Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Orders to Peaceful Muslims to Fight

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Qur'an[edit]

Allah's object also is to purge those that are true in Faith and to deprive of blessing Those that resist Faith.

Allah verily made good His promise unto you when ye routed them by His leave, until (the moment) when your courage failed you, and ye disagreed about the order and ye disobeyed, after He had shown you that for which ye long. Some of you desired the world, and some of you desired the Hereafter. Therefore He made you flee from them, that He might try you. Yet now He hath forgiven you. Allah is a Lord of Kindness to believers.

When ye climbed (the hill) and paid no heed to anyone, while the messenger, in your rear, was calling you (to fight). Therefor He rewarded you grief for (his) grief, that (He might teach) you not to sorrow either for that which ye missed or for that which befell you. Allah is Informed of what ye do.

Then, after grief, He sent down security for you. As slumber did it overcome a party of you, while (the other) party, who were anxious on their own account, thought wrongly of Allah, the thought of ignorance. They said: Have we any part in the cause? Say (O Muhammad): The cause belongeth wholly to Allah. They hide within themselves (a thought) which they reveal not unto thee, saying: Had we had any part in the cause we should not have been slain here. Say: Even though ye had been in your houses, those appointed to be slain would have gone forth to the places where they were to lie. (All this hath been) in order that Allah might try what is in your breasts and prove what is in your hearts. Allah is Aware of what is hidden in the breasts (of men).

Lo! those of you who turned back on the day when the two hosts met, Satan alone it was who caused them to backslide, because of some of that which they have earned. Now Allah hath forgiven them. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Clement.

O ye who believe! Be not as those who disbelieved and said of their brethren who went abroad in the land or were fighting in the field: If they had been (here) with us they would not have died or been killed: that Allah may make it anguish in their hearts. Allah giveth life and causeth death; and Allah is Seer of what ye do.
Qur'an 3:152-156

And was it so, when a disaster smote you, though ye had smitten (them with a disaster) twice (as great), that ye said: How is this? Say (unto them, O Muhammad): It is from yourselves. Lo! Allah is Able to do all things.

That which befell you, on the day when the two armies met, was by permission of Allah; that He might know the true believers;

And that He might know the hypocrites, unto whom it was said: Come, fight in the way of Allah, or defend yourselves. They answered: If we knew aught of fighting we would follow you. On that day they were nearer disbelief than faith. They utter with their mouths a thing which is not in their hearts. Allah is Best Aware of what they hide.

Those who, while they sat at home, said of their brethren (who were fighting for the cause of Allah): If they had been guided by us they would not have been slain. Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Then avert death from yourselves if ye are truthful.
Qur'an 3:165-168

Hast thou not seen those unto whom it was said: Withhold your hands, establish worship and pay the poordue, but when fighting was prescribed for them behold! a party of them fear mankind even as their fear of Allah or with greater fear, and say: Our Lord! Why hast Thou ordained fighting for us? If only Thou wouldst give us respite yet a while! Say (unto them, O Muhammad): The comfort of this world is scant; the Hereafter will be better for him who wardeth off (evil); and ye will not be wronged the down upon a date-stone.

Wheresoever ye may be, death will overtake you, even though ye were in lofty towers. Yet if a happy thing befalleth them they say: This is from Allah; and if an evil thing befalleth them they say: This is of thy doing (O Muhammad). Say (unto them): All is from Allah. What is amiss with these people that they come not nigh to understand a happening?
Qur'an 4:77-78

What aileth you that ye are become two parties regarding the hypocrites, when Allah cast them back (to disbelief) because of what they earned? Seek ye to guide him whom Allah hath sent astray? He whom Allah sendeth astray, for him thou (O Muhammad) canst not find a road.

They long that ye should disbelieve even as they disbelieve, that ye may be upon a level (with them). So choose not friends from them till they forsake their homes in the way of Allah; if they turn back (to enmity) then take them and kill them wherever ye find them, and choose no friend nor helper from among them,
Qur'an 4:88-89

Lo! as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they wrong themselves, (the angels) will ask: In what were ye engaged? They will say: We were oppressed in the land. (The angels) will say: Was not Allah's earth spacious that ye could have migrated therein? As for such, their habitation will be hell, an evil journey's end;

Except the feeble among men, and the women, and the children, who are unable to devise a plan and are not shown a way.
Qur'an 4:97-98
Lo! those who believe, then disbelieve and then (again) believe, then disbelieve, and then increase in disbelief, Allah will never pardon them, nor will He guide them unto a way.

He hath already revealed unto you in the Scripture that, when ye hear the revelations of Allah rejected and derided, (ye) sit not with them (who disbelieve and mock) until they engage in some other conversation. Lo! in that case (if ye stayed) ye would be like unto them. Lo! Allah will gather hypocrites and disbelievers, all together, into hell;

Those who wait upon occasion in regard to you and, if a victory cometh unto you from Allah, say: Are we not with you? and if the disbelievers meet with a success say: Had we not the mastery of you, and did we not protect you from the believers? - Allah will judge between you at the Day of Resurrection, and Allah will not give the disbelievers any way (of success) against the believers.

Lo! the hypocrites seek to beguile Allah, but it is He Who beguileth them. When they stand up to worship they perform it languidly and to be seen of men, and are mindful of Allah but little;
Qur'an 4:140-142
O ye who believe! Obey Allah and His messenger, and turn not away from him when ye hear (him speak).
Be not as those who came forth from their dwellings boastfully and to be seen of men, and debar (men) from the way of Allah, while Allah is surrounding all they do.
When the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease said: Their religion hath deluded these. Whoso putteth his trust in Allah (will find that) lo! Allah is Mighty, Wise.
Lo! the worst of beasts in Allah's sight are the ungrateful who will not believe.
Or deemed ye that ye would be left (in peace) when Allah yet knoweth not those of you who strive, choosing for familiar none save Allah and His messenger and the believers? Allah is Informed of what ye do.
O ye who believe! What aileth you that when it is said unto you: Go forth in the way of Allah, ye are bowed down to the ground with heaviness. Take ye pleasure in the life of the world rather than in the Hereafter? The comfort of the life of the world is but little in the Hereafter.

Allah forgive thee (O Muhammad)! Wherefor didst thou grant them leave ere those who told the truth were manifest to thee and thou didst know the liars?

Those who believe in Allah and the Last Day ask no leave of thee lest they should strive with their wealth and their lives. Allah is Aware of those who keep their duty (unto Him).

They alone ask leave of thee who believe not in Allah and the Last Day, and whose hearts feel doubt, so in their doubt they waver.
Qur'an 9:43-45
Aforetime they sought to cause sedition and raised difficulties for thee till the Truth came and the decree of Allah was made manifest, though they were loth.

The hypocrites, both men and women, proceed one from another. They enjoin the wrong, and they forbid the right, and they withhold their hands (from spending for the cause of Allah). They forget Allah, so He hath forgotten them. Lo! the hypocrites, they are the transgressors.

Allah promiseth the hypocrites, both men and women, and the disbelievers fire of hell for their abode. It will suffice them. Allah curseth them, and theirs is lasting torment.
Qur'an 9:67-68

They swear by Allah that they said nothing (wrong), yet they did say the word of disbelief, and did disbelieve after their Surrender (to Allah). And they purposed that which they could not attain, and they sought revenge only that Allah by His messenger should enrich them of His bounty. If they repent it will be better for them; and if they turn away, Allah will afflict them with a painful doom in the world and the Hereafter, and they have no protecting friend nor helper in the earth.

And of them is he who made a covenant with Allah (saying): If He give us of His bounty we will give alms and become of the righteous.

Yet when He gave them of His bounty, they hoarded it and turned away, averse;

So He hath made the consequence (to be) hypocrisy in their hearts until the day when they shall meet Him, because they broke their word to Allah that they promised Him, and because they lied.
Qur'an 9:74-77
Those who were left behind rejoiced at sitting still behind the messenger of Allah, and were averse to striving with their wealth and their lives in Allah's way. And they said: Go not forth in the heat! Say: The fire of hell is more intense of heat, if they but understood.

Let not their wealth nor their children please thee! Allah purposeth only to punish them thereby in the world, and that their souls shall pass away while they are disbelievers.

And when a surah is revealed (which saith): Believe in Allah and strive along with His messenger, the men of wealth among them still ask leave of thee and say: Suffer us to be with those who sit (at home).

They are content that they should be with the useless and their hearts are sealed, so that they apprehend not.

But the messenger and those who believe with him strive with their wealth and their lives. Such are they for whom are the good things. Such are they who are the successful.

Allah hath made ready for them Gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide. That is the supreme triumph.

And those among the wandering Arabs who had an excuse came in order that permission might be granted them. And those who lied to Allah and His messenger sat at home. A painful doom will fall on those of them who disbelieve.

Not unto the weak nor unto the sick nor unto those who can find naught to spend is any fault (to be imputed though they stay at home) if they are true to Allah and His messenger. Not unto the good is there any road (of blame). Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

Nor unto those whom, when they came to thee (asking) that thou shouldst mount them, thou didst tell: I cannot find whereon to mount you. They turned back with eyes flowing with tears, for sorrow that they could not find the means to spend.

The road (of blame) is only against those who ask for leave of thee (to stay at home) when they are rich. They are content to be with the useless. Allah hath sealed their hearts so that they know not.

They will make excuse to you (Muslims) when ye return unto them. Say: Make no excuse, for we shall not believe you. Allah hath told us tidings of you. Allah and His messenger will see your conduct, and then ye will be brought back unto Him Who knoweth the Invisible as well as the Visible, and He will tell you what ye used to do.

They will swear by Allah unto you, when ye return unto them, that ye may let them be. Let them be, for lo! they are unclean, and their abode is hell as the reward for what they used to earn.

They swear unto you, that ye may accept them. Though ye accept them. Allah verily accepteth not wrongdoing folk.

The wandering Arabs are more hard in disbelief and hypocrisy, and more likely to be ignorant of the limits which Allah hath revealed unto His messenger. And Allah is Knower, Wise.
Qur'an 9:85-97
And among those around you of the wandering Arabs there are hypocrites, and among the townspeople of Al-Madinah (there are some who) persist in hypocrisy whom thou (O Muhammad) knowest not. We, We know them, and We shall chastise them twice; then they will be relegated to a painful doom.
It is not for the townsfolk of Al-Madinah and for those around them of the wandering Arabs so stay behind the messenger of Allah and prefer their lives to his life. That is because neither thirst nor toil nor hunger afflicteth them in the way of Allah, nor step they any step that angereth the disbelievers, nor gain they from the enemy a gain, but a good deed is recorded for them therefor. Lo! Allah loseth not the wages of the good.

In that situation were the Believers tried: they were shaken as by a tremendous shaking.

And behold! The Hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease (even) say: "Allah and His Messenger promised us nothing but delusion!"

Behold! A party among them said: "Ye men of Yathrib! ye cannot stand (the attack)! therefore go back!" And a band of them ask for leave of the Prophet, saying, "Truly our houses are bare and exposed," though they were not exposed they intended nothing but to run away.
Qur'an 33:11-13
Allah already knoweth those of you who hinder, and those who say unto their brethren: "Come ye hither unto us!" and they come not to the stress of battle save a little,
They hold that the clans have not retired (for good); and if the clans should advance (again), they would fain be in the desert with the wandering Arabs, asking for the news of you; and if they were among you, they would not give battle, save a little.
If the hypocrites, and those in whose hearts is a disease, and the alarmists in the city do not cease, We verily shall urge thee on against them, then they will be your neighbours in it but a little while.

And those who believe say: If only a surah were revealed! But when a decisive surah is revealed and war is mentioned therein, thou seest those in whose hearts is a disease looking at thee with the look of men fainting unto death. Therefor woe unto them!

Obedience and a civil word. Then, when the matter is determined, if they are loyal to Allah it will be well for them.
Qur'an 47:20-21
Those of the wandering Arabs who were left behind will tell thee: Our possessions and our households occupied us, so ask forgiveness for us! They speak with their tongues that which is not in their hearts. Say: Who can avail you aught against Allah, if He intend you hurt or intend you profit? Nay, but Allah is ever Aware of what ye do.
There is no blame for the blind, nor is there blame for the lame, nor is there blame for the sick (that they go not forth to war). And whoso obeyeth Allah and His messenger, He will make him enter Gardens underneath which rivers flow; and whoso turneth back, him will He punish with a painful doom.
Hast thou not observed those who are hypocrites, (how) they tell their brethren who disbelieve among the People of the Scripture: If ye are driven out, we surely will go out with you, and we will never obey anyone against you, and if ye are attacked we verily will help you. And Allah beareth witness that they verily are liars.
They will not fight against you in a body save in fortified villages or from behind walls. Their adversity among themselves is very great. Ye think of them as a whole whereas their hearts are divers. That is because they are a folk who have no sense.

O ye who believe! Why say ye that which ye do not?

It is most hateful in the sight of Allah that ye say that which ye do not.

Lo! Allah loveth them who battle for His cause in ranks, as if they were a solid structure.
Qur'an 61:2-4

When the hypocrites come unto thee (O Muhammad), they say: We bear witness that thou art indeed Allah's messenger. And Allah knoweth that thou art indeed His messenger, and Allah beareth witness that the hypocrites indeed are speaking falsely.

They make their faith a pretext so that they may turn (men) from the way of Allah. Verily evil is that which they are wont to do,

That is because they believed, then disbelieved, therefore their hearts are sealed so that they understand not.

And when thou seest them their figures please thee; and if they speak thou givest ear unto their speech. (They are) as though they were blocks of wood in striped cloaks. They deem every shout to be against them. They are the enemy, so beware of them. Allah confound them! How they are perverted!

And when it is said unto them: Come! The messenger of Allah will ask forgiveness for you! they avert their faces and thou seest them turning away, disdainful.

Whether thou ask forgiveness for them or ask not forgiveness for them is all one for them; Allah will not forgive them. Lo! Allah guideth not the evil-living folk.

They it is who say: Spend not on behalf of those (who dwell) with Allah's messenger that they may disperse (and go away from you); when Allah's are the treasures of the heavens and the earth; but the hypocrites comprehend not.
Qur'an 63:1-7

Hadith[edit]

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: One who died but did not fight in the way of Allah nor did he express any desire (or determination) for Jihad died the death of a hypocrite.
Whoever dies but neither fought (i.e., in Allah's cause), nor sincerely considered fighting, will die a death of Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic era of ignorance.

Sira[edit]

Ibn Ishaq[edit]

The surah of the Hypocrites came down because some men sent secret messages to the Nadir Jews when the Apostle besieged them. So Allah sent down, "Have you not considered the Hypocrites who say to their brethren, the People of the Book [Jews], ‘We shall never obey anyone against you. If you are attacked and driven out we will help you. Allah bears witness that they are liars.'
Ishaq:246
"When he went out, Abd Allah bin Ubayy [the man who had advised against leaving town] came back with 300 men, saying, ‘We do not know why we should get ourselves killed here.' So he went back to Medina with the Hypocrites and doubters who followed him. Abd Allah bin Amr said, ‘Allah curse you, enemies of Allah. Allah will let us manage without you.'
Ishaq:372
The day of Uhud was a day of trial, calamity, and heart-searching on which Allah tested the believers. He put the hypocrites on trial, those who professed faith with their tongue and hid unbelief in their hearts. And it was a day in which Allah honored with martyrdom those whom He willed.
Ishaq:391
Then Allah said: ‘Obey Allah and the Apostle and maybe you will attain mercy. Reproaching those who disobeyed the Apostle in the orders he gave them that day [to fight] He said, ‘Vie with one another for forgiveness from your Lord and for the Garden of Bliss prepared for those who fear, a dwelling for those who obey Me and obey My Apostle…. They have wronged themselves by disobedience. But they must not continue disobeying Me for I have prohibited the worship of any but Myself.
Ishaq:393
Allah loves the steadfast [fighters]. How many a prophet has death in battle befallen and how many multitudes with him? They did not show weakness toward their enemies and were not humiliated when they suffered in the fight for Allah and their religion. That is steadfastness, and Allah loves the steadfast.
Ishaq:393
Practice your religion as they did, and be not renegades, turning back on your heels, retreating. Those who retreat and turn away from the battle are losers in this world and in the next.
Ishaq:395
I promise to give you victory over your enemy. You routed them with the sword, killing them by My permission. Then you deserted Me and disobeyed My order and disputed about the order of My Prophet. He told the archers to stay put. But after I showed you what you were desiring, the Meccan wives and property, you desired the spoil and abandoned the order to fight. Only those who fought for religion did not transgress in going after the booty. Allah reproached the hypocrites for running away from their Prophet and paying no heed when he called to them.
Ishaq:396
Show them that you listen to them and ask them for their help. Thereby make the religion of Islam agreeable to them. And when you are resolved in the matter of religion concerning fighting your enemy you will have the advantage.
Ishaq:398
You had smitten your enemy with a double dose of torment at Badr, slaying them and taking prisoners. Yet you disobeyed your Prophet's orders and brought the defeat of Uhud on yourselves. And it was said to them: ‘Come, fight for Allah's sake.' The hypocrites stopped fighting for Allah's sake, eager to survive, fleeing death. So Allah said to His Prophet to make the Muslims wish to fight and to desire battle: ‘And do not think that those who were killed for Allah's sake are dead. Nay, they are alive with their Lord being nourished, glad with the bounty Allah has brought them and rejoicing for those who have not yet joined them that they have nothing to fear or grieve over.
Ishaq:399
Jadd told Muhammad, ‘Will you allow me to stay behind and not tempt me? Everyone knows that I am strongly addicted to women. I'm afraid that I'll see Byzantine women and will not be able to control myself.' The Apostle gave him permission to remain behind. It was about him that Allah sent down: ‘There are some who say: "Give me leave to stay behind and do not tempt me." Surely they have fallen into temptation already and hell encompasses these unbelievers.' (9:49) It was not that he feared the temptation from the Byzantine women. The temptation he had fallen into was greater in that he had hung back from the Apostle and sought to please himself rather than Muhammad. Verily hell awaits him.
Ishaq:602
One of the estranged ones said to another, ‘Don't go out to fight in this heat.' He disliked strenuous war, doubted the truth, and created misgivings about the Apostle. So Allah sent down regarding them, ‘And they said, "Do not go out in this heat." Say, "The fires of hell are hotter. Let them laugh a little now for they will weep a great deal later as a reward for what they did.'" (5:82)
Ishaq:603
Some Bedouins came to apologize for not going into battle, but Allah would not accept their excuses.
Ishaq:603

Al Tabari[edit]

Muhammad turned to see Umm, a pregnant woman, who said, ‘O Messenger! Kill those [Muslims] who flee from you as you kill those who fight you, for they deserve death. Here is my dagger. If any come near me I will rip them up and slit open their belly with it.'
One of the hypocrites, feeling an aversion to battle, being skeptical of the truth, and spreading false rumors about Muhammad, said that they should not go out in the heat. With regard to him, Allah revealed: ‘They said, "Do not march out in the heat." Say, "The heat of hell is far more intense."'

See Also[edit]