Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Caring for Widows
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In a few verses the Quran sets out instructions for the care of widows, some of the most vulnerable people in society. They are entitled to a quarter or eighth share of inheritance (depending on whether there are children), and are to be maintained for one year after the death of the husband. The Quran also forbids that widows may be inherited as wives.
And those who are taken in death among you and leave wives behind - for their wives is a bequest: maintenance for one year without turning [them] out. But if they leave [of their own accord], then there is no blame upon you for what they do with themselves in an acceptable way. And Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.
And for you is half of what your wives leave if they have no child. But if they have a child, for you is one fourth of what they leave, after any bequest they [may have] made or debt. And for the wives is one fourth if you leave no child. But if you leave a child, then for them is an eighth of what you leave, after any bequest you [may have] made or debt. And if a man or woman leaves neither ascendants nor descendants but has a brother or a sister, then for each one of them is a sixth. But if they are more than two, they share a third, after any bequest which was made or debt, as long as there is no detriment [caused]. [This is] an ordinance from Allah, and Allah is Knowing and Forbearing.
O you who have believed, it is not lawful for you to inherit women by compulsion. And do not make difficulties for them in order to take [back] part of what you gave them unless they commit a clear immorality. And live with them in kindness. For if you dislike them - perhaps you dislike a thing and Allah makes therein much good.
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "The one who looks after a widow or a poor person is like a Mujahid (warrior) who fights for Allah's Cause, or like him who performs prayers all the night and fasts all the day."
"The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to recite a great deal of remembrance, engage little in idle talk, make the prayer long and keep the khutbah short, and he would not refrain from walking with a widow or poor person and tending to their needs."