Houri (Heavenly Virgin)
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Houris (Arabic, various forms: حوري ,حورية ,حور ,أحور ,حوراء), or heavenly virgins, are a variety of celestial being that, according to Islamic scriptures, serve as a key attraction of Heaven or Jannah (Arabic: جنّة 'Jannah'; plural: Jannat). Houris are mentioned in Qur'anic text as a reward for believing men in the afterlife. According to the Quran, once in Jannah, believers are wed to virgin houris who have "full grown", "swelling" or "pears-shaped" breasts. The Quran provides a physical and personal description of the houri and denotes them as awards to believers. A hadith graded Sahih (authentic) details the number of houris that will be awarded to martyrs (see "72 Virgins Hadith Narrations" below).
Orthodox Muslim theologians such as al-Ghazali (1058 - 1111 CE) and al-Ash'ari (874 - 935 CE) have discussed the Houris as being rewards and pleasures found in heaven. Al-Ghazali, in particular, refers to a hadith that describes heaven as a slave market where there will be "no buy and sale, but... If any man will wish to have sexual intercourse with a woman, he will do at once." The same hadith is quoted by Ibn Kathir, in his Qur'anic Commentary, the Tafsir ibn Kathir. The houris are also described graphically by Qur'anic commentator and polymath, Al-Suyuti (died 1505), who, echoing a Sahih hadith from Ibn Majah, wrote that the perpetual virgins will all "have appetizing vaginas", and that the "penis of the Elected never softens. The erection is eternal."
The sensual nature of the houri awarded to believers are also confirmed by the two Sahih collections of hadith, namely Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim, which state that the houris will be virgins so beautiful and pure that there flesh will, in effect, be transparent: "the marrow of the bones of their legs will be seen through the bones and the flesh". "The believers", another hadith in Bukhari continues, "will visit and enjoy them [the houris]".
The concept of houri can be found in major Islamic scriptures. The Quran, states believing males will be rewarded with virgins. Although it is frequently alleged that the hadiths regarding the houris are da`if (weak) or few (and even singular) in number, such narrations are in fact found in many hadith collections with varying levels of authenticity, including several that earn a grade of hasan (good) and sahih (authentic).
For example, in the Sunan Ibn Majah, one of the six major hadith collections, a hasan (good) narration states that every male admitted into heaven will be given eternal erections and wed to 72 wives, each having libidinous sexual organs. Similarly, in another hadith attested in several hadith collections with multiple narrators that has been graded hasan (good), it is advanced that the shahid (martyr) will be married to seventy-two of "al-hoor al-‘iyn" ("the beautiful-eyed houris").
Another narration in Sunan al-Tirmidhi, another of the six major hadith collections, states that the smallest reward for the people of heaven is an abode housing seventy-two houris. Although it is frequently argued that this hadith is da'if (weak), it has been graded hasan and sahih by renowned scholars of hadith, meaning this hadith is hasan (good), since it has several chains of transmitters, and also sahih (authentic), as the chains are all declared authentic by Imam Tirmidhi.
Also reported in Sunan Al-Kubra and Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and declared sahih (authentic) by Ibn Abi Shayba, Ibn Hibban, and Al-Hakim is a hadith that states that God's servants will be married in heaven with seventy wives and that they'll be given the sexual strength for a hundred.
Orthodox Muslim theologians have related further hadith that give us the exact number of 72, such as al-Ghazali who wrote, "[The Prophet said] the lowest rank of an inmate of heaven will have eighty thousand servants and seventy two wives."
There are several descriptions regarding the houris that are found in various Islamic scriptures. Some include:
- Wide and beautiful/lovely eyes 
- White skinned 
- Like pearls 
- Hairless except for the eye brows and the head 
- 60 cubits [27.5 meters] tall 
- 7 cubits [3.2 meters] in width 
- Transparent to the marrow of their bones 
- Eternally young 
- Companions of equal age 
- Untouched 
- Virgins 
- Voluptuous/full-breasted 
- The word used is كواعب (kawaa'ib), which is a plural of كاعب (kaa'ib) and the meaning according to the al-Ma'any dictionary is نَاهِدَةُ الثَّدْيِ (naahida thadee), that is "buxom breast" .
- With large, round breasts which are not inclined to hang 
- Appetizing vaginas 
Association with Martyrdom
Although suicide is clearly forbidden in Islam, the matter of deliberate/pre-meditated martyrdom in battle (e.g. suicide bombing) has, as is typical with legal rulings, left Islamic scholars divided.
In 2018, a book detailing a fatwa against suicide bombings was issued on behalf of 1,800 Pakistani clerics. In 2010 a Pakistani-Canadian cleric, Muhammad Tahir ul-Qadri, issued a 600 page Fatwa on Terrorism and Suicide Bombings in Urdu and English to refute the ideology of al-Qaeda and the Taliban, and was endorsed by the prestigious al-Azhar University in Cairo.
Notable scholars such as Shaykh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, the world's most quoted independent Islamic jurist, and Dr. Zakir Naik, known for his advocacy of "Qur'anic science", have justified the use of suicide bombing in Islam. Opinion polls following 9/11 found that an extremely large number of persons in Muslim-majority countries supported the practice. However, a decade or more since then, surveys have found a trend of increasing majorities who disapprove of al Qaeda and suicide attacks against civilians in most Muslim countries.
The Quran states that all Muslim males, not only martyrs, will be rewarded with virgins. However, the Quran does also mention that those who fight in the way of Allah (jihad) and get killed will be given a "great reward", and there exist hasan (good) hadith which refer to the 72 virgins as one of the "seven blessings from Allah" to the martyr. This has lead to the 72 virgins concept being widely used as a way to entice martyrdom.
This phenomena can be witnessed in Palestine, where the actions of a mother who sends her son to die as a martyr is sometimes seen as "marrying him off", and where the concept is used in Friday sermons and music videos, both airing on official television. It has even been used in the United Kingdom, where, in one event, Muslim teens were told to train with Kalashnikov rifles with the promise that the would receive 72 virgins in heaven if they died as religious martyrs.
This claim originated from Christoph Luxenberg, a modern scholar writing under a pseudonym, in his controversial work The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran. In his work, Luxenberg suggests that the term houri actually meant to describe "white raisins." His broader thesis, which has been accused of having a "Christian apologetic agenda", is that the Quran was drawn from Christian Syro-Aramaic texts in the early 8th century, in order to evangelize the Arabs, and that the Aramaic word 'hur' (white raisin) had been mistranslated by later Arab commentators into the Arabic word 'houri' (virgin).
The Quran describes the physical characteristics of the houris in many places, such as, large eyes, big breasts, chaste, and restraining their glances. The Quran further states that men will be wed to these houri. These relevant verses suggest that Luxenberg's "white rasins" theory is in error.
Virgins only mentioned in hadith not Quran
Although the Quran does not mention the exact number of virgins, it does state that Muslim men will be awarded with (multiple) virgins in heaven. The Quran describes some of their physical attributes and personality traits.
The number of houris are confirmed in multiple hadiths. Also worth noting is that hadiths are a crucial part of Islam, and that approaching any Orthodox construction of the religion is essentially impossible their absence. Nonetheless, the great majority of hadiths are acknowledged as being of weak authenticity, particularly legal traditions (which form the basis of much of the Shari'ah (Islamic Law) and those detailing the fada'il or "virtues" or various religious figures and theological entities - Indeed, Islamic scholars have, throughout history, accused one another of arbitrarily dismissing and favoring certain sets of weak hadiths to justify their varying doctrinal positions. Indeed, n this context and given their subject matter, the hadiths regarding the houris can fairly be considered to be, on the whole, exceptionally well-attested.
The 72 virgins hadith has been classified as Da'if (weak) or Maudu' (fabricated)
The hadith from Sunan al-Tirmidhi has been graded hasan sahih gharib (a “fair, sound, single-chained hadith”). Additionally there is not only one "72 virgins" hadith. There are many quoted narrations that have been graded both hasan (good) and sahih (authentic). See the section on "Authenticity" above for more details.
Houris are only servants and not for sexual purposes
The Quran details that houris are chaste virgins that have big breasts, resulting in the clear implication of the houris' sexual purpose. While the Quran does not explicitly state they are for sexual purposes this is mentioned in other Islamic sources. One such hadith states "The believer will be given such and such strength in heaven for sexual intercourse". Other sources state that "the penis of the elected never softens" and that men in heaven will have the sexual strength of 100 men.
Houris are for both men and women
The Quran indicates that houris will be "untouched before them by both man and jinni"  Implying that they are females that are awarded to men. While Islamic scholars have at times maintained the existence of equivalent or analogous male companions for females in paradise, the word "houris" in particular which features in Islamic scriptures refers specifically to the nymph-like virgins of paradise discussed here.
The following hadith is cited by Ghazali in the Ihya and has been identified as sahih (authentic) in a critical commentary on the Ihya.
The following hadiths are cited by Ghazali in the Ihya and have been identified as hasan (good) in a critical commentary on the Ihya.
The following hadiths is cited by Ghazali in the Ihya and has been identified as da'if (weak) in a critical commentary on the Ihya.
72 Virgins Hadith Narrations
Shaykh Gibril Haddad is a hadith expert (muhaddith), recognized as one of the world’s leading authorities on the Shari’ah. In 2009, he was listed amongst the inaugural "500 most influential Muslims in the world," and was referred to as "one of the clearest voices of traditional Islam in the West". The following borrows mainly from a 2005 fatwa issued by him.
Reported in Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Sunan al-Tirmidhi
This is a “fair, sound, single-chained hadith (hasan sahih gharib).”
Reported in Ibn Majah, Ibn `Adi in the Kamil, and al-Bayhaqi in al-Ba`th wal-Nushur
Al-Suyuti marked its chain as “fair” (hasan) in al-Jami` al-Saghir (7989).
Reported in Sifat al-Janna, al-`Uqayli in the Du`afa’, and Musnad of Abu Bakr al-Bazzar
Reported in Sunan al-Kubra and Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
“The servant in Paradise shall be married with seventy wives.” Someone said, “Messenger of Allah, can he bear it?” He said: “He will be given strength for a hundred.”From Zayd ibn Arqam, Allah be well-pleased with him, when an incredulous Jew or Christian asked the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, “Are you claiming that a man will eat and drink in Paradise??” He replied: “Yes, by the One in Whose hand is my soul, and each of them will be given the strength of a hundred men in his eating, drinking, coitus, and pleasure.”
Ibn Abi Shayba, Ibn Hibban, and al-Hakim declared it sahih (authentic).
Reported in Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Reported by Abu al-Shaykh in al-`Azama and al-Bayhaqi in al-Ba`th wal-Nushur
Reported in Ma`rifat al-Sahaba and Tarikh Dimashq
Reported in al-Saghir and al-Awsat, Sifat al-Janna, and al-Khatib in Tarikh Baghdad
Abu Dya’ al-Maqdisi declared it sahih according to Ibn al-Qayyim in Hadi al-Arwah and Ibn Kathir in al-Fitan wal-Malahim. Khaldun al-Ahdab considered it sahih (authentic) in Zawa’id Tarikh Baghdad (section 100).
Ibn `Abbas narrated something similar. Abu Ya`la in his Musnad with a good chain of narrators (meanking the hadith is Hasan) as indicated by al-Haythami in Majma` al-Zawa’id.
Other Related Hadith
Shaykh Gibril Haddad quoted the above hadith to suggest that this is referring to all the wives a male Muslim martyr will have in heaven.
Fatwa’s on the Authenticity of the Hadith
Shaykh Muhammad Salih al-Munajjid's Islam Q&A website quoted a hadith about the 72 virgins grading it as Hassan (good), it states:
“The martyr (shaheed) has seven blessings from Allaah: he is forgiven from the moment his blood is first shed; he will be shown his place in Paradise; he will be spared the trial of the grave; and he will be secure on the Day of the Greatest Terror (the Day of Judgement); there will be placed on his head a crown of dignity, one ruby of which is better than this world and all that is in it; he will be married to seventy-two of al-hoor al-‘iyn; and he will be permitted to intercede for seventy of his relatives.”
According to another report, the martyr has six blessings from Allaah. According to other reports (the number is) six, or nine, or ten.(Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, who said it is a hasan hadeeth. Also narrated by Ibn Maajah in al-Sunan, by Ahmad, by ‘Abd al-Razzaaq in al-Musannaf, by al-Tabaraani in al-Kabeer, and by Sa’eed ibn Mansoor in al-Sunan).
Shaykh Waleed al-Firyaan, Islam Q&A, Fatwa No. 8511
Shaykh Gibril Haddad at SunniPath, an online Islamic Academy, mentions this hadith saying:
Shaykh Gibril Haddad, SunniPath.com, Question ID:4828
Mufti Ebrahim Desai's website AskImam mentioned many different sahih (authentic) and hasan (good) versions of the hadith, they said:
1. Sayyiduna Miqdaad ibn Ma?adikarib (Radhiallaahu Anhu) recorded by Imaam Tirmidhi in his Sunan (Hadith1663). Imam Tirmidhi has classified this Hadith as Sahih (authentic).
2. Sayyiduna Ubaadah ibn Thaabit (Radhiallaahu Anhu) recorded by Imaam Ahmad in his Musnad (Hadith17117), Imaam Bazzaar in his Musnad and Imaam Tabrani in his al-Majmual Kabir. (Majma-uz-zawaaid vol.5 pg.293). Hafiz Munzhiri (ra) has classified the chain of narrators of Musnad Ahmad as Hasan (sound) . (al-Targheeb vol.2 pg.320). And Haafiz al-Haythami (ra) has mentioned that the narrators of Musnad Ahmad and Tabrani are all reliable.
and Allah Ta'ala Knows Best
Moulana Muhammad ibn Moulana Haroon AbbassommarFACULTY OF SPECIALTY IN HADITH
Mufti Ebrahim Desai, Ask-Imam, Question No. 7007, October 29, 2002
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- '72 Black Eyed Virgins': A Muslim Debate on the Rewards of Martyrs - (archived), http://www.memri.org/report/en/0/0/0/0/0/0/538.htm
- Does the Koran really promise Islamic martyrs 72 virgins? - (archived), http://www.straightdope.com/columns/read/2329/does-the-koran-really-promise-islamic-martyrs-72-virgins
- Have You Been Invited to Allah’s Brothel? - (archived), http://www.answering-islam.org/Responses/Abualrub/allah_brothel.htm
- Muslim Mastectomy or The Miracle of Disappearing Breasts - (archived), http://www.answering-islam.org/Quran/Versions/078.033.html
- Saudi Cleric Extols the Virtues of Allah's Virgins in Paradise, "They are White Women who are Menstruation-Free, Free of Feces, Urine, Phlegm" - (archived), http://weaselzippers.typepad.com/blog/2009/09/video-saudi-cleric-extols-the-virtues-of-allahs-virgins-in-paradise-they-are-white-women-who-are-men.html
- 72 wives await the Martyrs for Allah: Six rewards quoted in Hamas TV sermon
- Dark eyed virgins greet Muslim Martyrs in heaven
- "Even so (it will be). And We shall wed them unto fair ones with wide, lovely eyes." - Quran 44:54
- Several translators like Hilali-Khan (Noble Quran, translated by Hilali-Khan), Arthur John Arberry, Abdul Daryabadi, Umm Muhammad, Edward Henry Palmer, Ahmed Ali, John Medows Rodwell, Ali Ünal, George Sale, Muhammad Sarwar, and Tahir-ul-Qadri (Quran browser, Qur'an Text/Transliteration 78:33) have translated Quran 78:33 as referring to "full grown", "swelling" or "pears-shaped" breasts.
- "This [Qur'an 78:33] means round breasts. They meant by this that the breasts of these girls will be fully rounded and not sagging, because they will be virgins, equal in age." - Ibn Kathir. Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Abridged, Volume 10 Surat At-Tagabun to the end of the Qur'an. pp. 333-334. http://www.tafsir.com/default.asp?sid=78&tid=56825.
- "Ali reported that the Apostle of Allah said, "There is in Paradise a market wherein there will be no buying or selling, but will consist of men and women. When a man desires a beauty, he will have intercourse with them." - Mishkat al-Masabih (edited by Maulana Fazlul Karim), Vol. 4, p. 172, No. 34
- "A man asked the Prophet : 0 Prophet of God, will the inmates of Paradise have sexual intercourse ? He said: Anybody among them will be given sexual strength of seven, persons among you. The Prophet said : An inmate of Paradise will have five hundred hurs, four thousand unmarried women and eight thousand widowed women. Each of them will keep embracing him for the duration of his whole worldly life time. He also said: There will be markets in Paradise in which there will be no buy and sale, but there will be men and women. If any man will wish to have sexual intercourse with a woman, he will do at once. The Hurs will sing in Paradise on divine purity and praise-we are most beautiful Hurs and we are for the honoured husbands.", Al Ghazzali, "Ihya Uloom Ed-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) Vol. 4", Death and Subsequent Events 430 (archived), http://www.nderf.org/islamic_views_death.htm
- These two gardens are lower, in virtue and in status than the two before them, as supported in the Qur'an
- Shaykh Gibril Haddad - How Many Wives Will The Believers Have In Paradise? - SunniPath, Question ID:4828, July 3, 2005
- "Abu Umama narrated: "The Messenger of God said, 'Everyone that God admits into paradise will be married to 72 wives; two of them are houris and seventy of his inheritance of the [female] dwellers of hell. All of them will have libidinous sex organs and he will have an ever-erect penis.' " - Sunan Ibn Majah, Zuhd (Book of Abstinence) 39
- "Each time we sleep with a Houri we find her virgin. Besides, the penis of the Elected never softens. The erection is eternal; the sensation that you feel each time you make love is utterly delicious and out of this world and were you to experience it in this world you would faint. Each chosen one [i.e. Muslim] will marry seventy [sic] houris, besides the women he married on earth, and all will have appetizing vaginas." - Al-Suyuti, Al-Itqan fi Ulum al-Qur'an, p. 351
- "Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "The first group of people who will enter Paradise, will be glittering like the full moon... Their wives will be houris ..." - Sahih Bukhari 4:55:544
- Citation and new article needed
- "Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "The first batch (of people) who will enter Paradise will be (glittering) like the full moon, and the batch next to them will be (glittering) like the most brilliant star in the sky. Their hearts will be as if the heart of a single man, for they will have neither enmity nor jealousy amongst themselves; everyone will have two wives from the houris, (who will be so beautiful, pure and transparent that) the marrow of the bones of their legs will be seen through the bones and the flesh." - Sahih Bukhari 4:54:476
- "Allah’s Apostle (The blessing and peace of Allah be upon him) said: "In Paradise there is a pavilion made of a single hollow pearl sixty miles wide, in each corner of which there are wives who will not see those in the other corners; and the believers will visit and enjoy them." - Sahih Bukhari 6:60:402
- "Verily for the Righteous there will be a fulfilment of (the heart's) desires; Gardens enclosed, and grapevines; And voluptuous women of equal age" Qur'an 78:31-33
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- Shaykh Gibril Haddad, "Various Issues About Hadiths", Living Islam, April 4, 2003 (archived), http://www.abc.se/~m9783/n/vih_e.html.
- It was reported in the hadeeth of al-Miqdaam ibn Ma’di Karb that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The martyr (shaheed) has seven blessings from Allaah: he is forgiven from the moment his blood is first shed; he will be shown his place in Paradise; he will be spared the trial of the grave; and he will be secure on the Day of the Greatest Terror (the Day of Judgement); there will be placed on his head a crown of dignity, one ruby of which is better than this world and all that is in it; he will be married to seventy-two of al-hoor al-‘iyn; and he will be permitted to intercede for seventy of his relatives.” According to another report, the martyr has six blessings from Allaah. According to other reports (the number is) six, or nine, or ten - Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, who said it is a hasan hadeeth. Also narrated by Ibn Maajah in al-Sunan, by Ahmad, by ‘Abd al-Razzaaq in al-Musannaf, by al-Tabaraani in al-Kabeer, and by Sa’eed ibn Mansoor in al-Sunan
- Shaykh Waleed al-Firyaan, "The six blessings of the martyrs", Islam Q&A, Fatwa No. 8511 (archived), http://www.islam-qa.com/en/ref/islamqa/8511.
- "It was mentioned by Daraj Ibn Abi Hatim, that Abu al-Haytham 'Adullah Ibn Wahb narrated from Abu Sa'id al-Khudhri, who heard the Prophet Muhammad PBUH saying, 'The smallest reward for the people of Heaven is an abode where there are eighty thousand servants and seventy-two houri, over which stands a dome decorated with pearls, aquamarine and ruby, as wide as the distance from al-Jabiyyah to San'a." - Al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 4, Ch. 21, No. 2687
- Nashid Abdul-Khalliq, "Debunking the ‘Suicide for 72 Virgins’ Myth", TheUglyTruth, March 4, 2007 (archived), http://theuglytruth.wordpress.com/2007/03/04/debunking-the-suicide-for-72-virgins-myth/.
- "Imam Tirmidhi (209 - 279 H)", As-Sunnah Foundation of America, February 20, 2012 (archived), http://www.sunnah.org/history/Scholars/imam_tirmidhi.htm.
- "Anas said, Allah be well-pleased with him: The Messenger of Allah said, upon him blessings and peace: “The servant in Paradise shall be married with seventy wives.” Someone said, “Messenger of Allah, can he bear it?” He said: “He will be given strength for a hundred.” From Zayd ibn Arqam, Allah be well-pleased with him, when an incredulous Jew or Christian asked the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, “Are you claiming that a man will eat and drink in Paradise??” He replied: “Yes, by the One in Whose hand is my soul, and each of them will be given the strength of a hundred men in his eating, drinking, coitus, and pleasure.”" - Sifat al-Janna, al-`Uqayli in the Du`afa’, and Musnad of Abu Bakr al-Bazzar
- "The Prophet said to a man: 0 servant of God, if you enter Paradise, you will get what you will desire, what your eyes will be pleased with. The Prophet said : If an inmate of Paradise will wish to have a son born to him, he will get it. Its stay in womb, its weaning away from milk and its youth will come to pass at the same time. He also said : The inmantes of Paradise will be beardless and hairless. Their colour will be white and their eyes painted with collyrium. They will be youths of 33 years of age. They will be sixty cubits long and seven cubits broad. He also said : The lowest rank of an inmate of Paradise will have eighty thousand servants and seventy two wives. In short there will be such bliss in Paradise which no eye has seen, no ear has heard and no heart has conceived.", Al Ghazzali, "Ihya Uloom Ed-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) Vol. 4", The Book of Constructive Virtues 431 (archived), http://www.nderf.org/islamic_views_death.htm
- "And voluptuous women of equal age;" - Quran 78:33
- Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 2.
- "And besides them will be chaste women, restraining their glances, with big eyes (of wonder and beauty)." - Quran 37:48
- "They will recline (with ease) on Thrones (of dignity) arranged in ranks; and We shall join them to Companions, with beautiful big and lustrous eyes." - Quran 52:20
- "And (there are) fair ones with wide, lovely eyes,-" - Quran 56:22
- Al Ghazzali, "Ihya Uloom Ed-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) Vol. 4" (archived), http://www.nderf.org/islamic_views_death.htm.
- "Like unto Pearls well-guarded." - Quran 56:23
- Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan al-Tirmidhi, hadith: 5638
- Ibn Kathir: The Reward of Those on the Right After
- Muhammad Asad, The Message of the Qur'an,Publisher: The Book Foundation; Bilingual edition (December 2003), Language: English, ISBN 1904510000,Chapter (Surah) Al-Waqiah (That which must come to pass)(56):38, note 15
- "In them will be (Maidens), chaste, restraining their glances, whom no man or Jinn before them has touched;-" - Quran 55:56
- "Companions restrained (as to their glances), in (goodly) pavilions;- Then which of the favours of your Lord will ye deny?- Whom no man or Jinn before them has touched;-" - Quran 55:72-74
- "Then We have made them virgins" - Quran 56:36
- Muhammad Asad, The Message of the Qur'an,Publisher: The Book Foundation; Bilingual edition (December 2003), Language: English, ISBN 1904510000,Chapter (Surah) Sad (38):52
- Muhammad Asad, The Message of the Qur'an, Publisher: The Book Foundation; Bilingual edition (December 2003) Language: English, ISBN 1904510000,Chapter (Surah) An-Naba (The Tiding)(78):33, note 16
- "The Prophet said: If a woman of Paradise would have peeped up into this world everything therein would have been illuminated and filled up with fragrance. Every hair of her head is better than than the earth and its treasures. God says : They are like Eakut and Marjan. If their faces are seen within screen, they will be more clear than mirrors and the smallest jewel therein will illuminate what is in the heaven and earth. The Prophet said : In the night in which I was taken to heaven, I entered a place in Paradise named Baidakh whose camps are of emeralds and green pearls and red Eakut. They asked : 0 Prophet of God, Salam to you. I asked : 0 Gebrail, whose sound is there ? He said : of the beautiful women in camps. They seek your permission to salute you. So give them permission. They will be saying : We are pleased therewith. We will never be dissatisfied. We will remain here forever, we will never travel. Then he recited the verse : The beautiful damsels detained in camps. In another verse : Pure women. Muzaher explained this by saying that they will be free menstruation, urine, stool, cough and children.", Al Ghazzali, "Ihya Uloom Ed-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) Vol. 4", Death and Subsequent Events 430 (archived), http://www.nderf.org/islamic_views_death.htm
- "Do not kill yourselves. Verily, Allah is merciful to you. And, whoever does that, out of animosity and , We shall burn him in a Fire. And that is easy for Allah." Qur'an, 4:29-30
- Pakistan clerics issue fatwa against suicide bombings Reuters 16 January 2018
- Faisal Bodi, "Bombing for God (Special report: Israel and the Middle East)", The Guardian, August 28, 2001 (archived), http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2001/aug/28/comment.israelandthepalestinians.
- Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi - Palestinian Women Carrying Out Martyr Operations - Islam Online, November 6, 2006
- Is Suicide Bombing allowed in Islam? By Dr. Zakir Naik (a YouTube video posted by PeaceTVUK on September 20, 2008
- Abdul Haq Omari, "Pakistan Ulema Permits Suicide Attacks", TOLOnews, March 2, 2013 (archived), http://www.tolonews.com/en/afghanistan/9627-pakistan-ulema-permits-suicide-attacks.
- Michael Freund - Right On: The straightforward arithmetic of jihad - The Jerusalem Post, January 31, 2007
- Khalid A-H Ansari, "65% Pakistanis support Osama, says report", Mid Day, March 27, 2004 (archived), http://web.archive.org/web/20040412010339/http://web.mid-day.com/news/world/2004/march/79639.htm.
- "One in eight UK Muslims 'support terrorist attacks'", Scotsman.com, March 15, 2004 (archived), http://www.scotsman.com/news/international/one_in_eight_uk_muslims_support_terrorist_attacks_1_517610.
- Widespread concerns about extremism in Muslim nations, and little support for it Pew Research Centrue, 2015
- Concerns about Islamic Extremism on the Rise in Middle East Pew Research Centrue, 2014
- "Let those (believers) Who sell the life of this world for the hereafter fight in the cause of Allah and whoso fights in the cause of Allah, - and is slain or gets victory, We shall bestow on him a great reward." - Quran 4:74
- "The model Palestinian mother sends her son to die as Martyr, thereby marrying him off", Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, January 8, 2012 (archived), http://palwatch.org/main.aspx?fi=565.
- "72 wives await the Martyrs for Allah: Six rewards quoted in Hamas TV sermon", Al-Aqsa TV (Hamas), January 1, 2010 (archived), http://palwatch.org/main.aspx?fi=565.
- "Beautiful virgins await Muslim Martyrs in Paradise" (archived), http://palwatch.org/main.aspx?fi=565. - Palestinian TV (Fatah), February 7, 2010 (1 min)
- British martyrs 'promised 72 virgins' - BBC News, January 23, 2003
- Richard Kroes, "Missionary, dilettante or visionary? A review of Ch. Luxenberg, Die Syro-Aramäische Lesart des Qur'an", Livius, February 19, 2012 (archived), http://www.livius.org/opinion/Luxenberg.htm.
- Sandro Magister, "The Virgins and the Grapes: the Christian Origins of the Koran", Chiesa press, March 17, 2004 (archived), http://chiesa.espresso.repubblica.it/articolo/7025?eng=y.
- Alexander Stille, "Revisionist historians argue Koran has been mistranslated", New York Times, March 2, 2002 (archived), http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/03/02/MN128985.DTL.
- "The Holy Prophet said: 'The believer will be given such and such strength in Paradise for sexual intercourse. It was questioned: O prophet of Allah! can he do that? He said: "He will be given the strength of one hundred persons." - Mishkat al-Masabih Book IV, Chapter XLII, Paradise and Hell, Hadith Number 24
- "Once a Jewish learned man came to the Prophet and asked him : Who will first cross the Bridge? He said : The poor refugees : The Jew asked again : When they will enter paradise, what food will be served to them first? He said : Roasts of the livers of fish. He asked again : What will be their morning lunch? He said : Cows of paradise will be slaughtered for them. He said : What drink will be given to them? He said They will be given drink of Salsabil. The Jew said : You have spoken the truth. Once a Jew asked the Prophet : Do you think that the inmates of paradise will eat and drink? The Prophet said Yes, by One in whose hand there is my life, each one of them will be given food, drink and strength of one hundred man to have sexual intercourse. The Jew asked : Will he have any necessity of passing urine and stools? The Prophet said : In place of urine and stool, perspiration will come out of them like camphor and as a result their stomach will be cleared therefor.", Al Ghazzali, "Ihya Uloom Ed-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) Vol. 4" (archived), http://www.nderf.org/islamic_views_death.htm , The Book of Constructive Virtues 429
- Untouched before them by man or jinni Quran - 55:74
- Salih al-Munajjid, Sh. Muhammad, Fatwa 25843: Objection to the fact that a man will have hoor ‘iyn who will share her husband with her, Islam Question & Answer, 16-04-2003, https://islamqa.info/en/answers/25843/objection-to-the-fact-that-a-man-will-have-hoor-iyn-who-will-share-her-husband-with-her
- Lane's Lexicon شَهِيٌّ
- Lane's Lexicon Supplement قُبُلٌ
- Lane's Lexicon ذَكَرٌ
- Muhammad al Husaini Murthada al Zabidi, Ithaf al-Sadah al-Muttaqin bi Sharh Ihya Uloom al-Din, 10, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, p. 545
- Muhammad al Husaini Murthada al Zabidi, Ithaf al-Sadah al-Muttaqin bi Sharh Ihya Uloom al-Din, 10, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, pp. 545-547
- Muhammad al Husaini Murthada al Zabidi, Ithaf al-Sadah al-Muttaqin bi Sharh Ihya Uloom al-Din, 10, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, p. 546
- Muhammad al Husaini Murthada al Zabidi, Ithaf al-Sadah al-Muttaqin bi Sharh Ihya Uloom al-Din, 10, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, p. 530
- Edited by Prof. John Esposito and Prof. Ibrahim Kalin - The 500 Most Influential Muslims in the World (P. 94) - The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre, 2009
- The Refutation of him who attributes direction to Allah - Kitaabun, accessed May 6, 2011
- Shaykh Gibril Haddad - How Many Wives Will The Believers Have In Paradise? - SunniPath, Question ID:4828, July 3, 2005