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{{QuranHadithScholarsIndex}}
 
{{QuranHadithScholarsIndex}}
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The early Islamic tradition portrays two distinct phases to the career of the prophet: the Meccan period, characterized by peaceful exhortations to the pagan people of Mecca to abandon their gods and embrace Islam, and the Medinan period, characterized by expanding conflicts with neighboring Jewish tribes and the pagans of Mecca. According to the [[sira]] and many [[hadith]] traditions, during this period Muhammad both ordered and condoned numerous confrontations and assassinations against his enemies in Mecca and Medina. These military operations constitute [[Jihad]], Arabic for struggle, a holy duty incumbent upon all able-bodied Muslim men to engage in armed struggle to expand the reach of Islam. Men who die "on the path of Allah" will be [[Shaheed (Martyr)|shahids]] who will enjoy [[Houri (Heavenly Virgin)|72 Virgins]] in paradise, and those who live and are victorious will enjoy divinely-approved [[Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Muhammad and Booty|booty]] in this world. The first target of the jihad are the pagans of Mecca and their holy shrine the [[Ka'bah]], however the [[Qur'an]] and many of the sayings of the prophet make clear that jihad is a duty incumbent upon all Muslims until "the religion, all of it, is to Allah" (Qur'an 8:39). Muhammad was the leader of these military campaigns and played the role of supreme commander. He also took part in the battles himself, fighting and even being wounded. Jihad was thus a fundamental part of early Islam according to its own tradition and a central occupation of its prophet.  
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The early Islamic tradition delineates two distinct phases to the career of the prophet: the Meccan period, characterized by peaceful exhortations to the pagan people of Mecca to abandon their gods and embrace Islam, and the Medinan period, characterized by expanding conflicts with neighboring Jewish tribes and the pagans of Mecca. According to the [[sira]] and many [[hadith]] traditions, during this period Muhammad both ordered and condoned numerous confrontations and assassinations against his enemies in Mecca and Medina. These military operations constitute [[Jihad]], Arabic for struggle, a holy duty incumbent upon all able-bodied Muslim men to engage in armed struggle to expand the reach of Islam. Men who die "on the path of Allah" will be [[Shaheed (Martyr)|shahids]] who will enjoy [[Houri (Heavenly Virgin)|72 Virgins]] in paradise, and those who live and are victorious will enjoy divinely-approved [[Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Muhammad and Booty|booty]] in this world. The first target of the jihad are the pagans of Mecca and their holy shrine the [[Ka'bah]], however the [[Qur'an]] and many of the sayings of the prophet make clear that jihad is a duty incumbent upon all Muslims until "the religion, all of it, is to Allah" (Qur'an 8:39). Muhammad was the leader of these military campaigns and played the role of supreme commander. He also took part in the battles himself, fighting and even being wounded. Jihad was thus a fundamental part of early Islam according to its own tradition and a central occupation of its prophet.  
    
==Abu Dawud==
 
==Abu Dawud==
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