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====Polygamy (four wives per husband)====
 
====Polygamy (four wives per husband)====
{{Main|Polygamy in Islam|Dealing Justly with Wives and Orphans|Unjust treatment of wives}}Islamic law permits men to marry up to four wives (alongside an unlimited number of concubines), while women are restricted to a single husband and are prohibited from any other form of sexual activity. Modern Islamic scholars differ on whether or not a bride may stipulate as a condition of her marriage that her husband remain monogamous. Some argue that this is permissible while others maintain that such a restriction cannot be justified as it impedes on rights that God has given men (where accepted, this practice is implemented through what is known as a ''talaq al-tafwid'', or 'delegated divorce'). {{Quran|4|3}}, which permits Muslim men to take up to four wives, also demands that they do 'justice' to their wives. According to most Muslim scholars, this is does not prohibit any sort of romantic favoritism, and serves only to make sure that those who take on multiple wives have the minimum necessary financial wherewithal to do so. Muhammad himself (who was exempt from the four-wife limit per the Quran<ref>{{Quran|33|50}}</ref>, married nearly a dozen wives (having eleven at once), and kept concubines) openly pronounced and practiced his preference for Aisha, who was his favorite and youngest wife.{{Quote|{{Quran|4|3}}|And if you fear that you cannot act equitably towards orphans, then marry such women as seem good to you, two and three and four; but if you fear that you will not do justice (between them), then (marry) only one or what your right hands possess; this is more proper, that you may not deviate from the right course.}}Muhammad also restricted his son-in-law Ali (who was also his first cousin) from engaging in polygamy and demanded that he remain monogamous with his daughter Fatima.{{Quote|{{Bukhari|7|62|157}}| Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhrama:
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{{Main|Polygamy in Islam|Dealing Justly with Wives and Orphans}}Islamic law permits men to marry up to four wives (alongside an unlimited number of concubines), while women are restricted to a single husband and are prohibited from any other form of sexual activity. Modern Islamic scholars differ on whether or not a bride may stipulate as a condition of her marriage that her husband remain monogamous. Some argue that this is permissible while others maintain that such a restriction cannot be justified as it impedes on rights that God has given men (where accepted, this practice is implemented through what is known as a ''talaq al-tafwid'', or 'delegated divorce'). {{Quran|4|3}}, which permits Muslim men to take up to four wives, also demands that they do 'justice' to their wives. According to most Muslim scholars, this is does not prohibit any sort of romantic favoritism, and serves only to make sure that those who take on multiple wives have the minimum necessary financial wherewithal to do so. Muhammad himself (who was exempt from the four-wife limit per the Quran<ref>{{Quran|33|50}}</ref>, married nearly a dozen wives (having eleven at once), and kept concubines) openly pronounced and practiced his preference for Aisha, who was his favorite and youngest wife.{{Quote|{{Quran|4|3}}|And if you fear that you cannot act equitably towards orphans, then marry such women as seem good to you, two and three and four; but if you fear that you will not do justice (between them), then (marry) only one or what your right hands possess; this is more proper, that you may not deviate from the right course.}}Muhammad also restricted his son-in-law Ali (who was also his first cousin) from engaging in polygamy and demanded that he remain monogamous with his daughter Fatima.{{Quote|{{Bukhari|7|62|157}}| Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhrama:
 
I heard Allah's Apostle who was on the pulpit, saying, "Banu Hisham bin Al-Mughira have requested me to allow them to marry their daughter to Ali bin Abu Talib, but I don't give permission, '''and will not give permission unless 'Ali bin Abi Talib divorces my daughter in order to marry their daughter, because Fatima is a part of my body, and I hate what she hates to see, and what hurts her, hurts me."'''}}
 
I heard Allah's Apostle who was on the pulpit, saying, "Banu Hisham bin Al-Mughira have requested me to allow them to marry their daughter to Ali bin Abu Talib, but I don't give permission, '''and will not give permission unless 'Ali bin Abi Talib divorces my daughter in order to marry their daughter, because Fatima is a part of my body, and I hate what she hates to see, and what hurts her, hurts me."'''}}
 
====Autonomy of virgins vs. non-virgins====
 
====Autonomy of virgins vs. non-virgins====
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{{Quote|{{Muwatta|28|7|17}}|Yahya related to me from Malik  … that Rifa'a ibn Simwal divorced his wife, Tamima bint Wahb, in the time of the messenger of Allah three times. She then married 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn az-Zubayr and he turned from her and could not consummate the marriage and so he parted from her. Rifa'a wanted to marry her again and it was mentioned to the Messenger of Allah, and he forbade him to marry her. He said, 'She is not ''halal'' for you until she has tasted the sweetness of intercourse.'}}
 
{{Quote|{{Muwatta|28|7|17}}|Yahya related to me from Malik  … that Rifa'a ibn Simwal divorced his wife, Tamima bint Wahb, in the time of the messenger of Allah three times. She then married 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn az-Zubayr and he turned from her and could not consummate the marriage and so he parted from her. Rifa'a wanted to marry her again and it was mentioned to the Messenger of Allah, and he forbade him to marry her. He said, 'She is not ''halal'' for you until she has tasted the sweetness of intercourse.'}}
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=== The marriages of female converts and those with apostate husbands are nullified ===
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===The marriages of female converts and those with apostate husbands are nullified===
 
There is a consensus among classical Islamic scholars that if a woman converts to Islam and her husband fails to, their marriage is nullified.<ref>[https://islamqa.info/en/answers/3408/stories-of-women-who-became-muslim-and-left-their-non-muslim-husbands Stories of Women who Became Muslim and Left their Non-Muslim Husbands - IslamQA.info]</ref><ref name="IndianaLawJournal" /> This ruling is derived, in part, from {{Quran|60|10}}. The classical scholars also ruled that if on the other hand a husband converts to Islam, the marriage remains intact so long as his wife is a Christian or Jew. If a Muslim husband or wife leaves Islam, the marriage to his or her Muslim spouse is immediately annulled, though some held that the marriage is unaffected if only the wife leaves the religion, while others said that she becomes the husband's slave.<ref name="IndianaLawJournal" />
 
There is a consensus among classical Islamic scholars that if a woman converts to Islam and her husband fails to, their marriage is nullified.<ref>[https://islamqa.info/en/answers/3408/stories-of-women-who-became-muslim-and-left-their-non-muslim-husbands Stories of Women who Became Muslim and Left their Non-Muslim Husbands - IslamQA.info]</ref><ref name="IndianaLawJournal" /> This ruling is derived, in part, from {{Quran|60|10}}. The classical scholars also ruled that if on the other hand a husband converts to Islam, the marriage remains intact so long as his wife is a Christian or Jew. If a Muslim husband or wife leaves Islam, the marriage to his or her Muslim spouse is immediately annulled, though some held that the marriage is unaffected if only the wife leaves the religion, while others said that she becomes the husband's slave.<ref name="IndianaLawJournal" />
  
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