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==Analysis==
 
==Analysis==
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===Scholars===
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===Context===
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====Ibn Kathir====
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This Surah was revealed in Mecca before Prophet Muhammad become a military leader. Islamic historian al-Zuhri states that during this period “the unbelievers of the Quraysh did not oppose what he [Muhammad] said. If he passed the place where they sat together, they pointed to him and said: 'This young man of the tribe of Abd al-Muttalib proclaims a message from heaven!'” However, “this they continued to do until Allah began to attack their gods…, and until He proclaimed that their fathers who died in unbelief were lost [to hellfire]. Then they began to hate the Prophet and show their enmity to him.
 
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{{Quote|1=[{{Reference archive|1=http://sunnahonline.com/library/the-majestic-quran/434-tasfir-of-chapter-109-surah-al-kafirun-the-disbelievers|2=2013-05-06}} Tafsir of Chapter 109: Surah Al-Kafirun (The Disbelievers)]<BR>Tafsir Ibn Kathir|2=It is narrated by Muslim that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam used to recite this Surah with Surah Al-Ikhlas in two raka'at following tawaf of the Ka'bah; it is also narrated by Muslim that he used to recite them in the two raka'at of fajr prayer; and Imam Ahmad narrates that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam used to recite them in the two raka'at before fajr prayer and in the two raka'at of maghrib prayer.
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It has also been narrated that Surah Al-Kafirun is equivalent to one quarter of the Qur'an. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, also said: "Read: 'Say: 'Oh, you who disbelieve,', then sleep at the end of it because it is freedom from shirk (associating partners with Allah)." This Surah is freedom from shirk and it is an order to purify our faith (for Allah only) and the Words Say: 'Oh you who disbelieve,' includes all those who disbelieve in the world although those specifically addressed are the pagans of the Quraysh. It was said that they proposed that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, worship their gods for a year, then they would worship that which he worshipped (Allah) for a year, and so on. And so this Surah was revealed containing an order to the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, to declare his rejection of all that which they worship, and to say: I do not worship that which you worship, that is, their idols and the partners they associate with Allah.
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Muslim chronicler Baihaki further records (in Proof of Prophecy)<ref>Baihaki, Dala'il al-ncbuwwa, coc. Tornberg 232, fol. 85a</ref> Muhammad’s disciple Amru ibn al-Aas’ testimony of Quraysh leaders’ discussion concerning Muhammad's verbal attacks on them and their religious beliefs: “Never have we had to tolerate from anyone what we have had to tolerate from this man. He slanders our fathers, criticizes our religions and divides our people, and blasphemes our gods. Such grievous things have we tolerated from this man…” Muhammad, who was nearby and hearing this conversation, responded with, “Men of Quraysh! I will surely repay you for this with interest.” The rest of the details are covered by the [[tafsir]] literature:
 
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"Nor do you worship that which I worship," that is, Allah, Alone without partners.
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"Nor will I worship that which you have been worshipping, neither will you worship that which I worship," that is, I will not follow your mode of worship and I will worship only Allah in the way which pleases Him.
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"Neither will you worship that which I worship" means, neither will you follow the Commands of Allah and His prescribed way of worship; indeed you have invented a thing for yourselves, as in His Words: "They follow nothing but their own opinions and the (vain) desires of themselves, and Guidance has already come to them from their Lord." [Al-Qur'an 53:23] And so he rejected all of their shirk, for the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, and all those who follow him worship Allah in the way prescribed by Him; for this reason the testimony of the Muslim is La ilaha illallah, Muhammad ar-Rasulullah – None is worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. And there is no way to worship Him except that which was brought by the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam. The polytheists worship deities besides Allah in a way not permitted by Allah and so He told the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam to say to them: "To you your religion and to me mine", as in His Words: "And if they reject you, then say: 'To me my deeds and to you your deeds and you are innocent of my accounts and I am innocent of yours,' " [Al-Qur'an 10:41] and, "For us our deeds and for you your deeds." [Al-Qur'an 28:55] According to Al-Bukhari your religion means kufr (disbelief) and my religion means Islam.
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Abu 'Abdillah ash-Shafi'i says that the verse "To you your religion and to me mine" shows that the disbelievers are one people ... because disbelief in all its many manifestations has one thing in common – that is, falsity.}}
      
====Maududi====
 
====Maududi====
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Both Fardah bin Naufal and Abdur Rahman bin Naufal have stated that their father, Naufal bin Muawiyah al-Ashjai, said to the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace):"Teach me something which I may recite at the time I go to bed."The Holy Prophet replied: "Recite Qul ya-ayyuhal kafirun to the end and then sleep, for this is immunity from polytheism." (Musnad Ahmad, Aba Da'ud, Tirmidhi, Nasai, Ibn Abi Shaibah, Hakim, Ibn Marduyah, Baihaqi in Ash-Shuab). A similar request was made by Hadrat Jabalah bin Harithah, brother of Hadrat Said bin Harithah, to the Holy Prophet and to him also he gave the same reply. (Musnad Ahmad, Tabarani).}}
 
Both Fardah bin Naufal and Abdur Rahman bin Naufal have stated that their father, Naufal bin Muawiyah al-Ashjai, said to the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace):"Teach me something which I may recite at the time I go to bed."The Holy Prophet replied: "Recite Qul ya-ayyuhal kafirun to the end and then sleep, for this is immunity from polytheism." (Musnad Ahmad, Aba Da'ud, Tirmidhi, Nasai, Ibn Abi Shaibah, Hakim, Ibn Marduyah, Baihaqi in Ash-Shuab). A similar request was made by Hadrat Jabalah bin Harithah, brother of Hadrat Said bin Harithah, to the Holy Prophet and to him also he gave the same reply. (Musnad Ahmad, Tabarani).}}
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====Ibn Kathir====
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{{Quote|1=[{{Reference archive|1=http://sunnahonline.com/library/the-majestic-quran/434-tasfir-of-chapter-109-surah-al-kafirun-the-disbelievers|2=2013-05-06}} Tafsir of Chapter 109: Surah Al-Kafirun (The Disbelievers)]<BR>Tafsir Ibn Kathir|2=It is narrated by Muslim that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam used to recite this Surah with Surah Al-Ikhlas in two raka'at following tawaf of the Ka'bah; it is also narrated by Muslim that he used to recite them in the two raka'at of fajr prayer; and Imam Ahmad narrates that the Messenger of Allah sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam used to recite them in the two raka'at before fajr prayer and in the two raka'at of maghrib prayer.
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It has also been narrated that Surah Al-Kafirun is equivalent to one quarter of the Qur'an. The Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, also said: "Read: 'Say: 'Oh, you who disbelieve,', then sleep at the end of it because it is freedom from shirk (associating partners with Allah)." This Surah is freedom from shirk and it is an order to purify our faith (for Allah only) and the Words Say: 'Oh you who disbelieve,' includes all those who disbelieve in the world although those specifically addressed are the pagans of the Quraysh. It was said that they proposed that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, worship their gods for a year, then they would worship that which he worshipped (Allah) for a year, and so on. And so this Surah was revealed containing an order to the Prophet, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, to declare his rejection of all that which they worship, and to say: I do not worship that which you worship, that is, their idols and the partners they associate with Allah.
 +
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"Nor do you worship that which I worship," that is, Allah, Alone without partners.
 +
 +
"Nor will I worship that which you have been worshipping, neither will you worship that which I worship," that is, I will not follow your mode of worship and I will worship only Allah in the way which pleases Him.
 +
 +
"Neither will you worship that which I worship" means, neither will you follow the Commands of Allah and His prescribed way of worship; indeed you have invented a thing for yourselves, as in His Words: "They follow nothing but their own opinions and the (vain) desires of themselves, and Guidance has already come to them from their Lord." [Al-Qur'an 53:23] And so he rejected all of their shirk, for the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam, and all those who follow him worship Allah in the way prescribed by Him; for this reason the testimony of the Muslim is La ilaha illallah, Muhammad ar-Rasulullah – None is worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. And there is no way to worship Him except that which was brought by the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam. The polytheists worship deities besides Allah in a way not permitted by Allah and so He told the Prophet sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam to say to them: "To you your religion and to me mine", as in His Words: "And if they reject you, then say: 'To me my deeds and to you your deeds and you are innocent of my accounts and I am innocent of yours,' " [Al-Qur'an 10:41] and, "For us our deeds and for you your deeds." [Al-Qur'an 28:55] According to Al-Bukhari your religion means kufr (disbelief) and my religion means Islam.
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Abu 'Abdillah ash-Shafi'i says that the verse "To you your religion and to me mine" shows that the disbelievers are one people ... because disbelief in all its many manifestations has one thing in common – that is, falsity.}}
    
===Summary===
 
===Summary===
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