you umpire for that very purpose.’ When they persisted he said, ‘The time 689 has come for Sa d in the cause of God, not to care for any man’s censure.’ Some of his people who were there went back to the quarter of B. 'Abdu’l-Ashhal and announced to them the death of B. Qurayza before Sa'd got to them, because of what they had heard him say. When Sa’d reached the apostle and the Muslims the apostle told them to get up to greet their leader. The muhajirs of Quraysh thought that the apostle meant the Ansar, while the latter thought that he meant everyone, so they got up and said ‘O Abu 'Amr, the apostle has entrusted to you the affair of your allies that you may give judgement concerning them, Sa'd asked ‘Do you covenant by Allah that you accept the judgement I pronounce on them ?’ They said Yes, and he said, ‘And is it incumbent on the one who is here?’ (looking) in the direction of the apostle not mentioning him out of respect, and the apostle answered Yes. Sa'd said Then I give judgement that the men should be killed, the property divided, and the women and children taken as captives.' 'Asim b. 'Umar b. Qatada told me from 'Abdu’l-Rahman b. Amr b. Sa'd b. Mu'adh from 'Alqama b. Waqqas al-Laythi that the apostle said to Sa'd, ‘You have given the judgement of Allah above the seven heavens'. Then they surrendered, and the apostle confined them in Medina in the quarter of d. al-Harith, a woman of B. al-Najjar. Then the apostle went out to the market of Medina (which is still its market today) and dug trenches in it. Then he sent for them and struck off their heads m those trenches as they were brought out to him in batches. Among them was the enemy of Allah Huyayy b. Akhtab and Ka'b b. Asad their chief. There were 600 or 700 in all, though some put the figure as high as 800 or 900. As they were being taken out in batches to the apostle they asked Ka b what he thought would be done with them. He replied, ‘Will you never understand? Don’t you see that the summoner never stops and those, who are taken away do not return? By Allah it is death!’ This went on until the apostle made an end of them. Huyayy was brought out wearing a flowered robe in which he had made holes about the size of the finger-tips in every part so that it should not be taken from him as spoil, with his hands bound to his neck by a rope. When he saw the apostle he said, ‘By God, I do not blame myself for opposing you, but he who forsakes God will be forsaken. Then he went to the men and said, ‘God’s command is right. A book and a decree and massacre have been written against the Sons of Israel. Then he sat down and his head was struck off. Jabal b. Jawwal al-Tha'labl said:
- Ibn Akhtab did not blame himself
- But he who forsakes God will be forsaken.
- He fought until he justified himself
- And struggled to the utmost in pursuit of glory.
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, pp. 239-242, https://app.turath.io/book/23833
The Exalted Position of the Prophet
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 1, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 505, https://app.turath.io/book/23833
When a Muslim is engaged in the prayer (salat), it is forbidden for him to respond to people who try to speak to him while he is praying until he is finished.
However, from the following Hadiths you will see that Muhammad wanted to be an exception to the rule. He tells Muslims that even if they are performing salat to Allah, they must respond to him (Muhammad) if he calls them. He invokes Quran 8:24 to prove his case.
The Prophet's Weight
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 86, https://app.turath.io/book/23833
Marrying a Child
The Prophet's Revelations and His Own Benefit
Muhammad [through convenient “revelations” from Allah] gave himself rights and immunities that no other Muslim ever received.
Muhammad was naked while building the Kaba:
Description of Black People
Rape and Sexual Consent
Thabit asked Anas, "O Abu Hamza! What did the Prophet pay her (as Mahr)?" He said, "Her self was her Mahr for he manumitted her and then married her." Anas added, "While on the way, Um Sulaim dressed her for marriage (ceremony) and at night she sent her as a bride to the Prophet .
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 1, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, pp. 301-302, https://app.turath.io/book/23833
During the lifetime of the Prophet we used to avoid chatting leisurely and freely with our wives lest some Divine inspiration might be revealed concerning us. But when the Prophet had died, we started chatting leisurely and freely (with them).
Putting his Saliva on People
On child's face:
Narrated Mahmud bin Rabi`a:
When I was a boy of five, I remember, the Prophet (ﷺ) took water from a bucket (used for getting water out of a well) with his mouth and threw it on my face.
In child's mouth:
The first child who was born in the Islamic Land (i.e. Medina) amongst the Emigrants, was `Abdullah bin Az-Zubair. They brought him to the Prophet. The Prophet (ﷺ) took a date, and after chewing it, put its juice in his mouth. So the first thing that went into the child's stomach, was the saliva of the Prophet.
In Abdullah b. Zubair's mouth:
'A'isha reported: We took 'Abdullah b. Zubair to Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) so that he should put saliva in his mouth and we had to make a good deal of effort in order to procure them.
On wounded person:
Narrated Yazid bin Abi Ubaid:I saw the trace of a wound in Salama's leg. I said to him, "O Abu Muslim! What is this wound?" He said, "This was inflicted on me on the day of Khaibar and the people said, 'Salama has been wounded.' Then I went to the Prophet (ﷺ) and he puffed his saliva in it (i.e. the wound) thrice., and since then I have not had any pain in it till this hour."
On dead people:
Under his foot at the mosque:
In his clothes:
In someone else's bucket:
Terror in War
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 494, https://app.turath.io/book/23833
Al-Waqidi asserts that he stayed there for fifteen days and then returned to Medina.According to Al-Waqidi: Then the Messenger of God went on an expedition at the head of two hundred of his companions in the month of Rabi' al-Akhir (which began October 2, 623), and reached Buwat. His intention was to intercept the caravan of Quraysh, led by Umayyah b. Khalaf with a hundred men of Quraysh and two thousand five hundred camels. In the end he returned to Medina without fighting. His banner was carried by Sa'd b. Abi Waggas, and he left Sa'd b. Mu'adh in command of Medina during this expedition.
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 407, https://app.turath.io/book/9783
Some of Muhammad's companions also became wealthy:
Hurting his Wife
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- "Noun • (n) anti-Semitism, antisemitism (the intense dislike for and prejudice against Jewish people)" - Definition - Antisemitism, Princeton University's WordNet
- "Function: noun hostility toward or discrimination against Jews as a religious, ethnic, or racial group" - Definition - Anti-Semitism, Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
- Sihr means "magic" and the la- prefix means "surely". The Qur'an uses the word la-sihr in verse 10:76. Arabic doesn't use "is" like English. http://corpus.quran.com/wordmorphology.jsp?location=(10:76:9)
- Ibn Kathir, Qisas al-Anbiya [Cairo: Dar al-Kutub, 1968/1388], p. 381- as cited in Aliah Schleifer's Mary The Blessed Virgin of Islam [Fons Vitae; ISBN: 1887752021; July 1, 1998], p. 64;
- The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari, Arabic-English, Vol.IV (page 104) by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, Islamic University—Al-Medina Al-Munauwara
- Mohammad Ibn Saad, al-Tabakat al- Kobra, Dar al-Tahrir, Cairo, 1970, Vol 8, p. 139.
- Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Zad al-Ma'ad, Part 1, pp. 114-116