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==Criticism==
 
==Criticism==
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The need for this declaration arose due to a conflict between [[Islam|Islamic]] and non-Islamic notions of human rights. In 1981 the Iranian representative to the United Nations declared that "the [[Universal Declaration of Human Rights]] represented a secular interpretation of the Judeo-Christian tradition, which could not be implemented by Muslims."<ref>David G. Littman - [{{Reference archive|1=http://www.nationalreview.com/articles/205577/human-rights-and-human-wrongs/david-g-littman|2=2013-01-08}} Human Rights and Human Wrongs] - National Review, January 19, 2003</ref> Similar views were expressed by other countries such as [[Sudan]], [[Iran]], and [[Saudi Arabia]], leading to this alternative declaration being adopted by 45 member states of the OIC. Nevertheless, this declaration has been severely criticized by many, including; the International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU), the Association for World Education (AWE) and the Association of World Citizens (AWC) for its incompatibility with human rights, [[Islam and Women|women's rights]], religious freedom and [[Free Speech|freedom of expression]], by "imposing restrictions on nearly every human right based on Islamic Sharia law."<ref>[{{Reference archive|1=http://web.archive.org/web/20101030053805/http://www.iheu.org/node/3162|2=2013-01-08}} The Cairo Declaration and the Universality of Human Rights] - International Humanist and Ethical Union, May 28, 2008</ref> Furthermore, according to the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ):
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The need for this declaration arose due to a conflict between [[Islam|Islamic]] and non-Islamic notions of [[Human Rights|human rights]]. In 1981 the Iranian representative to the United Nations declared that "the [[Universal Declaration of Human Rights]] represented a secular interpretation of the Judeo-Christian tradition, which could not be implemented by Muslims."<ref>David G. Littman - [{{Reference archive|1=http://www.nationalreview.com/articles/205577/human-rights-and-human-wrongs/david-g-littman|2=2013-01-08}} Human Rights and Human Wrongs] - National Review, January 19, 2003</ref> Similar views were expressed by other countries such as [[Sudan]], [[Iran]], and [[Saudi Arabia]], leading to this alternative declaration being adopted by 45 member states of the OIC. Nevertheless, this declaration has been severely criticized by many, including; the International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU), the Association for World Education (AWE) and the Association of World Citizens (AWC) for its incompatibility with human rights, [[Islam and Women|women's rights]], religious freedom and [[Free Speech|freedom of expression]], by "imposing restrictions on nearly every human right based on Islamic Sharia law."<ref>[{{Reference archive|1=http://web.archive.org/web/20101030053805/http://www.iheu.org/node/3162|2=2013-01-08}} The Cairo Declaration and the Universality of Human Rights] - International Humanist and Ethical Union, May 28, 2008</ref> Furthermore, according to the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ):
    
{{Quote|1=[http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=ODkzM2Q2NGE5ODQzZWI2Y2QyMzhlYjA4NWRlOWYzMzE= Feb. 1992 Joint Statement to the UNCHR]<BR>The International Commission of Jurists and the International Federation for Human Rights|2=1) It gravely threatens the inter-cultural consensus on which the international human rights instruments are based;<BR>2) It introduces, in the name of the defence of human rights, an intolerable discrimination against both non-Muslims and women;<BR>3) It reveals a deliberately restrictive character in regard to certain fundamental rights and freedoms, to the point that certain essential provisions are below the legal standard in effect in a number of Muslim countries;<BR>4) It confirms under cover of the "Islamic Shari'a (Law)" the legitimacy of practices, such as corporal punishment, that attack the integrity and dignity of the human being.}}
 
{{Quote|1=[http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=ODkzM2Q2NGE5ODQzZWI2Y2QyMzhlYjA4NWRlOWYzMzE= Feb. 1992 Joint Statement to the UNCHR]<BR>The International Commission of Jurists and the International Federation for Human Rights|2=1) It gravely threatens the inter-cultural consensus on which the international human rights instruments are based;<BR>2) It introduces, in the name of the defence of human rights, an intolerable discrimination against both non-Muslims and women;<BR>3) It reveals a deliberately restrictive character in regard to certain fundamental rights and freedoms, to the point that certain essential provisions are below the legal standard in effect in a number of Muslim countries;<BR>4) It confirms under cover of the "Islamic Shari'a (Law)" the legitimacy of practices, such as corporal punishment, that attack the integrity and dignity of the human being.}}
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