Changes

Jump to navigation Jump to search
Line 135: Line 135:  
==Divorce==
 
==Divorce==
   −
====The marriages of female converts and those with apostate husbands are nullified====
+
===Requirements for divorce===
 
  −
There is a consensus among classical Islamic scholars that if a woman converts to Islam and her husband fails to, their marriage is nullified.<ref>[https://islamqa.info/en/answers/3408/stories-of-women-who-became-muslim-and-left-their-non-muslim-husbands Stories of Women who Became Muslim and Left their Non-Muslim Husbands - IslamQA.info]</ref><ref name="IndianaLawJournal" /> This ruling is derived, in part, from {{Quran|60|10}}. The classical scholars also ruled that if on the other hand a husband converts to Islam, the marriage remains intact so long as his wife is a Christian or Jew. If a Muslim husband or wife leaves Islam, the marriage to his or her Muslim spouse is immediately annulled, though some held that the marriage is unaffected if only the wife leaves the religion, while others said that she becomes the husband's slave.<ref name="IndianaLawJournal" />
  −
 
  −
{{Quote|{{Quran|60|10}}|O ye who believe! When believing women come unto you as fugitives, examine them. Allah is Best Aware of their faith. Then, if ye know them for true believers, send them not back unto the disbelievers. They are not lawful for them (the disbelievers), nor are they (the disbelievers) lawful for them. And give them (the disbelievers) that which they have spent (upon them). And it is no sin for you to marry such women when ye have given them their dues. And hold not to the ties of disbelieving women; and ask for (the return of) that which ye have spent; and let them (the disbelievers) ask for that which they have spent. That is the judgment of Allah. He judgeth between you. Allah is Knower, Wise.}}
  −
 
  −
====Requirements for divorce====
   
A wife can ask her husband to divorce her, and if he releases her from the marriage, she makes a payment to him of the ''mahr'' (item or sum of financial worth) she had received or some other agreed payment. This is known as ''khula'''. If he refuses, she can try to get a divorce by judicial decree when there are grounds for which his consent is not required (such as inability or failure to fulfil his marital obligations, desertion, insanity, or cruelty).{{Quote|{{Quran-range|2|228|229}}|Divorced women shall wait concerning themselves for three monthly periods. Nor is it lawful for them to hide what Allah Hath created in their wombs…. And their husbands have the better right to take them back in that period, if they wish for reconciliation. And women shall have rights similar to the rights against them, according to what is equitable; but men have a degree (of advantage) over them. A divorce is only permissible twice: after that, the parties should either hold Together on equitable terms, or separate with kindness. It is not lawful for you, (Men), to take back any of your gifts (from your wives), except when both parties fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah. If ye (judges) do indeed fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah, there is no blame on either of them if she give something for her freedom. These are the limits ordained by Allah; so do not transgress them if any do transgress the limits ordained by Allah, such persons wrong (Themselves as well as others).}}
 
A wife can ask her husband to divorce her, and if he releases her from the marriage, she makes a payment to him of the ''mahr'' (item or sum of financial worth) she had received or some other agreed payment. This is known as ''khula'''. If he refuses, she can try to get a divorce by judicial decree when there are grounds for which his consent is not required (such as inability or failure to fulfil his marital obligations, desertion, insanity, or cruelty).{{Quote|{{Quran-range|2|228|229}}|Divorced women shall wait concerning themselves for three monthly periods. Nor is it lawful for them to hide what Allah Hath created in their wombs…. And their husbands have the better right to take them back in that period, if they wish for reconciliation. And women shall have rights similar to the rights against them, according to what is equitable; but men have a degree (of advantage) over them. A divorce is only permissible twice: after that, the parties should either hold Together on equitable terms, or separate with kindness. It is not lawful for you, (Men), to take back any of your gifts (from your wives), except when both parties fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah. If ye (judges) do indeed fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah, there is no blame on either of them if she give something for her freedom. These are the limits ordained by Allah; so do not transgress them if any do transgress the limits ordained by Allah, such persons wrong (Themselves as well as others).}}
   Line 157: Line 151:  
{{Quote|{{Quran|2|229}}|The divorce is twice, after that either you retain her on reasonable terms or release her with kindness..}}{{Quote|Tafsir Ibn Kathir (abridged), Shaykh Safiur-Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri et al, translators (Riyadh: Darussalam, 2000), vol 1, p. 635.|Divorce is thrice. This honorable ayah abrogated the previous practice in the beginning of Islam, when the man had the right to take back his divorced wife even if he had divorced her a hundred times. This situation was harmful for the wife, and this is why Allah made the divorce thrice, where the husband is allowed to take back his wife after the first and the second divorce… The divorce becomes irrevocable after the third divorce.}}
 
{{Quote|{{Quran|2|229}}|The divorce is twice, after that either you retain her on reasonable terms or release her with kindness..}}{{Quote|Tafsir Ibn Kathir (abridged), Shaykh Safiur-Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri et al, translators (Riyadh: Darussalam, 2000), vol 1, p. 635.|Divorce is thrice. This honorable ayah abrogated the previous practice in the beginning of Islam, when the man had the right to take back his divorced wife even if he had divorced her a hundred times. This situation was harmful for the wife, and this is why Allah made the divorce thrice, where the husband is allowed to take back his wife after the first and the second divorce… The divorce becomes irrevocable after the third divorce.}}
   −
===='Triple-''talaq'''====
+
==='Triple-''talaq'''===
 
If a man divorces his wife three times, his wife can remarry him only if she first marries another man, consummates the marriage with the other man, and then divorces that man. A man may issue multiple divorces at the same time, in what is known as a double- or, more often, triple-talaq (talaq meaning 'divorce' in Arabic, this can entail as little as saying the word 'divorce' two or three times). While this practice is discouraged and even illegal in Islamic law, it has been considered binding by the majority of Islamic scholars.  
 
If a man divorces his wife three times, his wife can remarry him only if she first marries another man, consummates the marriage with the other man, and then divorces that man. A man may issue multiple divorces at the same time, in what is known as a double- or, more often, triple-talaq (talaq meaning 'divorce' in Arabic, this can entail as little as saying the word 'divorce' two or three times). While this practice is discouraged and even illegal in Islamic law, it has been considered binding by the majority of Islamic scholars.  
   Line 166: Line 160:     
{{Quote|{{Muwatta|28|7|17}}|Yahya related to me from Malik  … that Rifa'a ibn Simwal divorced his wife, Tamima bint Wahb, in the time of the messenger of Allah three times. She then married 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn az-Zubayr and he turned from her and could not consummate the marriage and so he parted from her. Rifa'a wanted to marry her again and it was mentioned to the Messenger of Allah, and he forbade him to marry her. He said, 'She is not ''halal'' for you until she has tasted the sweetness of intercourse.'}}
 
{{Quote|{{Muwatta|28|7|17}}|Yahya related to me from Malik  … that Rifa'a ibn Simwal divorced his wife, Tamima bint Wahb, in the time of the messenger of Allah three times. She then married 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn az-Zubayr and he turned from her and could not consummate the marriage and so he parted from her. Rifa'a wanted to marry her again and it was mentioned to the Messenger of Allah, and he forbade him to marry her. He said, 'She is not ''halal'' for you until she has tasted the sweetness of intercourse.'}}
 +
 +
=== The marriages of female converts and those with apostate husbands are nullified ===
 +
There is a consensus among classical Islamic scholars that if a woman converts to Islam and her husband fails to, their marriage is nullified.<ref>[https://islamqa.info/en/answers/3408/stories-of-women-who-became-muslim-and-left-their-non-muslim-husbands Stories of Women who Became Muslim and Left their Non-Muslim Husbands - IslamQA.info]</ref><ref name="IndianaLawJournal" /> This ruling is derived, in part, from {{Quran|60|10}}. The classical scholars also ruled that if on the other hand a husband converts to Islam, the marriage remains intact so long as his wife is a Christian or Jew. If a Muslim husband or wife leaves Islam, the marriage to his or her Muslim spouse is immediately annulled, though some held that the marriage is unaffected if only the wife leaves the religion, while others said that she becomes the husband's slave.<ref name="IndianaLawJournal" />
 +
 +
{{Quote|{{Quran|60|10}}|O ye who believe! When believing women come unto you as fugitives, examine them. Allah is Best Aware of their faith. Then, if ye know them for true believers, send them not back unto the disbelievers. They are not lawful for them (the disbelievers), nor are they (the disbelievers) lawful for them. And give them (the disbelievers) that which they have spent (upon them). And it is no sin for you to marry such women when ye have given them their dues. And hold not to the ties of disbelieving women; and ask for (the return of) that which ye have spent; and let them (the disbelievers) ask for that which they have spent. That is the judgment of Allah. He judgeth between you. Allah is Knower, Wise.}}
    
==Concubinage==
 
==Concubinage==
Line 198: Line 197:  
==Attire==
 
==Attire==
 
===Hijab===
 
===Hijab===
{{Main|Revelation of the Hijab|Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Hijab}}According to Islamic scriptures, Umar bin Al-Khattab, a companion of Muhammad, wished that Muhammad would reveal verses from Allah requiring women to cover and wear the hijab. When Muhammad did not oblige, Umar followed Muhammad's wives out at night and in the dark when they went to go to the toilet and made his presence known, later informing the prophet that he had spied his wives relieving themselves in the dark, and that had his wives been cloaked in a garment such as the hijab, he would not have been able to identify the women as being the prophet's wives. Having heard of this, Muhammad received the revelation that Umar had requested, and the verses of the hijab were sent down from Allah.  
+
{{Main|Revelation of the Hijab|Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Hijab}}According to Islamic scriptures, Umar bin Al-Khattab, a companion of Muhammad, wished that Muhammad would reveal verses from Allah requiring women to cover and wear the hijab. When Muhammad did not oblige, Umar followed Muhammad's wives out at night and in the dark when they went to go to the toilet and made his presence known, later informing the prophet that he had spied his wives relieving themselves in the dark, and that had his wives been cloaked in a garment such as the hijab, he would not have been able to identify the women as being the prophet's wives. Having heard of this, Muhammad received the revelation that Umar had requested, and the verses of the hijab were sent down from Allah. Islamic scholars differ in their interpretation of the verses prescribing female attire. All four madhabs agree by consensus that women must cover their entire body, excluding their hands and face, except for Hanafis, who also permit women to reveal their feet. These clothing requirements only apply in the presence of unrelated men (in addition to some male relations) and during prayers. Hanafis and some other scholars also require women to observe these requirements in the presence non-Muslim women, fearing that these non-Muslim women may describe a Muslim woman's physical features to other men. {{Quote|{{Quran|24|31}}| And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband's fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or the slaves whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments.}}
 
  −
Islamic scholars differ in their interpretation of the verses prescribing female attire. All four madhabs agree by consensus that women must cover their entire body, excluding their hands and face, except for Hanafis, who also permit women to reveal their feet. These clothing requirements only apply in the presence of unrelated men (in addition to some male relations) and during prayers. Hanafis and some other scholars also require women to observe these requirements in the presence non-Muslim women, fearing that these non-Muslim women may describe a Muslim woman's physical features to other men. {{Quote|{{Quran|24|31}}| And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband's fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or the slaves whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments.}}
      
==Value of testimony==
 
==Value of testimony==
Line 213: Line 210:  
==Segregation==
 
==Segregation==
 
===Sex Segregation in Islam===
 
===Sex Segregation in Islam===
{{Main|Sex Segregation in Islam}}In islamic law, unrelated women and men are not allowed to be alone together, have any sort of physical contact, engage in frivolous conversation, look at one another for any reason other than momentarily for the purpose of identification, or pray such that a woman is located in front of or adjacent to any man (women must stand behind men in prayer). Women are also instructed in the Quran to remain at home as much as possible and are required to live and travel under the supervision of a male guardian or relative. Islamic law, as a result, virtually excludes the possibility of male-female friendships. Islamic scholars have traditionally taken these specific limitations on women's presence and participation in the public sphere and have implemented them through more comprehensive policies of sex segregation. While some modern Islamic scholars have argued against broader restrictions, such as gender-segregated classrooms or other society-wide gender segregation measures, on the basis that these broader restrictions are not explicitly mentioned in Islamic scriptures, the majority have embraced what they perceive as common-sense modern-day extensions of the specific rulings and attitudes found throughout Islamic scripture.
+
{{Main|Sex Segregation in Islam}}In Islamic law, unrelated women and men are not allowed to be alone together, have any sort of physical contact, engage in frivolous conversation, look at one another for any reason other than momentarily for the purpose of identification, or pray such that a woman is located in front of or adjacent to any man (women must stand behind men in prayer). Women are also instructed in the Quran to remain at home as much as possible and are required to live and travel under the supervision of a male guardian or relative. Islamic law, as a result, virtually excludes the possibility of male-female friendships. Islamic scholars have traditionally taken these specific limitations on women's presence and participation in the public sphere and have implemented them through more comprehensive policies of sex segregation. While some modern Islamic scholars have argued against broader restrictions, such as gender-segregated classrooms or other society-wide gender segregation measures, on the basis that these broader restrictions are not explicitly mentioned in Islamic scriptures, the majority have embraced what they perceive as common-sense modern-day extensions of the specific rulings and attitudes found throughout Islamic scripture.
 
===Adult suckling permits co-mingling===
 
===Adult suckling permits co-mingling===
 
{{Main|Adult Suckling}}Adult suckling (Arabic: رَضَاعَةُ الْكَبِيرِ), or the act of breastfeeding a male adult, is mentioned in several relied-upon collections of hadiths. According to five hadiths in Sahih Muslim, Muhammad once plainly instructed the daughter (or wife -- sources are unclear) of a companion named Suhail to suckle a "grown-up" freedman named Salim so that Salim would become the daughter's mahram, or a relation whom the daughter could no longer marry, and thus render Salim's cohabitation with the family appropriate and legal. The practice, sanctioned by a number of traditional jurists, is popularly rejected by Islamic scholars today, but was the subject of a controversial fatwa from a scholar at Azhar in 2007. A minority of Islamic scholars continue to endorse the practice.{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|3425}}|'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported that Salim, the freed slave of Abu Hadhaifa, lived with him and his family in their house. She (i.e. the daughter of Suhail) came to Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) and said: Salim has attained (puberty) as men attain, and he understands what they understand, and he enters our house freely, I, however, perceive that something (rankles) in the heart of Abu Hudhaifa, whereupon '''Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said to her: Suckle him and you would become unlawful for him''', and (the rankling) which Abu Hudhaifa feels in his heart will disappear. '''She returned and said: So I suckled him, and what (was there) in the heart of Abu Hudhaifa disappeared'''.}}
 
{{Main|Adult Suckling}}Adult suckling (Arabic: رَضَاعَةُ الْكَبِيرِ), or the act of breastfeeding a male adult, is mentioned in several relied-upon collections of hadiths. According to five hadiths in Sahih Muslim, Muhammad once plainly instructed the daughter (or wife -- sources are unclear) of a companion named Suhail to suckle a "grown-up" freedman named Salim so that Salim would become the daughter's mahram, or a relation whom the daughter could no longer marry, and thus render Salim's cohabitation with the family appropriate and legal. The practice, sanctioned by a number of traditional jurists, is popularly rejected by Islamic scholars today, but was the subject of a controversial fatwa from a scholar at Azhar in 2007. A minority of Islamic scholars continue to endorse the practice.{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|3425}}|'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported that Salim, the freed slave of Abu Hadhaifa, lived with him and his family in their house. She (i.e. the daughter of Suhail) came to Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) and said: Salim has attained (puberty) as men attain, and he understands what they understand, and he enters our house freely, I, however, perceive that something (rankles) in the heart of Abu Hudhaifa, whereupon '''Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said to her: Suckle him and you would become unlawful for him''', and (the rankling) which Abu Hudhaifa feels in his heart will disappear. '''She returned and said: So I suckled him, and what (was there) in the heart of Abu Hudhaifa disappeared'''.}}
Editors, recentchangescleanup, Reviewers
6,456

edits

Navigation menu