Difference between revisions of "Islam and Science"
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Revision as of 15:04, 15 October 2013
One of the most widely used tools to propagate Islam among non-Muslims is the alleged harmony between its scriptures and modern science. This page contains easy-to-read summaries of articles discussing Islam in relation to science.
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Medicine, Healthcare and Biology in Islam
- 2.1 Medicine and Healthcare
- 2.2 The Medicinal Value of Camel Urine
- 2.3 Dipping Flies Into Drinks
- 2.4 Adverse Effects of Islamic Fasting
- 2.5 Moderate Alcohol Consumption and its Health Benefits
- 2.6 Milk is Agreeable/Good for Humans to Drink?
- 2.7 Drinking Zamzam Water and its Health Risks
- 2.8 Health Effects of Islamic Dress
- 2.9 Embryology in Islamic Scripture
- 2.10 Reproduction in the Qur'an and Hadith
- 2.11 Cousin Marriage in Islam
- 3 The Universe According to Islam
- 4 Islamic Science and the Golden Age
- 5 Science in the Qur'an
- 5.1 Scientific Errors in the Qur'an and Hadith
- 5.2 Non-Muslims finding Science in the Qur'an
- 5.3 Scientific Miracles in...the Georgics
- 5.4 Qur'an and the Big Bang
- 5.5 Qur'an Predicted Black Holes And Pulsars
- 5.6 Speed of Light in the Qur'an
- 5.7 Earth Made of Seven Layers
- 5.8 Qur'an and the Descent of Iron Miracle
- 5.9 Qur'an Describes Altitude Sickness
- 5.10 The Qur'an and Mountains
- 5.11 Qur'an Predicted Land Decreasing
- 5.12 Creation of Humans from Clay
- 5.13 Qur'an and Semen Production
- 5.14 Qur'an Describes Gender Determination By Sperm
- 5.15 Qur'an and Embryology
- 5.16 Qur'anic Claim of Everything Created in Pairs
- 5.17 Qur'an and the Lying Prefrontal Cerebrum
- 5.18 Meeting of Fresh and Salt Water in the Qur'an
- 6 See Also
- 7 External Links
- 8 References
When evaluating claims of miraculous scientific information in “revealed” scriptures such as the Qur’an, it is critical to remember the dictum, “Extraordinary claims demand extraordinary proof.” For certainly, miracles are not to be taken lightly. If miracles really are the results of direct intervention by God/gods, and if they truly are meant as signs to prove both his/her/their existence and power, then we should expect them to serve those purposes in a clear and unambiguous manner. If God is going through all that trouble to provide us with signs, it would defeat his purpose to make the signs difficult to recognize.
If we assume that Allah exists, it is safe to say that he is not a Las Vegas magician, and his miracles should reasonably be several cuts above the prestidigitation of Penn and Teller. An all-powerful universal God would doubtlessly be capable of providing miracles that were unchallengeable, unambiguous and dramatic. And it is fully conceivable that God would embed such clear signs of his power and omniscience within his revelation.
The claim of “scientific miracles” in the Qur’an rests upon the contention that the book contains specific and detailed scientific knowledge that can only have been revealed to Prophet Muhammad miraculously, i.e. that there was no possible non-miraculous way for such information to have been known to a 7th Century Arab.
So it stands to reason that if there actually were non-miraculous ways for such information to be available, no miracle can be demonstrated. And it is important to test such claims, for we are not involved in a casual conversation about fashion or dietary preferences. We are talking about alleged proofs for the divine origin of the Qur’an.
The Four Part Test
For a “scientific statement” in the Qur’an to be considered miraculous, it must be capable of passing a four-part test that removes the possibility of a non-miraculous origin of the information:
1. It must be an unambiguous statement of scientific fact requiring no elaborate interpretation to discern its factual meaning.
This point cannot be stressed too intensely. For the scientific information in question must actually be in the Qur’an itself, and not something added later as part of a commentary. If the critical information that distinguishes a “scientific miracle” from a casual statement of obvious fact is not explicitly in the clear words and meaning of the Qur’an, we cannot trust it as even being there.
If the verse has to be “interpreted” to extract hidden meaning that is not obviously there, the claim of a miracle has been “corrupted” by the commentary, and cannot be considered valid.
2. The fact must have been previously unknown to every other non-Islamic civilization that had contact with the Arabian Peninsula.
Key to the claim of “scientific miracles” in the Qur’an is the contention that the information included was unknown until recently, or at least until many years after the death of Muhammad. So, of course, if it can be shown that the information was already available to other peoples or cultures with whom the Arabs were in contact, this claim is shown to be simply false.
It does not matter the source of that other culture’s information. It may have been a lucky guess, it may have been the result of precocious scientific achievement… in fact it may even potentially have been a miracle the other culture had experienced years before.
But if that information was available before the Qur’an was written down, there can be no credit to the claim of a “Qur’anic miracle.”
3. It must not be obvious to any casual observer.
This may sound like an obvious point, but given the nature of many of the stock “miracles” claimed by Muslim apologists, it still must be discussed explicitly. For often, what is claimed to be a miracle of the Qur’an is something of which any individual with his or her eyes open would have been aware.
If the information in question is available to anyone who simply looks at the phenomenon, requiring no sophisticated instruments, tools or interpretation, then it cannot be considered miraculous.
4. It must be true.
As with the previous point, this one sounds intuitively obvious. But it too requires explicit mention as occasionally the claims of Qur’anic “miracles” depend on misunderstandings or misstatements about reality and science. If the information in question is not actually true, then certainly it cannot be a miraculous revelation from God, as God should be expected to know what is or is not true.
Medicine, Healthcare and Biology in Islam
Medicine and Healthcare
Islamic medicine, healthcare and Biology relies on superstitions, general beliefs among the people during the prophet's time and borrowings from the practices and beliefs of other civilizations. For example; today you will find Muslims who champion the self-alleged health benefits of drinking camel urine (as instructed by Muhammad), but those who are actually willing to practice such things are far less forthcoming. The allowance and even encouragement of marriages between relatives, such as cousins, is another issue that deserves to be sent back to the 7th century. Medically, this common Muslim practice is harmful because it raises the probability for genetic disorders to occur in offspring. And the much lauded embryology found within the Qur'an is in reality plagiarized from Greek medicine. Therefore embryology, as described in the Qur'an, is neither original nor correct. These are but a few of the example which are covered in our articles.
The Medicinal Value of Camel Urine
This article is about the use of camel urine as medicine in the Hadiths and how such usage is viewed in the Muslim world. Muhammad prescribed camel urine as medicine to the followers from Uraynah. Because Muhammad is a prophet, Muslims believe he received a divine revelation from God. As a result they continue to study and prescribe camel urine as medicine despite the lack of evidence proving there is any medicinal value in camel urine and that there is some evidence that drinking urine is actually harmful.
Dipping Flies Into Drinks
The thesis put forward by some Muslims is that it has recently been proven by modern science that flies carry not only pathogens but also the agents that limit these pathogens, thus proving the fly wing hadiths that tell us "If a fly falls into one of your containers [of food or drink], immerse it completely before removing it, for under one of its wings there is venom and under another there is its antidote." They principally identify these agents to be bacteriophages, though they also sometimes refer to fungi.
The scientific evidence does not support the veracity of the fly wing hadiths for the following reasons: (1) Contrary to their innovative interpretations of relevant hadith, bacteriophages are not limited to any specific wing of the fly. (2) Contrary to their innovative interpretations of relevant hadith, bacteriophages in the natural state and concentration are not antidotal to bacterial diseases, particularly for temperate or lysogenic phages. (3) Bacteriophages are ineffective against non-bacterial diseases carried by flies, meaning even if the wings were to provide you with an antidote to bacterial diseases, they could infect you with another non-bacterial disease (i.e. dipping a fly into your drink is not good advice). (4) Phage therapy is not a generally-accepted medical therapy at present because it is largely ineffective and requires large quantities of purified, possibly genetically-engineered, phages not present in the natural condition.
Adverse Effects of Islamic Fasting
Medical fasting is different from Islamic fasting (Sawm), and contrary to popular Muslim beliefs, Islamic fasting, unlike Medical fasting, has numerous adverse effects that have been observed using scientific studies and news sources. Intermittent and prolonged fasting is generally not conducive to a healthy lifestyle. Depriving the body of water and essential nutrients by dividing and postponing meals to irregular intervals does nothing to limit consumption. In-fact it causes a host of health, performance and mood disorders. Fasting is not normally prescribed for the well being of human beings. Instead, it is commonly understood that eating healthy, smaller-portioned meals, interspersed throughout the day is far better in maintaining a well-balanced diet and far more forgiving on a person's metabolism. Any claims that prolonged and intermittent fasting contributes to the well-being of an individual's health are misleading, based on the scientific studies that prove otherwise. If the Islamic argument in favor of fasting is that “we fast because God commanded us to do so," then it is obvious that God is not a nutritionist or a dietitian because the negatives definitely outweigh the positives. So the question to the Muslim world is: what benefit does the Muslim world get for 1 billion people staying hungry throughout the day for one full month every year? Did Allah actually want Muslims to suffer physically, economically and socially for one month every year? Also, if fasting is beneficial as Muslims claim, why do Muslims not fast the entire year instead of just one month?
Moderate Alcohol Consumption and its Health Benefits
Alcohol and other intoxicants are strictly prohibited (haram) in Islam. At first this aspect of Islam may seem inspired and full of wisdom, considering the abuse of alcohol can lead to a lot of misery and suffering. To be sure, we are in no way endorsing the consumption or abuse of alcohol. However, we are asking the question 'should you throw the baby out with the bath water?' When used in moderation, research suggests that there are numerous benefits in the consumption of alcohol, and an all-knowing deity would have been aware of this. The Jews and Christians are allowed to consume alcohol. The pagan Arabs before and shortly after their conversion to Islam also consumed alcohol. So why did Allah prohibit something that may be beneficial and which was an accepted norm among the religions before Islam? Of course the Muslims will cite Qur'an 2:219 and state "In them is great sin, and some profit, for men; but the sin is greater than the profit." However, if this was the true reason behind its prohibition then it only exposes Allah's flawed logic. Surely the "all-wise" would have only prohibited its abuse and not given us an outright ban. Furthermore, if the potential health risk of alcohol was the cause of the prohibition, why not also warn Muslims against the dangers of drinking milk?
Milk is Agreeable/Good for Humans to Drink?
The Qur'an clearly encourages people to drink milk and calls it "pure and agreeable to those who drink it." It's even being served in the Muslim Paradise. In reality, one glass of milk is potentially more harmful than a glass of alcoholic beverage. The Northern Europeans are among the rather small group of the totality of humankind to whom consumption of milk after the weaning stage is most 'agreeable' due to evolutionary changes. For much of the rest of humanity lactose-intolerance after the weaning stage is default.
So it seems that the Qur'anic statement "And verily in cattle (too) will ye find an instructive sign...We produce, for your drink, milk, pure and agreeable to those who drink it" is more appropriate to the genetic cluster of (kafir) Northern Europeans and their US descendants than to the other genetic clusters among humanity.
Drinking Zamzam Water and its Health Risks
Millions of Muslims visit the Zamzam well in Mecca each year while performing the Hajj or Umrah pilgrimages, in order to drink its water and, in many cases, to take home some of its water for distribution among friends and relations believing the well and the water which it pumps to be miraculous.
As with urine, milk, and alcohol, Muslims often make claims of their religious beliefs being backed by science. However, in May 2011, a BBC investigation found that genuine Zamzam water taken from the well contained arsenic levels three times the legal limit, something which could contribute to increasing people's risk of cancer. In addition to the dangerous arsenic levels, the holy water contained high levels of nitrate and potentially harmful bacteria.
Health Effects of Islamic Dress
The majority of female Muslims worldwide, following the Islamic requirement of observing Hijab, wear some form of Islamic dress. This ranges anywhere from wearing a simple head covering, to the burqa (a form of "full hijab"), which covers almost all exposed skin.
There is concern among the medical community about some of the health effects of the extreme styles of Islamic dress, with the main issues arising from Vitamin D deficiency due to lack skin exposed to UV light. It has been established by credible scientific evidence that almost all women who observe the full hijab are chronically deficient in Vitamin D. Vitamin D is a vital nutrient and deficiency of this kind can lead to osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children. There is also a strong association between deficiency in Vitamin D and an increased risk of developing several deadly cancers, including breast cancer.
For Islam as a religion, the implications are troublesome. Islam is considered by its adherents to be the perfect way of life for mankind. If Islam was mandated by Allah, and if he wanted women to observe hijab, then logically he would not have created humans with the need to get Vitamin D from exposing their skin to the sun.
Embryology in Islamic Scripture
“Islamic embryology” is derived from both the Qur’an and the hadith, and is quite consistent across all the contributing sources. The core of the story can be found in the Qur’an, 22:5. There are a handful of additional ayaat that deal with this subject, and none of them disagree with the basic scenario. There is also more to learn from the hadith, particularly that of Bukhari and Muslim. Again, the accounts are quite consistent, and the additional information they provide is important.
The details of embryology as reflected in the Qur’an and the hadith can be summarized as follows; the embryo spends 40 days as a drop of sperm or seed, the embryo then spends another 40 days as a “clot” or a “leech-like clot” of blood, the embryo then spends another 40 days as a “lump of flesh” during which the gender of the child is assigned by an angel at Allah’s direction.
These then are the details that must be correlated with actual embryonic development to evaluate the accuracy or inaccuracy of the Islamic account. The question is actually a simple one: Does this account describe the first 120 days of embryonic development or doesn’t it?
Reproduction in the Qur'an and Hadith
The hadith contain many statements about fluids from both the man and woman that were believed to form the human embryo. The Qur’an too says that the embryo is formed from emitted fluid, and in one verse perhaps indicates a mingling of male and female fluids. In this article we shall present new research to trace the origins of each of these ideas at least as far back as the Jewish Talmud and the ancient Greek physicians. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the influence of ideas from other cultures on the Qur’an and hadith regarding reproduction. It will go without saying that these ideas are inaccurate compared with current scientific knowledge of reproduction and embryology.
Cousin Marriage in Islam
Cousin marriage is explicitly allowed in Islam as seen in verse 4:23 of the Qur'an. Muhammad himself married cousins, as he did with Zaynab bint Jahsh, who was not only the daughter of his father's sister, but was also divorced from a marriage with Muhammad's adopted son, Zayd ibn Haritha. Muhammad also allowed the marriage of his daughter, Fatimah, to his cousin, Ali ibn Abi Talib, who would later go on to become the fourth Rightly-guided Caliph of Islam. The second Caliph, Umar ibn al-Khattab, also married his cousin, Atikah bint Zayd ibn Amr ibn Nufayl.
From a biological point of view it becomes clear that first cousin marriage is not recommended because close relatives have a higher than normal consanguinity which means an increased chance of sharing genes for recessive traits. With this high amount of shared DNA, you have a higher risk of birth defects in a baby. The British geneticist, Professor Steve Jones, giving The John Maddox Lecture at the 2011 Hay Festival had stated in relation to Muslim inbreeding, "It is common in the Islamic world to marry your brother’s daughter, which is actually [genetically] closer than marrying your cousin." A rough estimate shows that close to half of all Muslims in the world are inbred.
The Universe According to Islam
Adam, Eve, and the Six Days of Creation
This page simply quotes authoritative Islamic sources, i.e. the Qur'an, hadith, and scholars, to provide you with an accurate picture of what Islam teaches of the creation of the universe and its human inhabitants. The basic creation narrative is consistent throughout.
It began six thousand years before the advent of Islam. The first thing to be created was the planet Earth, which took two days to complete, from Sunday to Monday. Then it took another two days to create the mountains, trees, and everything else. The final two days, Thursday and Friday, were spent creating the "heavens", the sun, moon, other planets, and a sixty cubits (approximately ninety feet) tall Adam.
Hawwa' (Eve) was created from Adam's left rib, whilst he was asleep in the Garden. She is blamed by Adam for persuading him to eat from the forbidden tree. As a result, they are both cast out from the garden in Paradise and sent down to the planet Earth, where their decedents continue to decrease in size.
As punishment for her transgression in particular, Allah makes Eve menstruate, suffer pregnancy and become stupid. Therefore, according to Islamic beliefs, today all women menstruate (are deficient in religion) and are created stupid (deficient in intelligence).
A Qur’anic Understanding of the Universe
This article is designed to uncover and explain the actual state of scientific knowledge that is presented to us in the Qur'an and the Sunnah. Specifically, we will explore Islamic Cosmology, in particular the Qur'ans understanding of the nature and structure of the physical universe. To no surprise, the Qur'an's understanding of the universe matches that of the mythical cosmos believed by 7th century Arabians rather than an accurate description of the real universe.
In the Qur'an, the entire universe is very small and contains simply the earth and its surrounding heavens. There are no galaxies, other solar systems, or such a thing as “outer space.” The earth is the top-most of seven, flat discs, surrounded by the seven solid concentric domes of the heavens. The celestial objects that do exist (sun, moon, stars and planets) are quite small, very close, and they follow semi-circular paths within the innermost of the seven heavenly domes. When they are not in the sky above the earth, they are resting somewhere underneath it, except while petitioning Allah’s permission to return the following day (or night). Paradise exists between the seven heavens, and hell exists between the seven earths. All of this is submerged in a cosmic sea, above which is the throne of Allah.
The Flat Earth
As recently as 1993 the supreme religious authority of Saudi Arabia Sheik Abdul-Aziz Ibn Baaz declared "The earth is flat. Whoever claims it is round is an atheist deserving of punishment." and in a televised debate aired on Iraqi Al-Fayhaa TV (October 31, 2007), Muslim Researcher on Astronomy Fadhel Al-Sa'd also declared that the Earth is flat as evidenced by Qur'anic verses and that the sun is much smaller than the Earth and revolves around it.  As devout Muslims, they have good reason to conclude the Earth is flat; the Qur'anic verses 15:19, 20:53, 43:10, 50:7, 51:48, 71:19, 78:6, 79:30, 88:20 and 91:6 all clearly state this. While many have attempted to explain away this oddity, they prey on their listeners ignorance of the Arabic language. As such, their apologetic claims have been easily refuted by native Arabic speakers. There is no escaping the fact that, according to the Qur'an, the earth is flat.
The Motionless Center - Planet Earth
This article examines the evidence for Qur'anic geocentric cosmology. Some may confuse geocentricism with the the idea that the Earth is flat. This is not the case. These are two different ideas. Geocentrism simply is the notion that the earth is the (immovable) center of our universe, thus all celestial bodies mover around it. According to the Qur'an, the Sun (and the moon and the five known planets) follow a curved (rounded) course (a Falak). This falak starts in the east (where the sun goes up), goes high above the earth and ends after sunset with the Sun resting at night at a hidden place. All this took place around an earth that was spread out and had a firmament built on invisible pillars above it. This was a common belief at the time. Sahih (authentic) hadiths affirm this geocentric cosmology (so Muhammad or at least the people around him agree with it), and great ancient, and even modern-day, Muslim astronomists agree that the Qur'an is geocentric. In ancient times, many people - but certainly not all - did not know any better than what they seemed to observe everyday: the sun appeared to be going around the earth through our skies. We cannot blame a 7th century Bedouin for not knowing this, but should not the omnipresent, omnipotent, omniscient creator of the universe know better?
Sun Sets in a Muddy Spring
The precise meaning of the opening phrases in verses 86 and 90 in the 18th chapter of the Qur’an, Surah al-Kahf, or “The Cave”, is a matter of considerable controversy. These verses occur within an account concerning a powerful figure called Dhu’l Qarnayn, “the two-horned one”, who Allah guides on a series of three fantastic journeys in Qur’an 18:83-101. They are controversial due to Muslim sensitivity to claims that they have Allah saying that the sun sets and rises in physical locations on or at the edges of Earth.
Our analysis shows that the various interpretations that have been proposed for verses 18:86 and 18:90 in the Qur’an to reconcile them with scientific facts do not stand up to detailed scrutiny. The evidence overwhelmingly supports the clear and obvious interpretation that this is intended to be understood as a historical account in which Dhu’l Qarnayn traveled until he reached the place where the sun sets and actually found that it went down into a muddy spring near to where a people were, and that he then traveled until he reached the place where the sun rises and actually found that it rose up above a people who lived close to the place where the sun rises.
Ramadan and the North and South Poles
This article consists of a set of questions and answers exploring Ramadan's relation to the North and South Poles. According to Islamic rules, the length of a fast is governed by the rising and the setting of the sun. This can cause a huge problem for those who live close to these poles. The closer we get to the poles, the longer our days or nights become. They can eventually extend for up to several months each, making the fourth Pillar of Islam impossible to practice without starving yourself to death. Obviously Muhammad was unaware of the poles.
Islamic Writing and the Universe
Islamic scriptures and scholars have much to say in regards to the cosmology of the universe.
Islamic Science and the Golden Age
The Miracle of Islamic Science
This is a refutation of Dr K. Ajram's Setting the Record Straight: The Miracle of Islamic Science. The purpose of this analysis is to put the achievements of Golden Age Muslim scientists in the proper perspective; neither denigrating their achievements nor inflating them. All scientific and technological progress is accomplished in progression; Muslim achievements are but links in the chain. Few of the great Muslim scientific achievements stood alone, but were derived by Muslim scientists standing on the shoulders of those who came before them. This analysis also highlights the fatal flaw of the Islamic Golden Age. There were few ‘follow-up’ breakthroughs on the backs of the works of the great Muslim scientists. In effect, the Ummah allowed or encouraged these works to wither on the vine or die stillborn, even before the rise of mysticism at the expense of rational thinking, an event often attributed to al-Ghazzali around the turn of the 12th century. Indeed, it would seem orthodox Islam utterly stifles intellectual reasoning. Therefore, Islam is not the cause of scientific progress during the Golden Age. Many people would say that the Golden Age scientific progress was made in spite of Islam, not because of it. A prime example is the great philosopher-physician Ibn Sina (Avicenna) whose work is constantly referenced by Dr K. Ajram. It is true that Avicenna was one of the most influential medieval philosophers, but he was also one of the most frequently attacked by Muslims. Today, the majority of Muslims would consider Ibn Sina, and many of the other great 'Islamic' scientists, as heretical apostates for their beliefs, and therefore non-Muslim disbelievers.
Muslims 'Saved' the Work of Greek Philosophers from Destruction
The Arab transmission of the classics is a common and persistent myth that Arabic commentators such as Avicenna and Averroes 'saved' the work of Aristotle and other Greek philosophers from destruction. According to the myth, these works would otherwise have perished in the long European dark age between fifth and the tenth centuries. Thus the versions of Aristotle used in the West were translations from the Arabic, which came from the South West of Europe in the reconquest of Spain from the Muslims during the twelve and thirteenth centuries. This is incorrect. It was actually the Byzantines in the East who saved the ancient learning of the Greeks in the original language, and the first Latin texts to be used were translation from the Greek, in the 12th century, rather than, in most cases, the Arabic, which were only used in default of these.
It is nevertheless true, and no myth, that the work of the Arabic commentators, particularly Averroes, had a profound influence on the scholastic philosophers of the Latin West in the thirteenth century. Aristotle's Greek is terse and very difficult to understand. The work of the Arabic commentators helped in explaining and clarifying Aristotle's dense and apparently obscure thought. Thus Western intellectual tradition owes a great debt to the Arabic scholars in terms of understanding Aristotle's thought. In terms of the texts, however, these would have survived had the Arabic commentators never existed.
Islamic Inventions that Changed the World
These past few years have seen many inventions falsely claimed and attributed to Islamic inventors, which in fact either existed in pre-Islamic eras, were invented by other cultures, or both. However, this detail has not halted Muslim, and non-Muslim apologists alike, from perpetuating these false claims. Such claims, which are basically altering the world's history in order to show Islam in a better light, have even been forced upon the unsuspecting public in a nationwide tour which opened with an exhibition at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester and the University of Manchester, England. To celebrate this series of events, an article titled “How Islamic inventors changed the world” was written by Paul Vallely and published in The Independent. This inaccurate piece of propaganda has received much praise from Muslims and is still being widely circulated on Islamic websites, forums and blogs. This article lists and examines all twenty of these “Islamic inventions that changed the world”, and in doing so, it reveals their actual inventors and the true role of Islam/Muslims, if any, behind the inventions. In short, we find that Paul Vallely's article is fundamentally misleading. It omits, distorts, and makes blunders concerning the most basic of historical facts to give the reader a false impression. It leaves you wondering what could have possibly motivated him into writing such a deceptive piece of journalism? This exhibition claimed to have shown 1001 Islamic inventions. If the best twenty are proven false, what of the other 981?
Islamic Science in Wikipedia Articles
At Wikipedia, Islam-related articles are severely compromised by Muslim editors. An example of this is a 2010 incident where an editor with over 67,000 edits was caught intentionally inserting false information into articles.
Jagged 85 is the main contributor to the many inaccurate Islam/Science/Golden Age articles which are still being copied and pasted all over the internet by Muslims, and more than 20% of Wikipedia's "Timeline of historic inventions" was provided by him.
With contributions to over 8,100 separate articles, it is unlikely that all of Jagged 85's edits will ever be fixed. And even if they were, these Wikipedia articles have already been reproduced all over the net by other sites which use Wikipedia as a source.
Science in the Qur'an
Scientific Errors in the Qur'an and Hadith
This page lists various types of scientific errors found in the Qur'an. The subjects of these errors include; Evolution, Astronomy, Biology, Geology, Zoology and many others which are often confirmed by the hadith.
Non-Muslims finding Science in the Qur'an
The new Mullahs and other Islamists feel very happy whenever they find an occidental (western white person) who talks in favor of their faith (Islam). This is especially true when these western people try to associate the Qur'an and Hadith with anything resembling an inkling of scientific truth. For the last 25 years or so, Muslims have found several non-Muslim supporters (pseudo) of their faith. One of the results of such liaisons is Bucailleism, the belief that "the Qur'an prophesied the Big Bang theory, space travel and other contemporary scientific breakthroughs," and that "there are more than 1200 verses (Ayat) which can be interpreted in the light of modern science." It has been called "a fast-growing branch of Islamic fundamentalism." Named after none-other than the French (Catholic) surgeon Maurice Bucaille, its proponents believe that "one of the main convincing evidences" that lead many to convert to Islam "is the large number of scientific facts in the Quran." These articles take a critical look at this fairly recent phenomena.
Scientific Miracles in...the Georgics
This article argues that the Georgica, written by Virgil in Golden Latin in the year 28 BC, contains many scientific miracles (i.e. scientific foreknowledge). Furthermore, Virgil was an ancient Roman poet and the ancient Romans were polytheists, thus the Roman pantheon of deities must exist. Of course this article is written as part satire. It parodies the logic of Muslim apologists, and demonstrates very effectively how easy it is to reinterpret any ancient poetry, such as the Qur'an, and reveal so-called scientific miracles.
Qur'an and the Big Bang
Islamic apologists attempt to claim that the “Big Bang” is actually described by the Qur’an in one of many miraculous displays of scientific precocity in text. However on closer examination, Muslim claims of miraculous scientific information in the Qur’an are shown to be, yet again, in error. In reality, the Qur’an is completely silent on the “big bang” because it clearly has no awareness whatsoever of a universe that preexisted the creation of the planet Earth, or extended outwards into infinite space. It has no understanding of galaxies, or clusters of galaxies, or quasars or pulsars or any of the other things that could have easily been mentioned by an omniscient Allah, and left us no room for quibbling.
Qur'an Predicted Black Holes And Pulsars
Harun Yahya, makes many claims of Qur'anic Science. This article seeks to debunk two such claims, namely that the Qur'an predicted black holes and pulsars. We will show the absurdity of the black hole claim, while showing the pulsar claim to be conjectural and devoid of factual basis. In doing so, we will also show Harun Yahya’s self-contradiction as he used the same Qur'anic verse to ‘prove’ both the black hole and the pulsar. Now, even to the uninitiated, it would seem impossible for something to be both a black hole and a pulsar. However, apologists do not appear to be inhibited by such constraints of logic.
Speed of Light in the Qur'an
In an article published in Islami City, Dr. Mansour Hassab-Elnaby claims the verse 32:5 reveals that light in one day travels a distance equal to 12,000 lunar orbits, and upon calculating that distance we find the exact speed of light. This verse clearly has nothing to do with the speed of light. There is no mention of the moon, light or even distance in this verse. If these methods were to be applied to other texts, such as Shakespeare's writings or Virgil's Georgics, they too can be "proven" divine. No matter how we look at Dr. Hassab-Elnaby's calculations, they are mathematically incorrect. Even the notion of measuring the speed of light with the orbit of the Moon or the length of the day is a fallacy. Dr. Hassab-Elnaby also makes many deliberate errors to doctor his scientific miracle, and in his zeal to ascribe miracles to the Qur'an, he throws out of the window the concept of Allah's omnipresence. The maker of the Universe, according to him, depends on the speed of light to manage his affairs. Even if we assume there really is a miracle in this plagiarized allegory, shouldn't the credit go to the Bible from which it originates?
Earth Made of Seven Layers
Many Muslims have come up with some extraordinary claims, including the claim that modern science proves the Qur'an correct in asserting the earth is made of 7 "layers". This article seeks to show the error of the claim that verse 65:12 shows the earth is composed of 7 layers. In truth, the earth is not composed of 7 layers, but 5. Even if the earth was composed of 7 layers, it doesn't alter the fact that if these apologists cared to delve a little deeper into their own sources they would discover that the 7 earths being referred to in verse 65:12 are in fact flat islands, one under the other.
Qur'an and the Descent of Iron Miracle
Many apologists propagate the ‘iron sent down from heaven miracle’ pseudoscience. A chief proponent of this claim is Harun Yahya. There is nothing miraculous about surah 57:26 describing iron being ‘sent down’ by some deity. The ancient Egyptians already derived that concept three thousand years before Islam. They called iron “ba-en-pet” or ‘metal from heaven’. This concept was also shared by the ancient Mesopotamians. We have also shown many of the other 'miraculous' claims in connection with iron to be patent scientific nonsense.
Qur'an Describes Altitude Sickness
This article discusses and refutes the claim that the Qur'an's description of altitude sickness in verse 6:125 is somehow miraculous, scientifically accurate, or prophetic. If we take the verse figuratively, then it is not miraculous at all, since it is describing a phenomenon that would have been well-known to the wandering Arab nomads long before the revelation of the Qur'an.
If we take the verse literally, then it is scientifically inaccurate. There is no “tightening” of the chest. The constrictive sensation experienced at high altitudes is simply a result of having less air to breathe into your lungs, in addition to the gas already there actually expanding. In fact, when we take modern scientific knowledge into consideration, problems with a literal interpretation are two-fold since it has been postulated that human adaption has lead to people born and raised in high altitudes (exceeding 3000 meters) to have enlarged chests which "could allow for increased lung volumes and thereby increase oxygen uptake."
The Qur'an and Mountains
This article refutes the claim that the Qur'an had foreshadowed the scientific knowledge about Mountains as Pegs stabilizing the crust or even the earth. There are two elements to this ‘Qur'anic Science’ claim: A. Mountains are Pegs. This is untrue as not all mountains have peg-like roots. B. Mountains stabilize the crust or the earth. This is unproven. There is no scientific evidence for this assertion, therefore the Qur'an cannot be validated by scientific evidence that does not exist. The mere fact of isostacy is not proof that mountains stabilize the crust or the earth. The mere fact that collision-type mountains are formed at the edges of tectonic plates is not proof that mountains stabilize the plates. The mere fact that mountains have deep roots is not proof that mountains stabilize anything.
Qur'an Predicted Land Decreasing
Dr. Al Zeiny, PhD, claims a so-called ‘proof’ of Qur'anic Science by positing the proposition that the Qur'an correctly predicted the geological fact that land is decreasing due to the movements of tectonic plates. He cites verses 13:41 and 21:44 as evidence. Alas for Dr. Zeiny, the geological facts do not support his case that land is decreasing as the Qur'an supposedly suggests.
In fact, we'd like to thank Dr. Zeiny for helping to prove the Qur'an incorrect in asserting that land is decreasing, and thereby also prove that the Qur'an is false and therefore man-made. By extension, Dr. Zeiny has also proven that Allah is also false and therefore man-made.
Creation of Humans from Clay
Many Muslims use the recent scientific hypothesis of clay particles as catalysts for abiogensis as evidence of the veracity of their scripture. However, the scientific hypothesis postulates that the clay merely 'match-makes' RNA and membrane vesicles - and therefore does not form a building block. This is contrary to the Islamic Faith which postulates that human beings were created from clay, implying clay was a building block. Notwithstanding this key distinction, is Islam the only religion which postulated the creation of human beings from clay? The answer is no.
Many religions pre-dating Islam also carry this 'creation of human beings from clay' story. The earliest are the pre-cursors of the Abrahamic Faiths - namely the early Mesopotamian religions. Other faiths that postulate the 'creation of human beings from clay' stories include the ancient Egyptians, some African tribes and the Incas. In fact, the ‘creation of humans from clay’ stories are common throughout the world, including far-flung places like Australia and the Pacific Islands which were not in contact with Islam or any of the other Abrahamic Faiths until recent times.
Qur'an and Semen Production
This article lists and refutes all the various Islamic attempts to show that the Qur'an correctly describes semen production from between the sulb and the tara’ib in verse 86:7. There are at least seven distinct classes of Islamic explanations, and these propositions are frequently conflicting. For example, Ibn Kathir refers to tara’ib as a female organ, while other tafsirs claim it belongs to the man. Another conflict is the definition of sulb to mean either the backbone or the ‘hardening’ of the loins.
Qur'an Describes Gender Determination By Sperm
Various apologists make the usual Islamic polemic about how the Qur'an can be proved by modern scientific knowledge, using the old canard about how the Qur'an is the only ancient book that states that gender is determined by the sperm. In this, they may point out the ignorance of the Greeks who thought gender was determined by the relative strengths of sperm from the male and female parents as Hippocrates imagined.
This article does not seek to prove that the ancient Egyptians shared some aspects of our modern understanding of gender determination and reproduction. It merely aims to show that the Qur'an was not the first religious text to suggest that gender is determined by the semen of the male parent.
Qur'an and Embryology
There are propagations of the Qur'anic ‘so-called’ Embryology by such luminaries as Dr. Keith Moore and Dr. Maurice Bucaille. These works are aped by such Islamic scholars as Dr. Al Zeiny, Dr. Zakir Naik, Dr. Ibrahim Syed, Dr. Sharif Kaf Al-Ghazal, and the ubiquitous Harun Yahya aka Adnan Oktar. A good additional material is provided by Dr. Omar Abdul Rehman in which he goes into even greater detail in his attempt to validate the Qur'anic ‘human reproduction’ verses with modern scientific facts. On the net, you will find many excellent debunkings of the Qur'anic Embryology Pseudoscience (“QEP”). Here we attempt to add to this debate, concentrating solely on the Qur'anic verses.
Qur'anic Claim of Everything Created in Pairs
This article refutes the claim that Man did not know anything about the "creation in pairs" at the time of the 'descent' of the Qur'an. The case against the Qur'an is really very simple. All one has to do is to show that not all creatures are ‘created’ in pairs.
Muhammad, being who he was, did not have access to a microscope or a good Level 1 biology textbook. It was all too easy for him to observe male and female humans, camels, dogs, and even devils, jinns, and angels. But as he had no idea about micro-organisms and herpetology he was unaware that he was mistaken in his belief that all creatures came in males and females.
Based on the existence of the schizophyllum commune, and asexual, hermaphroditic and parthenogenetic organisms, the Qur'anic verses about Allah creating all creatures in pairs (male and female) is refuted.
Qur'an and the Lying Prefrontal Cerebrum
Several apologists promulgate Professor Keith L. Moore's Qur'anic Pseudoscience of the lying sinful prefrontal area of the cerebrum (here referred to as the prefrontal cerebrum). There are many web sites that are copy-pasting this proposition, and a search of the internet reveals that all the Muslim claims that the cerebrum is responsible for lying and sin comes from the same source, i.e. from Keith Moore.
However, Modern medical research utilizing fMRI conduct brain scans has revealed that the prefrontal cerebrum is not responsible for lying. Other brain regions are responsible, particularly the anterior cingulate gyrus which lies in the medial part of the brain in the frontal-parietal area and not in the prefrontal cerebrum. Thus, the scientific evidence does not support the pseudoscientific claim that the Qur'an correctly asserts that the prefrontal region is responsible for lying as it is not the region responsible for the decision-making process of lying.
Meeting of Fresh and Salt Water in the Qur'an
Muslim apologists believe that Surah 25:53 of the Qur’an is scientifically accurate. They conclude that since the process was unknown to humankind during the time of Prophet Muhammad, this verse (and the Qur’an as a whole) is revealed by Allah. This article will prove that the verse in question is scientifically wrong. Also it will prove that a layman could make a better guess than the allegedly divine author of the Qur'an.
In summary, this article will: A. briefly introduce you to a real river-estuary-ocean system. B. make logical deductions based on the verse and see how far only common sense can take us. C. explain what the verse claims on the meeting of fresh and salt water. D. explain what elementary science tells us about the process. E. explain what modern science tells us about the process. F. show you how Islamic apologists "prove" this “scientific miracle” G. state our analysis on the “scientific miracle”.
- Zakir Naik - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Zakir Naik
- Harun Yahya - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Harun Yahya
- Averroes (Ibn Rushd: 1126-98)
- Islamization of Knowledge
- Muslim Statistics (Science)
Other Core Articles
Core articles contain an overview of other articles related to a specific issue, and serve as a starting point for anyone wishing to learn about Islam:
- Islam and Apostasy
- Islam and Homosexuality
- Islam and Miracles
- Islam and Pedophilia
- Islam and Propaganda
- Islam and the People of the Book
- Islam and Scripture
- Islam and Violence
- Islam and Women
- Qur'an and Science - Answering Islam
- The Scientific 100 - 3 different rankings from Adherents.com showing how little Muslims contributed to science
- Sheik Abdul-Aziz Ibn Baaz, supreme religious authority of Saudi Arabia, 1993 - printed in "Muslim Edicts Take on New Force", NY Times, February 12, 1995.
- The Earth Is Flat and Much Larger than the Sun - Youtube
- The myth persists even on 'scholarly' websites. See e.g. here. "It was only through the transfer of Greek knowledge (including Aristotle's philosophy, Ptolemy's geography, Hippocrates' medicine) by Islam Spain that this information ever got to Western Europe." [our emphasis]
- QUR'AN AND SCIENCE
- Zaghloul El-Naggar, an Egyptian geologist, quoted in Strange Bedfellows
- Tafseer sura tariq (the night) no.86 (verses 1-10)