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{{QualityScore|Lead=2|Structure=1|Content=3|Language=1|References=3}}'''This article is currently undergoing an overhaul, please do not edit it.'''
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{{QualityScore|Lead=2|Structure=2|Content=3|Language=2|References=3}}'''This article is currently undergoing an overhaul, please do not edit it.'''
    
Women are legally disadvantaged by Islamic law in several in several domains of life. Particularly, women are disadvantaged in matters of sexual, domestic, legal, financial, sartorial, and physical autonomy. According to Islamic legal theory, while not all of Islamic law necessarily has a perceptibly rational basis, legal restrictions on women may be due to their supposed intellectual deficiency, which was pronounced by Muhammad according to Sahih Bukhari.
 
Women are legally disadvantaged by Islamic law in several in several domains of life. Particularly, women are disadvantaged in matters of sexual, domestic, legal, financial, sartorial, and physical autonomy. According to Islamic legal theory, while not all of Islamic law necessarily has a perceptibly rational basis, legal restrictions on women may be due to their supposed intellectual deficiency, which was pronounced by Muhammad according to Sahih Bukhari.
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==Concubinage==
 
==Concubinage==
 
===Permissibility of female sexual slavery===
 
===Permissibility of female sexual slavery===
{{Quote|{{Quran|4|3}}| If ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four; but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one, '''or (a captive) that your right hands possess.'''}}
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In nearly every instance where the Quran commands (men) to be chaste, it repeats that they need not be chaste with their wives and 'those whom their right hand possesses', which is universally acknowledged by historians and Islamic scholars as an Arabic euphemism which refers to one's slaves.{{Quote|{{Quran|23|6}}; see also {{Quran|4|3}} & {{Quran|4|24}}| Those who humble themselves in their prayers; Who avoid vain talk; Who are active in deeds of charity; Who abstain from sex, Except with those joined to them in the marriage bond, '''or (the captives) whom their right hands possess,'''- for (in their case) they are free from blame.}}
 
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{{Quote|{{Quran|4|24}}| Also (prohibited are) women already married, '''except those whom your right hands possess''': Thus hath Allah ordained (Prohibitions) against you.}}
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{{Quote|{{Quran|23|6}}| Those who humble themselves in their prayers; Who avoid vain talk; Who are active in deeds of charity; Who abstain from sex, Except with those joined to them in the marriage bond, '''or (the captives) whom their right hands possess,'''- for (in their case) they are free from blame.}}
      
{{Quote|{{Quran|33|50}}| O Prophet! We have made lawful to thee thy wives to whom thou hast paid their dowers; and '''those whom thy right hand possesses out of the prisoners of war whom Allah has assigned to thee;'''}}
 
{{Quote|{{Quran|33|50}}| O Prophet! We have made lawful to thee thy wives to whom thou hast paid their dowers; and '''those whom thy right hand possesses out of the prisoners of war whom Allah has assigned to thee;'''}}
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Sahih Muslim Chapter 29: IT IS PERMISSIBLE TO HAVE SEXUAL INTERCOURSE WITH A CAPTIVE WOMAN AFTER SHE IS PURIFIED (OF MENSES OR DELIVERY) IN CASE SHE HAS A HUSBAND, HER MARRIAGE IS ABROGATED AFTER SHE BECOMES CAPTIVE
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An entire chapter in Sahih Muslim (chapter 29) is dedicated to the topic and is entitled: 'It is permissible to have sexual intercourse with a captive [i.e. slave] woman after she is purified (of menses or delivery). In case she has a husband, her marriage is abrogated after she becomes captive.'
    
{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|3432}}|...Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (Allah her pleased with him) reported that at the Battle of Hanain Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent an army to Autas and encountered the enemy and fought with them. Having overcome them and taken them captives, the Companions of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) seemed to refrain from having intercourse with captive women because of their husbands being polytheists. Then Allah, Most High, sent down regarding that:" And women already married, except those whom your right hands possess (iv. 24)" (i. e. they were lawful for them when their 'Idda period came to an end).}}
 
{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|3432}}|...Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (Allah her pleased with him) reported that at the Battle of Hanain Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent an army to Autas and encountered the enemy and fought with them. Having overcome them and taken them captives, the Companions of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) seemed to refrain from having intercourse with captive women because of their husbands being polytheists. Then Allah, Most High, sent down regarding that:" And women already married, except those whom your right hands possess (iv. 24)" (i. e. they were lawful for them when their 'Idda period came to an end).}}
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{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|3371}}|...Abu Sirma said to Abu Sa'id al Khadri (Allah he pleased with him): 0 Abu Sa'id, did you hear Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) mentioning al-'azl? He said: Yes, and added: We went out with Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) on the expedition to the Bi'l- Mustaliq and took captive some excellent Arab women; and we desired them, for we were suffering from the absence of our wives, (but at the same time) we also desired ransom for them. So we decided to have sexual intercourse with them but by observing 'azl (Withdrawing the male sexual organ before emission of semen to avoid conception). But we said: We are doing an act whereas Allah's Messenger is amongst us; why not ask him? So we asked Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), and he said: It does not matter if you do not do it, for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will be born.}}
 
{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|3371}}|...Abu Sirma said to Abu Sa'id al Khadri (Allah he pleased with him): 0 Abu Sa'id, did you hear Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) mentioning al-'azl? He said: Yes, and added: We went out with Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) on the expedition to the Bi'l- Mustaliq and took captive some excellent Arab women; and we desired them, for we were suffering from the absence of our wives, (but at the same time) we also desired ransom for them. So we decided to have sexual intercourse with them but by observing 'azl (Withdrawing the male sexual organ before emission of semen to avoid conception). But we said: We are doing an act whereas Allah's Messenger is amongst us; why not ask him? So we asked Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), and he said: It does not matter if you do not do it, for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will be born.}}
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"W''hat the right hand possesses"'' is a common euphemism in Arabic for a slave or slaves. Ibn Timiyya says in volume 32, p.7 the following:
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Ibn Taymiyyah writes:
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{{quote||'''"It is lawful for a Muslim to (have sex) with as many as he wishes of those whom his right hand possesses,''' … Muslims are not prohibited from having more than four concubines provided that no two sisters are among them."}}
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{{quote|''Majmoo al-Fatawa'' (''Collected Fatwas''), vol. 32, p. 7|'''"It is lawful for a Muslim to (have sex) with as many as he wishes of those whom his right hand possesses,''' … Muslims are not prohibited from having more than four concubines provided that no two sisters are among them."}}
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In the same volume (page 89), Ibn Timiyya says boastfully:
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{{quote|''Majmoo al-Fatawa'' (''Collected Fatwas''), vol. 89, p. 7|'''"Islam has made it lawful to its followers to have sex through marriage as well as with what the right hand possesses,''' while (for Jews and Christians) they may have sex through marriage only. They are not (allowed to have sex with) what their hand possesses.}}
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{{quote||'''"Islam has made it lawful to its followers to have sex through marriage as well as with what the right hand possesses,''' while (for Jews and Christians) they may have sex through marriage only. They are not (allowed to have sex with) what their hand possesses.}}
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====Permissibility of raping captives and slaves====
 
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{{Main|Rape in Islamic Law|Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Rape|Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Al-'Azl}}The Qur'an and hadith and, subsequently, Islamic law, all allow men to rape their female slaves, wives ({{Quran|2|223}}), and women captured in war. The rape of other then one's slaves is, however, prohibited. Still, several hadiths describe the rape of captive women by Muhammad's companions and his failure to condemn such actions when made known to him.
====Prohibition on male sexual slavery====
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Qur'an chapter 4 verse 24 discusses lawful and forbidden women for Muslim men.{{Quote|{{Quran|4|24}}|Also (forbidden are) women already married, except those whom your right hands possess. Thus has Allah ordained for you. All others are lawful, provided you seek them from your property, desiring chastity, not fornication. So with those among them whom you have enjoyed, give them their required due, but if you agree mutually after the requirement (has been determined), there is no sin on you. Surely, Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.}}What we see in the beginning of this verse as “forbidden” refers to sexual intercourse. The Qur'an dictates, women already married are forbidden for Muslims except those whom their right hands possess (sex slaves). It is obvious from this verse, a Muslim can have sexual relations with his slave-woman.
In a tafsir explaining surah 23 verses 1-7 of the Qur'an, Abul A'la Maududi explains that women are not allowed to have sex with male slaves and captives.
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{{Quote|[[w:Abul A'la Maududi|Abul A'la Maududi]]. [http://www.englishtafsir.com/Quran/23/index.html Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an]. Archived at [http://www.webcitation.org/6mJ45IZ0w]. |"Most certainly those Believers have attained true success who perform their Salat with humility: who refrain from vain things. who spend their Zakat dues in appropriate ways. who guard their private parts scrupulously. except with regard to their wives and those women who are legally in their possession, for in that case they shall not be blame-worthy. but those who go beyond this (in lust for sexual desires), shall be transgressors[7]"
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Al-'Azl, (العزل) also known as ''coitus interruptus'', is the practice of having sexual intercourse with a woman but withdrawing the penis before ejaculation. This was an important topic for Muhammad and his companions as evidenced by the abundance of Hadith material on the subject. According to Muhammad, when raping a captive, it's better if you do not pull out the penis at the end.{{Quote|1={{Bukhari|3|34|432}}|2=Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: that while he was sitting with Allah's Apostle he said, "O Allah's Apostle! '''We get female captives as our share of booty, and we are interested in their prices, what is your opinion about coitus interruptus'''?" The Prophet said, "Do you really do that? It is better for you not to do it. No soul that which Allah has destined to exist, but will surely come into existence."}}
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7: This is a parenthesis which is meant to remove the common misunderstanding that sex desire is an evil thing in itself and satisfying it even in lawful ways is not desirable, particularly for the righteous and godly people. This misunderstanding would have been strengthened had it been only said that the Believers guard their private parts scrupulously, because it would have implied that they live unmarried lives, away from the world, like monks and hermits.  
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==== Prohibition on male sexual slavery ====
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In his exegesis of the Qur'an, Abul A'la Maududi explains that women are not allowed to have sex with male slaves and captives.
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{{Quote|[[w:Abul A'la Maududi|Abul A'la Maududi]]. [http://www.englishtafsir.com/Quran/23/index.html Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an 23:1-7]. Archived at [http://www.webcitation.org/6mJ45IZ0w]. |"Most certainly those Believers have attained true success who perform their Salat with humility: who refrain from vain things. who spend their Zakat dues in appropriate ways. who guard their private parts scrupulously. except with regard to their wives and those women who are legally in their possession, for in that case they shall not be blame-worthy. but those who go beyond this (in lust for sexual desires), shall be transgressors" [...] <br>
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7: This is a parenthesis which is meant to remove the common misunderstanding that sex desire is an evil thing in itself and satisfying it even in lawful ways is not desirable, particularly for the righteous and godly people. This misunderstanding would have been strengthened had it been only said that the Believers guard their private parts scrupulously, because it would have implied that they live unmarried lives, away from the world, like monks and hermits. [...] <br>
    
The law prescribed in the parenthesis is only applicable to men as is clear from the Text. A woman in the time of Hadrat `Umar did not understand this fine point of the language and indulged in sexual gratification with her slave. When her case was brought before the consultative body of the Companions, they gave the unanimous decision: "She misinterpreted the Book of Allah.".... The wisdom of why '''the slave has been forbidden to the woman''' is that he can only satisfy her sexual desire but cannot become guardian and governor of herself and her household, which leaves a serious flaw in the family life.}}
 
The law prescribed in the parenthesis is only applicable to men as is clear from the Text. A woman in the time of Hadrat `Umar did not understand this fine point of the language and indulged in sexual gratification with her slave. When her case was brought before the consultative body of the Companions, they gave the unanimous decision: "She misinterpreted the Book of Allah.".... The wisdom of why '''the slave has been forbidden to the woman''' is that he can only satisfy her sexual desire but cannot become guardian and governor of herself and her household, which leaves a serious flaw in the family life.}}
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====Permissibility of raping captives and slaves====
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{{Main|Rape in Islam|Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Rape}}The Qur'an and hadith and, subsequently, Islamic law, all allow men to rape their female slaves, wives ({{Quran|2|223}}), and women captured in war. The rape of other then one's slaves is, however, prohibited. Still, several hadiths describe the rape of captive women by Muhammad's companions and his failure to condemn such actions when made known to him.
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Qur'an chapter 4 verse 24 discusses lawful and forbidden women for Muslim men.{{Quote|{{Quran|4|24}}|Also (forbidden are) women already married, except those whom your right hands possess. Thus has Allah ordained for you. All others are lawful, provided you seek them from your property, desiring chastity, not fornication. So with those among them whom you have enjoyed, give them their required due, but if you agree mutually after the requirement (has been determined), there is no sin on you. Surely, Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.}}What we see in the beginning of this verse as “forbidden” refers to sexual intercourse. The Qur'an dictates, women already married are forbidden for Muslims except those whom their right hands possess (sex slaves). It is obvious from this verse, a Muslim can have sexual relations with his slave-woman.
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====Coitus Interruptus====
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{{Main|Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Al-'Azl}}Al-'Azl, (العزل) also known as ''coitus interruptus'', is the practice of having sexual intercourse with a woman but withdrawing the penis before ejaculation. This was an important topic for Muhammad and his companions as evidenced by the abundance of Hadith material on the subject.
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According to Muhammad, when raping a captive, it's better if you do not pull out the penis at the end.{{Quote|1={{Bukhari|3|34|432}}|2=Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: that while he was sitting with Allah's Apostle he said, "O Allah's Apostle! '''We get female captives as our share of booty, and we are interested in their prices, what is your opinion about coitus interruptus'''?" The Prophet said, "Do you really do that? It is better for you not to do it. No soul that which Allah has destined to exist, but will surely come into existence."}}
   
===Prohibition on forcing slaves into prostitution===
 
===Prohibition on forcing slaves into prostitution===
  
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