WikiIslam:Sandbox/72 Vírgenes

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Impresión de un artista de las 72 vírgenes. El Corán, hadith y las escuelas islámicas mencionan que a los hombres musulmanes se les recompensará con vírgenes en el Paraíso.

Este artículo discute lo que el Corán, hadith y las escuelas islámicas dicen sobre las 72 vírgenes, y disipa la confusión popular que le rodea.

Paraíso Sensual

En el islam, el concepto de 72 vírgenes (houri) se refiere a un aspecto del Jannah (Paraíso). Este concepto está fundamentado en el texto Coránico que describe un Paraíso sensual donde los hombres creyentes son recompensados siendo casados[1] con vírgenes de pechos "completamente desarrollados", "abultados" o "con forma de pera".[2][3] A la inversa, las mujeres serán proveídas de un solo hombre, y "estarán satisfechas con él".[4]

Las principales corrientes de eruditos islámicos, por ejemplo Gibril Haddad, han comentado sobre la naturaleza erótica del Paraíso Coránico que algunos hombres pueden necesitar ghusl (ablución requerida después de la descarga sexual) solo al escuchar ciertos versos.[5]

Los teólogos musulmanes ortodoxos como al-Ghazali (murió el 1111 dC) y al-Ash'ari (murió el 935 dC) han analizado los placeres sensuales encontrados en el Paraíso, contando el hadith que describe el Paraíso como un mercado de de esclavos donde "no habrá compra ni venta, pero... Si cualquier hombre desea tener relaciones sexuales con una mujer, lo hará a la primera".[6][7]

Esto es citado por el Tafsir Ibn Kathir en su Cometario Coránico [8] , y descrito explícitamente por el comentador y erudito del Corán, al-Suyuti (fallecido en 1505), quien, haciéndose eco de un hadith hasan[9] de Ibn Majah,[10] escribió que "las vírgenes perpetuas tendrán "vaginas apetecibles", y que lo penes de los Elegidos nunca se ablandan. La erección es eterna".[11]

Los placeres sexuales entre creyentes y houris en el Paraíso también son confirmados por las dos colecciones Sahih de hadiths, denominadas Sahih Bukhari[12] y Sahih Muslim, donde leemos que habrá vírgenes tan bellas, puras y transparentes que "el tuétano de los huesos de sus piernas será visto a través de las huesos y la carne",[13] y que "los creyentes las visitarán y disfrutarán".[14]

Descripciones

Se pueden encontrar varias descripciones relacionadas con las houri en varias referencias islámicas. Algunas incluyen:

Atributos Físicos:

  • Ojos amplios y bellos/encantadores [15][16][17]
  • Como perlas [18]
  • Sin pelo excepto las cejas y la cabeza [19]
Además de las traducciones Coránicas del verso 78:33 especificando que las vírgenes serán voluptuosas[20],Sahih International lo traduce como "de turgidos senos, de una misma edad". Tafsir al-Jalalayn dice "y pechugonas doncellas (kawā‘ib es el plural de kā‘ib) de igual edad (atrāb es el plural de tirb)". Diversos escolares islámicos explican que tendrán "grandes, redondeados pechos que no serán proclives a colgar".[21]

Brsts.jpg
  • Bellas[13]
  • De piel blanca [22]
  • con 60 codos [27.5 metros] de altura[23][22]
  • de 7 codos[3.2 metros] de ancho [22]
  • Transparentes hasta el tuétano de sus huesos [21][13]
  • Eternamente jóvenes [19]
  • Acompañantes de misma edad [24][25]

Atributos Sexuales:

  • Puras / con el himen intacto por no haber tenido relaciones sexuales[26][27]
  • Vírgenes[28]
  • Voluptuosas/de grandes pechos [24]
  • Con grandes y redondos pechos que no serán proclives a colgar [21][3]
  • Vaginas apetecibles [11]

Atributos de su Personalidad:

Otros Atributos:

  • Espléndidas[30]
  • Puras[13]
  • No menstrúan / no orinan/ no defecan y no pueden tener hijos [21][31]
  • Nunca insatisfechas [31]
  • Cantarán alabanzas [7]

Autenticidad

Mientras que hay numerosas fuentes, incluidas el Corán, que nos dicen que los varones creyentes serán recompensados con vírgenes, muchos que están preocupados sobre el concepto de autenticidad de las 72 vírgenes están bajo la idea equivocada de que sólo hay una débil referencia (da`if) al número exacto de houris que se les dan. Estas narraciones se encuentran de hecho en muchas colecciones de hadiths con varios niveles de autenticidad, yendo desde lo hasan (bueno) hasta lo sahih (auténtico).

Por ejemplo, en el Sunan Ibn Majah, uno de las seis mayores colecciones de hadiths, [32] se establece en una narración hasan (buena) [9] que a todo hombre admitido en el Paraíso le será dado la erección eterna y casamiento con 72 esposas, todas con órganos sexuales libidinosos.[10]...




Similarly in another hadith with multiple narrators that has been graded hasan (good), it states that the martyr (shahid) will be married to seventy-two of al-hoor al-‘iyn.[33][34]

In the Sunan al-Tirmidhi, another of the six major Hadith collections,[32] it states that the smallest reward for the people of Heaven is an abode with seventy-two houri.[35] Note that this is not a "weak Hadith that has no Sanad (chain of narrators)", as some have claimed.[36] It has been graded hasan sahih gharib,[9] meaning this hadith is hasan since it has several chains of transmitters, it is sahih as the chains are all authentic and it is gharib in the words that Imam Tirmidhi narrated.[37]

Also reported in Sunan al-Kubra and Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and declared sahih (authentic)[9] by Ibn Abi Shayba, Ibn Hibban, and al-Hakim is the hadith that states the servant in Paradise will be married with seventy wives and that they'll be given the sexual strength for a hundred.[38]

Orthodox Muslim theologians have related further hadith that give us the exact number of 72, such as al-Ghazali who wrote, "[The Prophet said] the lowest rank of an inmate of Paradise will have eighty thousand servants and seventy two wives."[39]

¿Vírgenes o pasas?

This false myth of "white raisins" originated from Christoph Luxenberg, a modern author writing under a pseudonym.[40] His anti-Islamic claim,[41] which has been accused of having a "Christian apologetic agenda",[42] is that the Qur'an was drawn from Christian Syro-Aramaic texts in the early 8th century, in order to evangelize the Arabs,[43] and that the Aramaic word 'hur' (white raisin) had been mistranslated by later Arab commentators into the Arabic word 'houri' (virgin).[44]

The Corán describes the physical characteristics of the houri in many places, and a reading of relevant verses show that Luxenberg's theory regarding heavenly white raisins is in error.

Raisins, which are dried grapes, cannot have large eyes,[17] big breasts,[24] cannot restrain their glances,[26] cannot be described as chaste,[26] or have any of the characteristics listed above. The Corán further states that men will be wed to these houri.[1] Men cannot be married to raisins or white grapes.

Additionally, for someone to accept this "72 raisins" theory, they would also have to accept that the Corán was not written byAllah or revealed to the Prophet Muhammad in Arabic during the 7th century, but was in fact written by Christian evangelists in Syro-Aramaic during the 8th century.

Terrorismo

Suicide is clearly forbidden in Islam, but the permissibility of martyrdom operations (Istishhad) is an altogether different topic, with scholars being split on the issue.

Notable scholars and apologists such as Shaykh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, the world's most quoted independent Islamic jurist,[45] and Dr. Zakir Naik, known for his advocacy of "Qur'anic science", have justified the use of suicide bombing in Islam.[46][47][48] Opinion polls have further shown that an extremely large number of Muslims from around the world support the practice.[45][49][50][51]

The Corán states that all Muslim males, not only martyrs, will be rewarded with virgins.[28] However, the Corán does also mention that those who fight in the way of Allah (jihad) and get killed will be given a "great reward",[52] and there are also hasan (good) hadith[34] which refer to 72 virgins as one of the "seven blessings from Allah" to the martyr.[33] This has lead to the 72 virgins concept being widely used as a way to entice other Muslims into carrying out "martyrdom operations" for Islam.

This is witnessed in Palestine, where the actions of a mother who sends her son to die as a martyr is sometimes seen as "marrying him off",[53] and where the concept is used in Friday sermons and music videos, both airing on official television.[54][55] It has even been used in the United Kingdom, where, in one event, Muslim teens were told to train with Kalashnikov rifles with the promise that the would receive 72 virgins in paradise if they died as religious martyrs.[56]

Contrary to what the Corán, hadith, scholars and Muslims themselves say, a western author named Margaret Nydell in a book that "promotes understanding between modern-day Arabs and Westerners", states that mainstream Muslims regard the belief of 72 virgins in the same way that mainstream Christians regard the belief that after death they will be issued with wings and a harp, and walk on clouds.[57]

The Bible (and more specifically Jesus in the four Gospels) does not discuss the issue of wings and a harp being provided for Christians upon their arrival in Heaven. However, both the Corán and Muhammad in the hadith literature do discuss the issue of virgins being provided for Muslim men upon their arrival in Paradise. So the claim made by Margaret Nydell, equating the belief in receiving heavenly virgins to that of believing in receiving heavenly wings and harps, is inaccurate and misleading.

Conclusión

El paraíso Coránico is sensual in nature,[5] promising Muslim men voluptuous[24]virgins[28] but does not specify their exact number. This cannot possibly be a mistranslation because raisins do not have large eyes[17] or cannot be wed to men.[1]

The hadith literature compliment the Qur'anic text by specifying the exact number of virgins as 72 and providing us with detailed descriptions of their characteristics. These narrations are not weak but vary in strength from good to authentic.[9][34][58]

We are also given details on the physical attributes given to men to sustain 72 virgins, namely, ever-erect penises that never soften[10][11] and the sexual strength to satisfy 100.[38][59][60]

Although it does say they will receive a "great reward",[52] and there are also hasan hadith[34] which refer to 72 virgins as one of the "seven blessings from Allah" to the martyr,[33] the Corán does not specify these virgins are a reward for jihadists/martyrs, but rather for any Muslim male who gains admittance to Paradise.[28]

Citas seleccionadas

Lo! We have created them a (new) creation, And made them virgins, Lovers, friends, For those on the right hand;
Abu Umama narrated: "The Messenger of God said, 'Everyone that God admits into paradise will be married to 72 wives; two of them are houris and seventy of his inheritance of the [female] dwellers of hell. All of them will have libidinous sex organs and he will have an ever-erect penis.' "
Sunan Ibn Majah, Zuhd (Book of Abstinence) 39
It was mentioned by Daraj Ibn Abi Hatim, that Abu al-Haytham 'Adullah Ibn Wahb narrated from Abu Sa'id al-Khudhri, who heard the Prophet Muhammad PBUH saying, 'The smallest reward for the people of Heaven is an abode where there are eighty thousand servants and seventy-two houri, over which stands a dome decorated with pearls, aquamarine and ruby, as wide as the distance from al-Jabiyyah to San'a.
Al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 4, Ch. 21, No. 2687
Each time we sleep with a Houri we find her virgin. Besides, the penis of the Elected never softens. The erection is eternal; the sensation that you feel each time you make love is utterly delicious and out of this world and were you to experience it in this world you would faint. Each chosen one [i.e. Muslim] will marry seventy [sic]houris, besides the women he married on earth, and all will have appetizing vaginas.
Al-Itqan fi Ulum al-Qur'an, p. 351
Anas said, Allah be well-pleased with him: The Messenger of Allah said, upon him blessings and peace: “The servant in Paradise shall be married with seventy wives.” Someone said, “Messenger of Allah, can he bear it?” He said: “He will be given strength for a hundred.” From Zayd ibn Arqam, Allah be well-pleased with him, when an incredulous Jew or Christian asked the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, “Are you claiming that a man will eat and drink in Paradise??” He replied: “Yes, by the One in Whose hand is my soul, and each of them will be given the strength of a hundred men in his eating, drinking, coitus, and pleasure.”
Sifat al-Janna, al-`Uqayli in the Du`afa’, and Musnad of Abu Bakr al-Bazzar
This [Qur'an 78:33] means round breasts. They meant by this that the breasts of these girls will be fully rounded and not sagging, because they will be virgins, equal in age.
Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Abridged, Volume 10 Surat At-Tagabun to the end of the Qur'an, 333-334

Respuestas a apologistas

  1. "The Qur'an doesn't talk about 72 virgins, only the hadiths"
    Even though the Qur'an does not mention the number of virgins, it does say in verse 56:36[28] that Muslim men will be awarded with virgins in Paradise. The Qur'an describes their physical attributes, for example they will have large eyes (56:22) and big breasts (78:33)[24] and so on. The actual number of houri is thus a minor issue and 72 is the number of those houris confirmed in multiple hadith. The hadiths are acrucial part of Islam and certain Muslims ignore them because sometimes they contain uncomfortable details about Islam. There are many hadiths and Qur'anic verses which talk about various issues of a sexual nature. According to Sahih Bukhari 1:5:268 which belongs to the most authentic collection of hadiths, Muhammad himself was given the sexual strength of 30 men and so on.
  2. "The 72 virgins hadith has been classified as Da'if (weak) or Maudu (fabricated)"
    This is not true. The hadith from Sunan al-Tirmidhi has been graded hasan sahih gharib (a “fair, sound, single-chained hadith”).[9] Additionally there is not only one "72 virgins" hadith. We have quoted narrations here that have been graded both hasan (good) and sahih (authentic), and there are many others.
  3. "Obviously this hadith has been made up, is unreliable and/or is a lie"
    See answers to #1 and 2 above.
  4. "The Qur'an doesn't talk about the number of virgins being seventy two"
    See answer to #1 above.
  5. "It is talking about (white) raisins, not virgins"
    This is a myth originating from Christoph Luxenberg, a recent author with a pseudonym who has no known qualifications or authority on Islamic issues, and has been shown to be in error for various reasons.
  6. "Islam prohibits suicide"
    Yes, hadith do exist that prohibit suicide (Suicide bombing however is a separate issue) but this has nothing to do with the fact that Islam promises women in Paradise as a reward for the "righteous" (i.e. Muslims).
  7. "If the seventy two virgins thing was something big in Islam it would be talked about more frequently."
    Women in Islamic heaven as a reward are talked about frequently in the Qur'an as evidenced by the various places in the Qur'an where their characteristics are talked about. Also if the Qur'an talks about a certain issue only once, it cannot be taken lightly in any way as every word and sentence in the Qur'an is important and holy to Muslims.
  8. "The houri are for both men and women"
    The Qur'an explicitly talks about female virgins with large eyes as rewards for men. On the contrary there is not a single "women will get guys as a reward" verse. Some gender neutral verses do exist but they talk about general rewards only (such as "companionship" etc). Also, according to Shaykh ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Jibreen, who was a leading cleric and a member of the Senior Clerics Association, "This number is only for men. A woman will have only one husband in Paradise, and she will be satisfied with him and will not need any more than that."[4]
  9. "The houri are only servants and not for sexual purposes"
    If that was true, Qur'an 56:36[28] wouldn't say they are virgins and it wouldn't mention they have big breasts. In addition, while the Qur'an does not explicitly say they're for sexual purposes, other Islamic sources mention that. One hadith says "The believer will be given such and such strength in Paradise for sexual intercourse". Other sources state that "the penis of the Elected never softens" and that men in heaven will have the sexual strength of 100 men.[59][60]
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Véase también

  • Virgins - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Virgins
  • Numbers of Islam - other number-related facts about Islam

Translations

Enlaces externos

Artículos
Vídeos
Enlaces musulmanes
Humor

Videos:

Pictures: much to their surprise...

Referencias

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Even so (it will be). And We shall wed them unto fair ones with wide, lovely eyes." - Quran 44:54
  2. Varios traductores como Hilali-Khan (Noble Quran, translated by Hilali-Khan), Arthur John Arberry, Abdul Daryabadi, Umm Muhammad, Edward Henry Palmer, Ahmed Ali, John Medows Rodwell, Ali Ünal, George Sale, Muhammad Sarwar, and Tahir-ul-Qadri (Quran browser, Qur'an Text/Transliteration 78:33) han traducido Quran 78:33 refiriéndose a pechos "completamente desarrollados", "abultados" o "con forma de pera".
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Esto[Qur'an 78:33] significa pechos redondeados. Con esto querían decir que los pechos de estas chicas serán completamente redondeados y no caídos, porque serán vírgenes, iguales en edad ." - Ibn Kathir. Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Abridged, Volume 10 Surat At-Tagabun to the end of the Qur'an. pp. 333-334. http://www.tafsir.com/default.asp?sid=78&tid=56825. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Este número es solo para hombres. Una mujer tendrá sólo un marido en el Paraíso, y estará satisfecha con él y no necesitará más que eso. La mujer musulmana - quien no está influenciada por las afirmaciones de aquellos que propagan permisividad y sabe que no es como un hombre en su carácter y naturaleza, porque Alá la ha hecho como es - no objeta los mandatos de Alá o se siente enfadada. Más bien acepta lo que Alá ha decretado para ella. Su naturaleza le dice que no puede vivir con más de un hombre a la vez. Mientras haya entrado en el paraíso, tendrá todo lo que desee, así que no debería protestar ahora sobre las delicias y recompensas que su Señor ha elegido, pues tu Señor no trata a nadie injustamente.", Shaykh ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Jibreen, "The female martyr and the male martyr’s reward of seventy-two hoor al-‘iyn", Islam Q&A, Fatwa No. 11419 (archived), http://islamqa.info/en/11419 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "El Corán no menciona que para los habitantes del Paraíso -varones y mujeres- {Circularán entre ellos jóvenes criados de eterna juventud} (56:17), {Y circularán entre ellos criados jóvenes de eterna juventud. Viéndoles, se les creería perlas desparramadas.}(76:19). Si esto no hace feliz a una mujer entonces, como el Imam al-Shafi`i dijo al que no se conmovió por la poesía erótica, "No tienes sentimientos." Para los hombres creyentes, como dijo uno de los Awliya, algunos necesitará ghusl solo al escuchar el verso {de turgidos senos, de una misma edad}(78:33). Para los analfabetos de corazón insensible podemos leerlo y leerlo sin efecto alguno.", Shaykh Gibril Haddad, "Sex with slaves and women's rights", Living Islam, June 2, 2003 (archived), http://mac.abc.se/home/onesr/f/Sex_w.slaves.a.women.html 
  6. "Ali relató que el Apóstol de Alá dijo, "Hay en el Paraíso un mercado en donde no habrá compra ni venta, si no que consistirá de hombres y mujeres. Cuando un hombre desea una belleza, tendrá relaciones con ella." - Al Hadis, Vol. 4, p. 172, No. 34
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Un hombre preguntó al Profeta: O Profeta de Dios, ¿tendrán los moradores del Paraíso relaciones sexuales? Él dijo: Un morador del Paraíso tendrá quinientas hurs, cuatro mil mujeres solteras y ocho mil mujeres viudas. Cada una seguirá acogiéndole durante toda su vida mundana. También dijo: Habrá en el Paraíso mercados en los que no habrá compra ni venta, si no hombres y mujeres. Si cualquier hombre deseara tener relaciones sexuales con una mujer, lo hará a la primera. Las Hurs cantarán en el Paraíso con divina pureza y rezarán- nosotros somos bellas Hurs y estamos para los honorables maridos.", Al Ghazzali, "Ihya Uloom Ed-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) Vol. 4", Death and Subsequent Events 430 (archived), http://www.nderf.org/islamic_views_death.htm 
  8. These two gardens are lower, in virtue and in status than the two before them, as supported in the Qur'an
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Shaykh Gibril Haddad - How Many Wives Will The Believers Have In Paradise? - SunniPath, Question ID:4828, July 3, 2005
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 "Abu Umama narró: "El Mensajero de Dios dijo, 'A todo el mundo que admita Dios en el paraíso será casado con 72 mujeres; dos de ellas son houris y setenta de su herencia de moradoras del infierno. Todas ellas tendrán órganos sexuales libidinosos y él tendrá un pene siempre-erecto.' " - Sunan Ibn Majah, Zuhd (Book of Abstinence) 39
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 "Cada vez que nos acostamos con una Houri la encontramos virgen. Además, el pene de los Elegidos nunca se ablanda. La erección es eterna; la sensación que tienes cada vez que haces el amor es completamente deliciosa y fuera de este mundo y si lo experimentases en este mundo te desmayarías. Cada Elegido se casará con setenta [sic] houris, además de las mujeres con que se casó en la tierra, y todas tendrán vaginas apetecibles.'" - Al-Suyuti, Al-Itqan fi Ulum al-Qur'an, p. 351
  12. "Narrado por Abu Huraira: El Apóstol de Alá dijo, "El primer grupo de gente que entrará en el Paraíso, será resplandeciente como la Luna llena...Sus mujeres serán houris..."" - Sahih Bukhari 4:55:544
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 "Narrado por Abu Huraira: El Profeta dijo, "El primer lote (de gente) que entre en el Paraíso será (resplandeciente) como la Luna llena, y el segundo lote será (resplandeciente) como la estrella más brillante del cielo. Sus corazones serán como el corazón de un solo hombre, no habrá ni enemistad ni envidia entre ellos; todo el mundo tendrá dos mujeres de entre las houris, (quienes serán tan bellas, puras y transparentes que) el tuétano de los huesos de sus piernas se verá a través de los huesos y la carne" - Sahih Bukhari 4:54:476
  14. " El Apóstol de Alá (la bencición y paz de Alá sea con él) dijo: "En el Paraíso hay un pabellón hecho de una sola perla hueca de sesenta millas de ancho, en cada esquina de ella hay mujeres que no serán vistas en las otras esquinas; y los creyentes las visitarán y disfrutarán." - Sahih Bukhari 6:60:402
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 "Tendrán a las de recatado mirar, de grandes ojos," - Quran 37:48
  16. "Estarán reclinados en lechos alineados. Y les daremos por esposas a huríes de grandes ojos." - Quran 52:20
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 "And (there are) fair ones with wide, lovely eyes,-"- Quran 56:22
  18. "semejantes a perlas ocultas" - Quran 56:23
  19. 19.0 19.1 Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan al-Tirmidhi, hadith: 5638
  20. "Y mujeres voluptuosas de igual edad;" - Quran 78:33
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 2.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Al Ghazzali, "Ihya Uloom Ed-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) Vol. 4" (archived), http://www.nderf.org/islamic_views_death.htm. 
  23. Ibn Kathir: The Reward of Those on the Right After
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 "And voluptuous women of equal age;" - Quran 78:33
  25. Muhammad Asad, The Message of the Qur'an,Publisher: The Book Foundation; Bilingual edition (December 2003), Language: English, ISBN 1904510000,Chapter (Surah) Al-Waqiah (That which must come to pass)(56):38, note 15
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 "Estarán en ellos las de recatado mirar, no tocadas hasta entonces por hombre ni genio" - Quran 55:56
  27. "huríes, retiradas en los pabellones,-¿cuál, pues, de los beneficios de vuestro Señor negaréis?- no tocadas hasta entonces por hombre ni genio." - Quran 55:72-74
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 28.4 28.5 "Then We have made them virgins" - Quran 56:36
  29. Muhammad Asad, The Message of the Qur'an,Publisher: The Book Foundation; Bilingual edition (December 2003), Language: English, ISBN 1904510000,Chapter (Surah) Sad (38):52
  30. Muhammad Asad, The Message of the Qur'an, Publisher: The Book Foundation; Bilingual edition (December 2003) Language: English, ISBN 1904510000,Chapter (Surah) An-Naba (The Tiding)(78):33, note 16
  31. 31.0 31.1 "El Profeta dijo: Si una mujer del Paraíso echara un vistazo sobre este mundo todo contenido en él habría sido iluminado y llenado con su fragancia. Cada pelo de su cabeza es mejor que la Tierra y sus tesoros. Dios dice: Son como Eakut y Marjan. Si sus caras se vieran por una ventana, todo se volvería más claro y los espejos y la joya más pequeña en el interior se iluminaría como el cielo en la tierra. El Profeta dijo: En la noche en la que fui llevado al Paraíso, entré en un lugar llamado Baidakh cuyos campos son de esmeraldas y perlas verdes y Eakut rojo. Preguntaron: O Profeta de Dios, Salam para ti. Pregunté: O Gabriel, cuyo sonido esta ahí? Él dijo: de las mujeres en los campos. Buscan tu permiso para saludarte. Así que dales permiso. Ellas dirán: Estamos satisfechas con eso. Nunca estaremos insatisfechas. Nos quedaremos aquí para siempre, nunca viajaremos. Luego él citó el verso: Las bellas damiselas retenidas en los campos. En otro verso: Mujeres puras. Muzaher explicó esto diciendo que estarán libres de la menstruación, orina, deposiciones, tos e hijos.", Al Ghazzali, "Ihya Uloom Ed-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) Vol. 4", Death and Subsequent Events 430 (archived), http://www.nderf.org/islamic_views_death.htm 
  32. 32.0 32.1 Shaykh Gibril Haddad, "Various Issues About Hadiths", Living Islam, April 4, 2003 (archived), http://www.abc.se/~m9783/n/vih_e.html. 
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 It was reported in the hadeeth of al-Miqdaam ibn Ma’di Karb that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The martyr (shaheed) has seven blessings from Allaah: he is forgiven from the moment his blood is first shed; he will be shown his place in Paradise; he will be spared the trial of the grave; and he will be secure on the Day of the Greatest Terror (the Day of Judgement); there will be placed on his head a crown of dignity, one ruby of which is better than this world and all that is in it; he will be married to seventy-two of al-hoor al-‘iyn; and he will be permitted to intercede for seventy of his relatives.” According to another report, the martyr has six blessings from Allaah. According to other reports (the number is) six, or nine, or ten - Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, who said it is a hasan hadeeth. Also narrated by Ibn Maajah in al-Sunan, by Ahmad, by ‘Abd al-Razzaaq in al-Musannaf, by al-Tabaraani in al-Kabeer, and by Sa’eed ibn Mansoor in al-Sunan
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 Shaykh Waleed al-Firyaan, "The six blessings of the martyrs", Islam Q&A, Fatwa No. 8511 (archived), http://www.islam-qa.com/en/ref/islamqa/8511. 
  35. "It was mentioned by Daraj Ibn Abi Hatim, that Abu al-Haytham 'Adullah Ibn Wahb narrated from Abu Sa'id al-Khudhri, who heard the Prophet Muhammad PBUH saying, 'The smallest reward for the people of Heaven is an abode where there are eighty thousand servants and seventy-two houri, over which stands a dome decorated with pearls, aquamarine and ruby, as wide as the distance from al-Jabiyyah to San'a." - Al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 4, Ch. 21, No. 2687
  36. Nashid Abdul-Khalliq, "Debunking the ‘Suicide for 72 Virgins’ Myth", TheUglyTruth, March 4, 2007 (archived), http://theuglytruth.wordpress.com/2007/03/04/debunking-the-suicide-for-72-virgins-myth/. 
  37. "Imam Tirmidhi (209 - 279 H)", As-Sunnah Foundation of America, February 20, 2012 (archived), http://www.sunnah.org/history/Scholars/imam_tirmidhi.htm. 
  38. 38.0 38.1 "Anas said, Allah be well-pleased with him: The Messenger of Allah said, upon him blessings and peace: “The servant in Paradise shall be married with seventy wives.” Someone said, “Messenger of Allah, can he bear it?” He said: “He will be given strength for a hundred.” From Zayd ibn Arqam, Allah be well-pleased with him, when an incredulous Jew or Christian asked the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, “Are you claiming that a man will eat and drink in Paradise??” He replied: “Yes, by the One in Whose hand is my soul, and each of them will be given the strength of a hundred men in his eating, drinking, coitus, and pleasure.”" - Sifat al-Janna, al-`Uqayli in the Du`afa’, and Musnad of Abu Bakr al-Bazzar
  39. "The Prophet said to a man: 0 servant of God, if you enter Paradise, you will get what you will desire, what your eyes will be pleased with. The Prophet said : If an inmate of Paradise will wish to have a son born to him, he will get it. Its stay in womb, its weaning away from milk and its youth will come to pass at the same time. He also said : The inmantes of Paradise will be beardless and hairless. Their colour will be white and their eyes painted with collyrium. They will be youths of 33 years of age. They will be sixty cubits long and seven cubits broad. He also said : The lowest rank of an inmate of Paradise will have eighty thousand servants and seventy two wives. In short there will be such bliss in Paradise which no eye has seen, no ear has heard and no heart has conceived.", Al Ghazzali, "Ihya Uloom Ed-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) Vol. 4", The Book of Constructive Virtues 431 (archived), http://www.nderf.org/islamic_views_death.htm 
  40. "Christoph Luxenberg", Wikipedia, February 19, 2012 (archived), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christoph_Luxenberg. 
  41. "The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran", Wikipedia, February 19, 2012 (archived), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Syro-Aramaic_Reading_of_the_Koran. 
  42. Richard Kroes, "Missionary, dilettante or visionary? A review of Ch. Luxenberg, Die Syro-Aramäische Lesart des Qur'an", Livius, February 19, 2012 (archived), http://www.livius.org/opinion/Luxenberg.htm. 
  43. Sandro Magister, "The Virgins and the Grapes: the Christian Origins of the Koran", Chiesa press, March 17, 2004 (archived), http://chiesa.espresso.repubblica.it/articolo/7025?eng=y. 
  44. Alexander Stille, "Revisionist historians argue Koran has been mistranslated", New York Times, March 2, 2002 (archived), http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/03/02/MN128985.DTL. 
  45. 45.0 45.1 Faisal Bodi, "Bombing for God (Special report: Israel and the Middle East)", The Guardian, August 28, 2001 (archived), http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2001/aug/28/comment.israelandthepalestinians. 
  46. Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi - Palestinian Women Carrying Out Martyr Operations - Islam Online, November 6, 2006
  47. Is Suicide Bombing allowed in Islam? By Dr. Zakir Naik (a YouTube video posted by PeaceTVUK on September 20, 2008
  48. Abdul Haq Omari, "Pakistan Ulema Permits Suicide Attacks", TOLOnews, March 2, 2013 (archived), http://www.tolonews.com/en/afghanistan/9627-pakistan-ulema-permits-suicide-attacks. 
  49. Michael Freund - Right On: The straightforward arithmetic of jihad - The Jerusalem Post, January 31, 2007
  50. Khalid A-H Ansari, "65% Pakistanis support Osama, says report", Mid Day, March 27, 2004 (archived), http://web.archive.org/web/20040412010339/http://web.mid-day.com/news/world/2004/march/79639.htm. 
  51. "One in eight UK Muslims 'support terrorist attacks'", Scotsman.com, March 15, 2004 (archived), http://www.scotsman.com/news/international/one_in_eight_uk_muslims_support_terrorist_attacks_1_517610. 
  52. 52.0 52.1 "Let those (believers) Who sell the life of this world for the hereafter fight in the cause of Allah and whoso fights in the cause of Allah, - and is slain or gets victory, We shall bestow on him a great reward." - Quran 4:74
  53. "The model Palestinian mother sends her son to die as Martyr, thereby marrying him off", Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, January 8, 2012 (archived), http://palwatch.org/main.aspx?fi=565. 
  54. "72 wives await the Martyrs for Allah: Six rewards quoted in Hamas TV sermon", Al-Aqsa TV (Hamas), January 1, 2010 (archived), http://palwatch.org/main.aspx?fi=565. 
  55. "Beautiful virgins await Muslim Martyrs in Paradise" (archived), http://palwatch.org/main.aspx?fi=565.  - Palestinian TV (Fatah), February 7, 2010 (1 min)
  56. British martyrs 'promised 72 virgins' - BBC News, January 23, 2003
  57. Margaret Kleffner Nydell. Understanding Arabs: A Guide for Modern Times. Intercultural Press. pp. 109. ISBN 1931930252, 2006. 
  58. The number of Hoors (70 or more) in Jannah for a Shaheed or a Jannathi is fixed by which hadeeth, and in which book - Mufti Ebrahim Desai, Ask-Imam, Question No. 7007, October 29, 2002
  59. 59.0 59.1 "The Holy Prophet said: 'The believer will be given such and such strength in Paradise for sexual intercourse. It was questioned: O prophet of Allah! can he do that? He said: "He will be given the strength of one hundred persons." - Mishkat al-Masabih Book IV, Chapter XLII, Paradise and Hell, Hadith Number 24
  60. 60.0 60.1 "Once a Jewish learned man came to the Prophet and asked him : Who will first cross the Bridge? He said : The poor refugees : The Jew asked again : When they will enter paradise, what food will be served to them first? He said : Roasts of the livers of fish. He asked again : What will be their morning lunch? He said : Cows of paradise will be slaughtered for them. He said : What drink will be given to them? He said They will be given drink of Salsabil. The Jew said : You have spoken the truth. Once a Jew asked the Prophet : Do you think that the inmates of paradise will eat and drink? The Prophet said Yes, by One in whose hand there is my life, each one of them will be given food, drink and strength of one hundred man to have sexual intercourse. The Jew asked : Will he have any necessity of passing urine and stools? The Prophet said : In place of urine and stool, perspiration will come out of them like camphor and as a result their stomach will be cleared therefor.", Al Ghazzali, "Ihya Uloom Ed-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) Vol. 4" (archived), http://www.nderf.org/islamic_views_death.htm , The Book of Constructive Virtues 429