Daleel (دليل) is an Arabic word meaning evidence. In regards to Islamic hadith (narrations concerning the actions and orders of Muhammad), Daleel can either be Maudu (fabricated), Da`if (weak), Hasan (good), or Sahih (authentic).
In Islamic Law
Generally in Islamic law, only the authentic (sahih) and good (hasan) hadiths are used in deriving the rules. The weak (da`if) hadiths have no value for the purpose of formulating shari'ah, and the fabricated (Maudu) narrations are not even considered to be hadith at all.
For whatever reason, if a practicing Muslim wants to discount a sahih or hasan narration, the burden of proof is on them to prove why they consider it untrustworthy or not applicable to them. Refusing to accept a narration simply due to not finding it morally agreeable would render the hadith collections in their entirety as useless and contradictory anecdotes. This in turn would make much of the Qur'an incomprehensible, and many of its commands impossible to follow.
Regardless, some Western Muslims and apologists have started to cherry-pick and reject, or at least claim to reject, authentic hadith, in favor of Maudu (fabricated) and da`if (weak) ones. You will come across many popular hadith that are used by Muslims when propagating their faith. Some of these are obvious fabrications which do not have any scriptural sources.
The following are examples of authentic hadith.
Aisha's age, when married and consummated, has been reported in more than a dozen hadith, and the details of the narrations are consistent across collections (ie. Tabari, Ishaq, Muslim, Bukhari, Dawud etc.) ruling out the possibility that the collectors made them up or a specific area had incorporated a cultural practice into Islam.
The lesser worth of a female in Islam is confirmed by both Sahih collections (Bukhari and Muslim), and also by the Qur'an itself.
The following are examples of weak or fabricated hadith.
This originated from the 11th century book, The History of Baghdad, by the Islamic scholar al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, and some contemporary Islamic scholars have concluded that it is not only weak, but fabricated.
This tale has no known source, and is not found in any hadith or Islamic text.
The most often quote version of the Farewell Sermon reportedly does not have a source. You can read the genuine Farewell Sermon text here. Note that in this version Muhammad orders men to beat women, and these orders coincide with the Qur'anic order of wife-beating. He also compares women to domestic animals.
- Hadith - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Hadith
- Muzammil Siddiqi, "May People Act According to a Weak Hadith?", Islam Online, Fatwa Bank, September 27, 2003 (archived from the original), http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=https%3A%2F%2Fweb.archive.org%2Fweb%2F20061216005731%2Fhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.islamonline.net%2Fservlet%2FSatellite%3Fpagename%3DIslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaE%26cid%3D1119503547442&date=2014-03-15.
- Ibrahim B. Syed - 52 Weak Ahadith - Islamic Research Foundation International
- Imam Abdullah Azzam - JOIN THE CARAVAN - ReligionScope