Yassi Yer va Quron

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Zekeriya Kazvinî'ning "Acaib-ül Mahlûkat" ("Yaratilish ajoyiblari") asaridan olingan. Turkcahdan Arabchaga ögirilgan. Istanbul: taxm. 1553.
Bu xarita "dunyoni ananaviy Islomiy tarzda Qof toğlari bilan cheklangan dengizlar bilan öralgan tekis disk" qilib tasvirlaydi.[1]

Ushbu maqolada Quron muallifi Yerni yassi deb öylaganini körsatuvchi oyatlarga yoritiladi.

Kirish

The fact that the earth is not flat has been known for thousands of years. The Ancient Greeks Pythagoras (570 - 495 BC), Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) and Hipparchus (190 - 120 BC) all knew this. The Indian astronomer and mathematician, Aryabhata (476 - 550 AD) knew this. And so did the early Christian scholars Anicius Boëthius (480 - 524 AD), Bishop Isidore of Seville (560 - 636 AD), Bishop Rabanus Maurus (780 - 856 AD), the monk Bede (672 - 735 AD), Bishop Vergilius of Salzburg (700 - 784 AD) and Thomas Aquinas (1225 - 1274 AD). In fact, contrary to what we are often told, the sphericity of the earth was common knowledge among early medieval Europeans[2] and the Holy Roman Empire from as early as 395 AD used an orb to represent the spherical Earth.[3]

If the Qur'an is a letter-by-letter dictation from Allah, it should also concur with this fact that was known throughout the world before its revelation, and it should contradict the flat earth model widely believed in by the 7th century Bedouins of Arabia.

Quron oyatlarining tahlili

15-sura 19-oyat

والارض مددناها والقينا فيها رواسي وانبتنا فيها من كل شئ موزون


Yerni esa gilamkabi yoyib qo'ydik va unda tog'larni o'rnatib qo'ydik, hamda unda turli-tuman narsalarni undirib o'sdirdik

مَدَدْ = yoymoq, cho'zmoq, kengaytirmoq, tortirmoq, taranglamoq

20-sura 53-oyat

الذي جعل لكم الارض مهدا وسلك لكم فيها سبلا وانزل من السماء ماء فاخرجنا به ازواجا من نبات شتى


U zot yerni sizlar uchun beshik qilib qo'ydi, va unda yo'llar paydo qildi hamda osmondan suv yog'dirdi» Bas, biz u yordamida turli nabobat navlarini undirib chiqardik.

مَهْدًا = (Ot) beshik yoki to'shak, (fe'l) yoymoq, tekislamoq, bosib yoymoq, kirgizmoq, dumalatmoq.

43-sura 10-oyat

الذي جعل لكم الارض مهدا وجعل لكم فيها سبلا لعلكم تهتدون


Ul zot sizlar uchun yerni yoyib beshik qilib qo'ydi, va yo'l topishingiz uchun unda yo'llarni paydo qildi

مَهْدًا = (Ot) beshik yoki to'shak, (fe'l) yoymoq, tekislamoq, bosib yoymoq, kirgizmoq, dumalatmoq.

50-sura 7-oyat

والارض مددناها والقينا فيها رواسي وانبتنا فيها من كل زوج بهيج


Yerni esa, yoyiq qildik! va unda tog'larni o'rnatib qo'ydik hamda unda har turli go'zal juftlarni undirib o'stirdik.

مَدَدْ = yoymoq, cho'zmoq, kengaytirmoq, tortirmoq, taranglamoq

51-sura 48-oyat

والارض فرشناها فنعم الماهدون


Yerni esa yoyiq qilib qo'ydik. Bas naqadar yahshi yoyguvchidirmiz.

فَرَشَْ = yoymoq, ezg'ilamoq, cho'zmoq, dumalatmoq, tahlamoq, r.

الْمَهِدُونَ dan boshlab مَهِدُ = yoymoq, yumshatmoq, tekislamoq, ezg'ilamoq, dumalatmoq

71-sura 19-oyat

والله جعل لكم الارض بساطا


Alloh yerni sizlar uchun gilam kabi tekis qilib qo'ydi

بِسَاطًا = jundan qilingan mato, gilam, kigiz

ushbu fe'l orqali بسط = yoymoq, tekislamoq, tenglashtirmoq, ezg'ilamoq, dumalatmoq

78-sura 6-oyat

الم نجعل الارض مهادا


Biz yerni bir to'shak qilib qo'ymadikmi?

مهاد = tekis joy, tekis, tekislik, to'shalgan.

79-sura 30-oyat

Ko'pchilik musulmonlar Qurondagi Quron 79:30 oyatini qo'llagan holatda Quronda Yer yassi deya ta'kidlanmagan deb uni oqlaydilar. Ushbu oyatdagi "dahaha" iborasi bunga asosa qilib olinadi, bu ibora ko'p ma'noli bo'lib, "ajratmoq", "yoymoq" yoki "cho'zmoq" ma'nolarini bildiradi.

En arabe: والارض بعد ذلك دحاها

Talaffuzi: Va al-ardh[a] baﻋd[a] dhalika dahaha

So'zma so'z tarjimasi: Va shundan keyin yerni yoyib-tekis qildi [4]

Tarjimalar hilma hilligi

Quronning arabchadan boshqa tillarga tarjimalari orasida juda katta tafovutlar mavjuddir. Aynan Quron 79:30 oyatidagi "dahaha" iborasi ham bundan mustasno emasdir. Ko'pchilik islomshunos olimlar Quronning ingilizcha, fransuzcha yoki boshqa xalqaro tillaridagi tarjimalarida bu so'zni qaysi ma'noda ishlatish hususida haligacha bir to'htamga kelishmagan. O'zbek tilidagi Quron tarjimasida ham aynan shu oyat ikki hil tarzda tarjima qilingan, birinchi tarjimada yerni yoyiq-tekisligi haqida aytilsa[5], uning yana bir tarjimasida yerni tuxum shalida ekanligi [6] ta'kidlanadi.

Musulmonlarning oqlovlari

Musulmonlarning ko'pchiligi Quronda yerning - "dahaha" ya'ni "tuyaqush tuxumi"ga o'hshatilganligini ta'kidlashadi.

4. Yer o'zini tuzilishiga ko'ra geo-sferikdir.

Quron ushbu oyatda yerning haqiqiy shaklini bayon qiladi:

“Va undan so'ng yerni tuxum shaklida qildi”. [Quron 79:30]

Arab tilidagi "dahaha" so'zi tuxumsimon degan ma'noni bildiradi. undan tashqari u "kenglik" degan ma'noni ham anglatadi. "Dahaha" so'zi "Duhaya" so'zining buzib ishlatilishi bo'lib, asl ma'nosi Tuyaqushning sharsimon tuxumini anglatadi, ya'ni huddi Yer sharini shakli bilan bir hil.


Demak Quron va ilm-fan bir birini rad qilmaydilar, balki ular bir biri bilan mukammal ravishda mosdirlar.[7]

Shunga qaramasdan, ko'pchilik musulmonlar "dahaha" iborasini "tuyaqush tuxumi" ma'nosini bildiradi degan variantiga ko'proq e'tibor qaratadilar. Aslida esa ilm-fan tomonidan yerning yotiq shar shaklida ekanligi isbotlangan, tuyaqush tuxumining shakli esa cho'zinchoq shar shaklidadir. Shunday qilib yer shari va tuyaqush tuxumlari uch tomonlama olib qaralganda ham bir biriga mos kelmaydigan shakllardir.

Musulmonlarning yana boshqa bir fikricha, "dahaha" so'zi Makkaliklar tomonidan "yumaloqlik" sifatiga yo'g'rilgan so'z o'yinidir.

Quronning 79:30 oyatida, Alloh aytadi,

[Talaffuz] Va al-ardha baﻋda thalika dahaha [79:30]

Ushbu oyatdagi kalit so'z bu "dahaha"dir. Arab tilida shunday ibora mavjud - "iza dahaha" ya'ni "yerdagi teshikka toshlarni otish". Bu ibora aslida "Almadahi" o'yinidan kelib chiqqan bo'lib, o'yin asosan yerda qazilgan teshikchaga uzoqdan turib shu teshikchaga moslab yo'nilgan toshlarni otib tushirishdan iborat bo'lgan. Teshik esa "Udhiyatun" deb atalgan. "Almadhi" o'yinda qatnashuvchilarning teshikcha bo'ylab aylana bo'lib joylashganliklari tufayli, aylana, yumaloq degan ma'nolarni ham bergan. Shunday ekan "dahaha" iborasining asl ildizi bu yumaloqlikdir. Ko'pchilik tilshunoslarni aytishicha arab tilidagi "tuyaqush tuxumi" bilan "dahaha" so'zlarining ildizi birdir. Bundan kelib chiqadiki yerning yumaloqligi ushbu oyatda aniq ta'kidlab o'tilgan.

Arab tilidagi "yassi" yoki "yoyiq" hamda "tekis" so'zlari “sawi” va “al-mustawi” so'zlari orqali ifoda etiladi. Quronning hech qaysi joyida yerni "yassi", yoki "tekis" deya aytilmagan. 2:22, 51:48 oyatlaridagi “farash” so'zi, 4:97, 29:56, 30:10 oyatlaridagi “vasia”, 20:53, 43:10, 78:6 oyatlaridagi “mahd”, 71:19 oyatidagi “basaat”, 88:20 oyatidagi “suttihat” va 91:6 oyatidagi “tahaha”: bu so'larning hammasi albatta o'sha oyatlarning ishlatilishiga qarab "yoyilgan", "cho'zilgan" yoki "tekislangan" degan ma'nolarni bergan bo'lishi mumkin, lekin hech qayerda yerni tekis yoki yassi shaklda demagan.[8]

Musulmonlarning "almadahi" va "udhiyatun" iboralari "yumaloqlik" ma'nosini bildirishi haqidagi argumentlari asossizdir, "almadahi" va "udhiyatun" iboralarning "yumaloqligi faqat ikki o'lchamli "yumaloqlik"ni anglatadi, ya'ni ko'proq o'zbekchadagi doiraga mos tushadi, huddi non yoki disk shakli kabi. Lekin "dahaha" so'zining yana bir ma'nosi "irg'itish", "otish" demakdir, aynan shundan "almadahi" va "udhiyatun" so'zlari unga bog'langandir.

Daha va Duhiya

Arab tilida har bir so'z o'zining boshlang'ich ildiziga ega. Ildiz so'zlar asosan uch harfdan tashkil topadi va talaffuzning o'zgarishi bilan so'zning ma'nosi ham o'zgarib boradi. Unga kelishik qo'shimchalarning qo'shilishi ham so'zni ma'nosini o'zgartirishi mumkin. Masalan: "ka-ta-ba" (yozmoq) ildiz so'zi hozigi ko'p so'zning asosi hisoblanadi - "kitab" (kitob), "maktaba" (kutubhona), "katib" (muallif, "maktub" (qo'lyozma, xat), "kitabat" (qo'lyozmalar, yozishmalar) va hakozolar.

Endi "Tuyaqush tuxumi" ma'nosini bildiruvchi "Duhiya" so'ziga e'tibor qaratsak. Dastavval bu so'z ildiz so'z emas. Bu oddiy so'z bo'lib uning asosi "da-ha-wa" ildiz so'zi bo'lib, u o'z navbatida "dahaha" so'zidan kelib chiqqan. Mana bu haqda arab lug'atlarining eng holislardan biri shunday deydi:

Lison Al 'Arab
الأُدْحِيُّ و الإدْحِيُّ و الأُدْحِيَّة و الإدْحِيَّة و الأُدْحُوّة مَبِيض النعام في الرمل , وزنه أُفْعُول من ذلك , لأَن النعامة تَدْحُوه برِجْلها ثم تَبِيض فيه وليس للنعام عُشٌّ . و مَدْحَى النعام : موضع بيضها , و أُدْحِيُّها موضعها الذي تُفَرِّخ فيه .ِ

Tarjima: Al-udhy, Al-idhy, Al-udhiyya, Al-idhiyya, Al-udhuvva: Tuyaqush tuxumini qo'yadigan qum usti. Tuxum qo'yishdan oldin Tuyaqush yerni yoki qumni kovlaydi, va o'sha joyga tuxumini qo'yadi: Tuyaqushni uyasi bo'lmaydi.

الدَّحْوُ البَسْطُ . دَحَا الأَرضَ يَدْحُوها دَحْواً بَسَطَها . وقال الفراء في قوله والأَرض بعد ذلك دَحاها قال : بَسَطَها ; قال شمر : وأَنشدتني أَعرابية : الحمدُ لله الذي أَطاقَا

بَنَى السماءَ فَوْقَنا طِباقَا

ثم دَحا الأَرضَ فما أَضاقا

قال شمر : وفسرته فقالت دَحَا الأَرضَ أَوْسَعَها ; وأَنشد ابن بري لزيد بن عمرو بن نُفَيْل : دَحَاها , فلما رآها اسْتَوَتْ

على الماء , أَرْسَى عليها الجِبالا

و دَحَيْتُ الشيءَ أَدْحاهُ دَحْياً بَسَطْته , لغة في دَحَوْتُه ; حكاها اللحياني . وفي حديث عليّ وصلاتهِ , اللهم دَاحِيَ المَدْحُوَّاتِ يعني باسِطَ الأَرَضِينَ ومُوَسِّعَها , ويروى ; دَاحِيَ المَدْحِيَّاتِ . و الدَّحْوُ البَسْطُ . يقال : دَحَا يَدْحُو و يَدْحَى أَي بَسَطَ ووسع

Tarjima: Yerni daha qilish: tarqatib yubormoq, yoymoq. Keyingi qismda lug'at har xil arab ruboiylardan ushbu so'zni ma'nosini ko'rsatgan holda misollar keltiradi. Arab tilini tushunadigan har bir kishi uchun "Daha" so'zi "yoymoq", "kengaytirmoq" ma'nolarini bildirishini anglash qiyin emas.

Al Qamus Al Muhit
(دَحَا): الله الأرضَ (يَدْحُوهَا وَيَدْحَاهَا دَحْواً) بَسَطَها

Tarjima: Alloh yerni daha qildi: Alloh yerni yoydi.

Al Wasiit
دَحَا الشيءَ: بسطه ووسعه. يقال: دحا اللهُ الأَرض

Tarjima: Dahani nimadir qilish: yoymoq, kengaytirmoq. Masalan: Alloh yerni yoydi.

Lane leksikasi
Dahaha - Tuyaqush tuxumini qo'yadigan joy, qum usti; Tuyaqush tuxumi emas[9]

88-sura 20-oyat

والى الارض كيف سطحت yerning qanday tekislab qo'yilganiga boqmaydilarmi?!

Ushbu so'zga e'tibor qiling: سَطَّحَ ? Agar siz ushbu so'zni Quronda yozilgan arab tilidan qidirib ko'rsangiz mana bu so'zni topasiz سطحت ya'ni bu so'zni سَطَّحَ jenskiy rodi.

سَطَّحَ = yoymoq, ochmoq, kengaytirmiq, yotqizmoq, bosib yoymoq, tekislamoq, tenglashtirmoq, tashqariga qarab yoymoq, qirtishlamoq.

91-sura 6-oyat

والارض وماطحاها


Yerga va uni tekis qilib qo'ygan zotga qasam!

Qo'shimcha dalillar

2-sura 22-oyat

الذي جعل لكم الارض فراشا والسماء بناء وانزل من السماء ماء فاخرج به من الثمرات رزقا لكم فلا تجعلوا لله اندادا وانتم تعلمون U zot sizlar uchun Yerni to'shak, osmonni tom qilib qo'ydi va osmondan suv tushurib, uning yordamida sizlarga rizq bo'lsin deb mevalar chiqardi. Bas, bilib turib o'zgalarni Allohga tenglashtirmang.

Ushbu so'z ( بِنَاء ) "binaa" yoki "binan" o'zbek tiliga "chodir" deb tarjima qilinadi ya'ni bino. Quronga ko'ra Yer Samo atalmish yetti qavatli ulkan binoning eng quyi tekis poydevoridir. Ushbu maqolaga qaralsin.

18-sura 86-oyat

حتى اذا بلغ مغرب الشمس وجدها تغرب في عين حمئة ووجد عندها قوما قلنا ياذا القرنين اما ان تعذب واما ان تتخذ فيهم حسنا


To kun botadigan joyga yetgach u quyoshning bir loyqa buloqqa botayotganini ko'rdi va u buloq oldida bir qavmni uchratdi. Biz dedik: "Ey Zul-Qarnayn, yo ularni azobga duchor qilursan, yoki ularga yahshi muomalada bo'lursan"

Ushbu quyoshning botishi haqidagi oyat, yerning tekis ekanligini qo'llab quvvatlaydi.

18-sura 47-oyat

ويوم نسير الجبال وترى الارض بارزة وحشرناهم فلم نغادر منهم احدا


Va biz tog'larni yurgizadigan va sir yerni tekis ko'radigan kun. Biz ulardan birontasini qo'ymay yig'dik.

Ushbu oyatda bizga Quron yerni tekis shaklda ko'rishimizga tog'lar halaqit qilishiga ishora qiladi.

Qur'an 2:144

We have seen the turning of thy face to heaven (for guidance, O Muhammad). And now verily We shall make thee turn (in prayer) toward a qiblah which is dear to thee. So turn thy face toward the Inviolable Place of Worship, and ye (O Muslims), wheresoever ye may be, turn your faces (when ye pray) toward it. Lo! Those who have received the Scripture know that (this revelation) is the Truth from their Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what they do.

This verse tells all Muslims to pray towards the Ka'aba (qiblah being the direction that one has to face in order to do this). This is only possible on a flat earth model. Due to the sphericity of the earth, a prayer in any direction will point towards the sky/outer-space, not Mecca.

Verse 2-144.gif

For people who are praying a great distance from Mecca, their qiblah would be somewhere down towards the ground, and the people who are located on the opposite 'side' of the earth would have to pray vertically downward towards the center of the earth.

So, for example, Muslims in the Solomon Islands in fact blaspheme against Allah, because they defecate toward the direction of the Ka'aba when they answer the call of nature.

Even if we were to use the traditional Muslim method of determining qiblah (i.e. a great circle) this would still be blasphemous because you would be simultaneously praying with your face and backside aimed towards the Ka'aba.

In addition to all of the direct evidence we have provided, this is just one of the problems which indirectly indicate that the narrator/writer of the Qur'an believed in a flat earth model.

Qur'an 2:187

It is made lawful for you to go in unto your wives on the night of the fast. They are raiment for you and ye are raiment for them. Allah is Aware that ye were deceiving yourselves in this respect and He hath turned in mercy toward you and relieved you. So hold intercourse with them and seek that which Allah hath ordained for you, and eat and drink until the white thread becometh distinct to you from the black thread of the dawn. Then strictly observe the fast till nightfall and touch them not, but be at your devotions in the mosques. These are the limits imposed by Allah, so approach them not. Thus Allah expoundeth His revelation to mankind that they may ward off (evil)

This verse tells Muslims, when fasting, to not eat, drink, or have sexual intercourse during sunlight hours. This can cause a huge problem for those who live close to the North or South poles.

The closer we get to the poles, the longer our days or nights become. They can eventually extend for up to several months each, making this verse, the fourth Pillar of Islam, impossible to practice without starving yourself to death. Again, this problem would not exist on a flat earth model.

General Apologetics

Qur'an 22:61, 31:29, & 39:5

ذلك بان الله يولج الليل في النهار ويولج النهار في الليل وان الله سميع بصير

Thalika bi-anna Allaha yooliju allayla fee alnnahari wayooliju alnnahara fee allayli waanna Allaha sameeAAun baseerun

That is because Allah merges night into day, and He merges day into night, and verily it is Allah Who hears and sees (all things).
الم تر ان الله يولج الليل في النهار ويولج النهار في الليل وسخر الشمس والقمر كل يجري الى اجل مسمى وان الله بما تعملون خبير

Alam tara anna Allaha yooliju allayla fee alnnahari wayooliju alnnahara fee allayli wasakhkhara alshshamsa waalqamara kullun yajree ila ajalin musamman waanna Allaha bima taAAmaloona khabeerun

Seest thou not that Allah merges Night into Day and he merges Day into Night; that He has subjected the sun, and the moon (to his Law), each running its course for a term appointed; and that Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do?
خلق السماوات والارض بالحق يكور الليل على النهار ويكور النهار على الليل وسخر الشمس والقمر كل يجري لاجل مسمى الا هو العزيز الغفار

Khalaqa alssamawati waal-arda bialhaqqi yukawwiru allayla AAala alnnahari wayukawwiru alnnahara AAala allayli wasakhkhara alshshamsa waalqamara kullun yajree li-ajalin musamman ala huwa alAAazeezu alghaffaru

He created the heavens and the earth in true (proportions): He makes the Night overlap the Day, and the Day overlap the Night: He has subjected the sun and the moon (to His law): Each one follows a course for a time appointed. Is not He the Exalted in Power - He Who forgives again and again?

Muslims sometimes claim "Merging here means that the night slowly and gradually changes to day and vice versa. This phenomenon can only take place if the earth is spherical. If the earth was flat, there would have been a sudden change from night to day and from day to night."

This claim is false. The gradual shift from day to night and vice versa would still happen on a flat earth model. The only difference is that the flat earth model would be lit up at the same time, there would be no timezones just the same night and day for everyone.

You can do the experiment yourself. All you need is a dark room, table and flashlight. Simply let the flashlight rise slowly above the edge of the table, just like a sunrise, and you will see a gradual shift from darkness to light. So verses 31:29, 39:5 and 22:61, tell us nothing of the earth's shape. They are merely observations that anyone can make.

In addition, these verses erroneously refer to lightness and darkness as two different things. They are in fact the same thing. The Night does not "overlap" the Day because there is only light, and darkness is nothing but the absence of light.

Conclusion

Shaykh Abdul-Aziz Ibn Baaz, the supreme religious authority of Saudi Arabia, believes the earth is flat,[10][11] and so does Muslim Researcher on Astronomy Fadhel Al-Sa'd, who declared in a televised debate aired on Iraqi Al-Fayhaa TV (October 31, 2007) that the Earth is flat as evidenced by Qur'anic verses and that the sun is much smaller than the Earth and revolves around it.[12]

As devout Muslims, they have good reason to conclude the Earth is flat; the Qur'anic verses 15:19, 20:53, 43:10, 50:7, 51:48, 71:19, 78:6, 79:30, 88:20 and 91:6 all clearly state this and not a single verse in the Qur'an hint to a spherical earth.

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See Also

  • Cosmology - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Cosmology

Translations

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External Links

References

  1. Views of the Earth - World Treasures of the Library of Congress, July 29, 2010
  2. "Myth of the Flat Earth", Wikipedia, accessed June 12, 2013 (archived), http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Myth_of_the_Flat_Earth&oldid=556807448. 
  3. Globus cruciger - Wikipedia, accessed September 9, 2009
  4. http://www.uzislam.com/quran/79?page=2#verse30
  5. http://www.uzislam.com/quran/79?page=2#verse30
  6. http://www.quran.uz/tarjima/quran/79
  7. Q & A (Questions et réponses) - Zakir Naik - dahaha
  8. QuranTeachings.co.uk - 79:30
  9. Lane's Lexicon - daha (PDF)
  10. Muslim Edicts Take on New Force - New York Times, February 12, 1995.
  11. Sheikh Abdul Aziz Ben Baz (1395 AH [1974 AD]), "Evidence that the Earth is Standing Still", Islamic University of Medina, Saudi Arabia. First edition, p. 23.
  12. Iraqi Researcher Defies Scientific Axioms: The Earth Is Flat and Much Larger than the Sun (Which Is Also Flat) - MEMRI TV, Video No. 1684