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===Punishment===
 
===Punishment===
 
====Wife-beating====
 
====Wife-beating====
{{Main|Wife Beating in Islamic Law|Wife Beating in the Qur'an|Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Wife Beating}}[https://quranx.com/4.34 Quran 4:34] instructs Muslims men to, among other things, beat their wives if they fear disobedience from them. Muslim scholars agree on the permissibility of the practice but disagree on the conditions for and nature of the beating permitted. Some modernist Islamic scholars argue that the term "[[Wife Beating in Islam|and beat them]]" speaks only metaphorically. Some other scholars, including historically, have argued that it means only a simple strike, as with hitting them with a feather or toothpick. The Islamic tradition and scriptures militate against this rereading, which, as a result, has failed to achieve widespread purchase amongst Muslim scholars.
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{{Main|Wife Beating in Islamic Law|Wife Beating in the Qur'an|Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Wife Beating}}[https://quranx.com/4.34 Quran 4:34] instructs Muslims men to, among other things, beat their wives if they fear disobedience from them. Muslim scholars agree on the permissibility of the practice but disagree on the conditions for and nature of the beating permitted. Some modernist Islamic scholars argue that the term "[[Wife Beating in Islamic Law|and beat them]]" speaks only metaphorically. Some other scholars, including historically, have argued that it means only a simple strike, as with hitting them with a feather or toothpick. The Islamic tradition and scriptures militate against this rereading, which, as a result, has failed to achieve widespread purchase amongst Muslim scholars.
 
Muhammad made attempts to limit the degree of violence, saying, "None of you should flog his wife as he flogs a slave and then have sexual intercourse with her in the last part of the day"<ref>{{Bukhari|7|62|132}}</ref>, but also declared "A man should not be asked why he beats his wife."<ref>{{Ibn Majah||3|9|1986}} (graded Hasan)</ref> Hadiths report that Muhammad hit Aisha<ref>{{Quote|{{Muslim|4|2127}}|...He (Muhammad b. Qais) then reported that it was 'A'isha who had narrated this: Should I not narrate to you about myself and about the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him)? We said: Yes. ... he (the Holy Prophet) entered the (house), and said: Why is it, O 'A'isha, that you are out of breath? I said: There is nothing. He said: Tell me or the Subtle and the Aware would inform me. I said: Messenger of Allah, may my father and mother be ransom for you, and then I told him (the whole story). He said: Was it the darkness (of your shadow) that I saw in front of me? I said: Yes. ''He struck me on the chest which caused me pain'', and then said: Did you think that Allah and His Apostle would deal unjustly with you?}}</ref>, who is herself reported to have said, "I have not seen any woman suffering as much as the believing women. Look! Her skin is greener than her clothes!"<ref>"...''so when Allah's Apostle came, 'Aisha said, "I have not seen any woman suffering as much as the believing women. Look! Her skin is greener than her clothes!"...''" - {{Bukhari|7|72|715}}</ref>{{Quote|{{Quran|4|34}}|Men are overseers over women, by reason of that wherewith Allah hath made one of them excel over another, and by reason of that which they expend of their substance. Wherefore righteous women are obedient, and are watchers in husbands absence by the aid and protection of Allah. And those wives whose refractoriness ye fear, exhort them, and avoid them in beds, and beat them; but if they obey you, seek not a way against them; verily Allah is ever Lofty, Grand.}}One of the earliest and arguably most important biographies on Muhammad's life, that of Ibn Ishaq, records the following:
 
Muhammad made attempts to limit the degree of violence, saying, "None of you should flog his wife as he flogs a slave and then have sexual intercourse with her in the last part of the day"<ref>{{Bukhari|7|62|132}}</ref>, but also declared "A man should not be asked why he beats his wife."<ref>{{Ibn Majah||3|9|1986}} (graded Hasan)</ref> Hadiths report that Muhammad hit Aisha<ref>{{Quote|{{Muslim|4|2127}}|...He (Muhammad b. Qais) then reported that it was 'A'isha who had narrated this: Should I not narrate to you about myself and about the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him)? We said: Yes. ... he (the Holy Prophet) entered the (house), and said: Why is it, O 'A'isha, that you are out of breath? I said: There is nothing. He said: Tell me or the Subtle and the Aware would inform me. I said: Messenger of Allah, may my father and mother be ransom for you, and then I told him (the whole story). He said: Was it the darkness (of your shadow) that I saw in front of me? I said: Yes. ''He struck me on the chest which caused me pain'', and then said: Did you think that Allah and His Apostle would deal unjustly with you?}}</ref>, who is herself reported to have said, "I have not seen any woman suffering as much as the believing women. Look! Her skin is greener than her clothes!"<ref>"...''so when Allah's Apostle came, 'Aisha said, "I have not seen any woman suffering as much as the believing women. Look! Her skin is greener than her clothes!"...''" - {{Bukhari|7|72|715}}</ref>{{Quote|{{Quran|4|34}}|Men are overseers over women, by reason of that wherewith Allah hath made one of them excel over another, and by reason of that which they expend of their substance. Wherefore righteous women are obedient, and are watchers in husbands absence by the aid and protection of Allah. And those wives whose refractoriness ye fear, exhort them, and avoid them in beds, and beat them; but if they obey you, seek not a way against them; verily Allah is ever Lofty, Grand.}}One of the earliest and arguably most important biographies on Muhammad's life, that of Ibn Ishaq, records the following:
  
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