List of expeditions of Muhammad

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The List of expeditions of Muhammad, also includes a list of battles by Muhammad's order and comprises information about casualties, objectives, and nature of the military expeditions ordered by Muhammad, as well as the primary sources which mention the Battles.

List of Battles

Key/Legend

Template:Legend2 Template:Legend2

No. Name Date Muhammad's order and reason for expedition Casualties description Notable primary sources
1 Al Is Caravan Raid 623 [1][2][3][4] Raid Quraysh caravan to relieve themselves from poverty[5]
2 Batn Rabigh Caravan Raid 623 [1][2][3][6] Raid Quraysh caravan to relieve themselves from poverty[4][5]
  • None, caravan left [2]
3 Kharar Caravan Raid May & June 623 [1][2][3][4][8] Attack a Quraysh caravan[4]
  • None, caravan left[2]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[7]
4 Invasion of Waddan August 623 [8][9] Attack a Quraysh caravan which included camels[4][8]
  • Unknown
5 Invasion of Buwat October 623 [11][12] Raid a Quraysh caravan which included 200 camels[13][14]
  • None, caravan left [2]
6 Invasion of Dul Ashir December 623 [15] Attack a Quraysh caravan[6]
7 Invasion of Safwan 623 [15] To pursue Kurz ibn Jabir al-Fihri who led a small group that looted Muhammad's animals[13]
  • None, enemy escaped [13]
8 Nakhla Raid January 624[15] Attack a Quraysh caravan and gather information[6][18]
  • Muslims: 0 Casualties
  • Non-Muslims: 1 killed, 2 captured [18]
9 Battle of Badr March 624 [22] According to the Muslim scholar Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri the purpose was to raid a Quraysh caravan carrying 50,000 gold Dinars guarded by 40 men, and to further the Muslim political, economic and military position.[23] The Muslim scholar Ibn Kathir also said the purpose of this battle was to capture Quraysh war booty/spoils and make Islam dominant by raiding the Quraysh Caravan, he claimed Muhammad encouraged the Muslims by saying: "This is the caravan of Quraysh carrying their property, so march forth to intercept it, Allah might make it as war spoils for you".[24]
  • Muslims: 14 killed
  • Non-Muslims: 70 killed, 30-47 captured[25]
10 Assassination of Asma bint Marwan January 624 [29] Kill 'Asma' bint Marwan for opposing Muhammad with poetry and for provoking others to attack him[30]
  • Asma' bint Marwan assassinated[28]
11 Assassination of Abu Afak February 624 [32] Kill Abu Afak for opposing Muhammad through poetry[31]
  • Abu Afak assassinated[31]
12 Invasion of Sawiq 624 [35] Pursue Abu Sufyan for killing 2 Muslims and burning of palm trees[36]
  • 2 Muslims killed[36]
13 Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa February 624 [39] Attack the Banu Qaynuqa Jews for allegedly breaking the treaty known as the Constitution of Medina[40] by pinning the clothes of a Muslim woman, which lead to her being stripped naked[41]
  • Unknown, some revenge killings[41]
14 Al Kudr Invasion May 624 [48] Surprise attack on the Banu Salim tribe for allegedly plotting to attack Medina[49]
  • Unknown
15 Invasion of Thi Amr September 624 [51][52] Raid the Banu Muharib and Banu Talabah tribes after he received intelligence that they were allegedly going to raid the outskirts of Medina[53]
  • 1 captured by Muslims[53]
16 Assassination of Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf September 624 [55] According to Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad ordered his followers to kill Ka'b because he "had gone to Mecca after Badr and inveighed against Muhammad. He also composed verses in which he bewailed the victims of Quraysh who had been killed at Badr. Shortly afterwards he returned to Medina and composed amatory verses of an insulting nature about the Muslim women".[56][57]
  • Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf assassinated[57]
17 Invasion of Bahran 624 [58] Raid the Banu Sulaym tribe,[59] no reason given in primary sources ( Possibly a continuation of the previous war)
18 Nejd Caravan Raid 624 [58] Intercept and capture Quraysh caravan and its goods[58]
  • 3 captured by Muslims(including guide) [58]
19 Expedition of 'Abdullah ibn 'Atik December 624 [63] Kill Abu Rafi' ibn Abi Al-Huqaiq for mocking Muhammad with his poetry and for helping the troops of the Confederates by providing them with money and supplies[64]
  • Abu Rafi assassinated[64]
20 Battle of Uhud March 23 625 [67][68] Defend against Quraysh attack[69]
  • Muslims: 70 killed
  • Non-Muslims: 22 or 37 Killed[69]
21 Invasion of Hamra al-Asad March 625[73] Prevent Quraysh attack on weakened Muslim army[74]
  • Muslims: 2 spies killed
  • Non-Muslims: 3 beheaded, 3 captured[74]
22 Expedition of Qatan June 625 [73] Attack Banu Asad bin Khuzaymah tribe after receiving intelligence that they were allegedly plotting to attack Medina[81]
  • 3 captured by Muslims[82]
23 Expedition of Abdullah Ibn Unais 625 [83] Kill Khalid bin Sufyan, because there were reports he considered an attack on Madinah and that he was inciting the people on Nakhla or Uranah to fight Muslims[83]
  • Khalid ibn Sufyan assassinated[83]
24 Expedition of Al Raji 625 [88] Some men requested that Muhammad send instructors to teach them Islam,[88] but the men were bribed by the two tribes of Khuzaymah who wanted revenge for the assassination of Khalid bin Sufyan by Muhammad's followers.[89] According to William Montgomery Watt, the seven men Muhammad sent may have been spies for Muhammad and instructors for Arab tribes.[90] Watt's claim that they were spies and not missionaries is mentioned in the Sunni hadith collection Sahih al-Bukhari [91]
25 The Mission of Amr bin Umayyah al-Damri 627 [94] Amr bin Umayyah al-Damri sent to assassinate Abu Sufyan[95] to avenge Khubyab bin Adi.[96] According to the Muslim scholar Safiur Rahman Mubarakpuri, the Quraysh ordered Khubyab bin Adi to be crucified by Uqba bin al-Harith during the Expedition of Al Raji because he had killed Uqba bin al-Harith's father.[97]
  • 3 polytheists killed by Muslims[95]
  • 1 captured[98]
  • Tabari, Volume 7, The foundation of the community[99]
26 Expedition of Bir Maona July 625 [100] Muhammad sends Missionaries at request of some men from the Banu Amir tribe,[101] but the Muslims are killed as revenge for the assassination of Khalid bin Sufyan by Muhammad's followers[89]
  • Muslims: 70 killed[101]
  • Non-Muslims: 2 killed[101]
27 Invasion of Banu Nadir August 625 [104] Muslim scholars (like Mubarakpuri) claim, the Banu Nadir were attacked because the Angel Gabriel told Muhammad that some of the Banu Nadir wanted to assassinate him.[105] Watt contends it was in response to the tribe’s criticism of Muhammad and doubts they wanted to assassinate Muhammad. He says "it is possible that the allegation was no more than an excuse to justify the attack".[106]
  • Unknown
28 Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa October 625[110] or 627[108] Attack the Banu Ghatafan tribe, because he received news that they were assembling at Dhat al-Riqa with a suspicious purpose[108]
  • Many women captured by Muslims[111]
29 Invasion of Badr January 626[3] or March 625[94][113] Attack the Quraysh led by Abu Sufyan, both sides were preparing to fight each other again at Badr[114]
30 Invasion of Dumatul Jandal July 626 [116] Invade Duma, because Muhammad received intelligence that some tribes there were involved in highway robbery and preparing to attack Medina itself[117]
  • None, Ghatafan tribe flees[117]
31 Battle of the Trench February 627 [120] Muhammad orders Muslims to defend Medina from attack, after Banu Nadir and Banu Qaynuqa tribes form an alliance with the Quraysh to attack him as revenge for expelling them from Medina.[121][122] The Muslim scholar Ibn Kathir states: "The reason why the Confederates came was that a group of the leaders of the Jews of Banu Nadir, whom the Messenger of Allah had expelled from Al-Madinah to Khaybar, including Sallam bin Abu Al-Huqayq, Sallam bin Mishkam and Kinanah bin Ar-Rabi`, went to Makkah where they met with the leaders of Quraysh and incited them to make war against the Prophet" [123]
  • Muslims: light casualties
  • Non-Muslims: extremely heavy casualties[124]
32 Invasion of Banu Qurayza February–March 627 [126]

Attack Banu Qurayza because according to Muslim tradition he had been ordered to do so by the angel Gabriel.[76][77][78][127][128][129] Al-Waqidi claims Muhammad had a treaty with the tribe which was torn apart. Stillman and Watt deny the authenticity of al-Waqidi.[130] Al-Waqidi has been frequently criticized by Muslim writers, who claim that he is unreliable.[131][132]

  • Muslims: 2 killed[127]
  • Non-Muslims:
  1. 600-900 beheaded (Tabari, Ibn Hisham)[127][128][133]
  2. All Males and 1 woman beheaded (Sunni Hadith)[134][135]
33 Expedition of Muhammad ibn Maslamah June 627 [139] Attack Bani Bakr sept for booty/spoils[140][141][142]
34 Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan 627 [144] Attack Banu Assad bin Qhuzayma tribe to capture booty/spoils[144][145]
  • None, Banu Asad tribe flees[146]
35 First Raid on Banu Thalabah August 627 [3][94][147] Attack the Banu Thalabah tribe, because he suspected they would be tempted to steal his camels[146]
36 Second Raid on Banu Thalabah August 627 [3][94][147] Attack the Banu Thalabah tribe, as revenge for the 1st failed raid on them in which 9 Muslims died[146]
  • 1 injured man captured by Muslims[146]
37 Invasion of Banu Lahyan September 627 [3][94] Attack the Banu Lahyan tribe to get revenge for the killing of 10 Muslims in the Expedition of Al Raji[146]
  • None, Banu Lahyan tribe flees[146]
38 Raid on al-Ghabah

627[152]

Initially no orders given by Muhammad, Amr ibn al-Akwa pursues Uyanah bin Hisn Al-Fazari after seeing him seize 20 of Muhammad's camels while calling for help.[152] Muhammad then heard the calls and sent reinforcements.[153]
  • 1 Muslim shepherd killed, and his wife captured[152]
39 Expedition of Dhu Qarad September 627 [3][94] To attack a group of men led by Uyanah bin Hisn Al-Fazari, who raided the outskirts of the Medina; and seized 20 of Muhammad's milch camels[155]
  • Muslims: 4 killed
  • Non-Muslims: 4 Killed [156]
40 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Al-Jumum) 627 [146] To raid al-Jumum and capture booty/spoils[158]
  • Some captured by Muslims[146]
41 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Al-Is) September 627 [160] Attack Quraysh caravan and loot their camels[146][161]
42 Third Raid on Banu Thalabah 627 [94] To raid Banu Thalabah and capture their camels as booty[162]
  • None, Banu Thalabah tribe flees[162]
43 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Hisma) October 627 [94] Attack robbers who attacked Muhammad's envoy, Dhiyah bin Khalifah al-Kalbi[164]
  • Heavy casualties inflicted, 100 women and boys captured by Muslims[164]
44 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Wadi al-Qura) December 627 [166] Survey the area and to monitor the movements of the enemies of Muhammad[162]
45 Invasion of Banu Mustaliq December 627 [94] Attack Banu Mustaliq because Muhammad received some rumours that the Banu Mustaliq were preparing to attack him.[168] The Banu Mustaliq also believed that Muhammad was preparing to attack them, both sides sent spies to confirm the reports, but the Banu Mustaliq spy was killed by Muslims, and then Muhammad told his followers to prepare for war[169]
  • Muslims: 1 killed
    (friendly fire)
  • Non-Muslims: 10 killed, 200 families taken captive[169][170]
46 Expedition of Abdur Rahman bin Auf December 627 [94] 700 men sent to get the Christian king Al-Asbagh and his people to convert to Islam within 3 days or pay Jizyah[172][173]
47 Expedition of Fidak 627 [94] Attack the Bani Sa‘d bin Bakr tribe, because Muhammad received intelligence they were planning to help the Jews of Khaybar[176]
  • 1 captured by Muslims, rest of tribe flees[177]
48 Second Expedition of Wadi al-Qura January 628 [94] Raid the inhabitants of Wadi al-Qura for revenge, because a number of Muslims were killed when they tried to raid the inhabitants previously, but failed[178]
  • 30 horsemen,[179] and 1 women killed by Muslims[180]
  • Many captured by Muslims[180]
49 Expedition of Kurz bin Jabir Al-Fihri February 628 [94] Capture 8 men who came to him to convert to Islam, but then killed one Muslim and drove off with Muhammad's camels[181]
  • Muslims: 1 killed
  • Non-Muslims: 8 tortured to death[181][182]
50 Expedition of Abdullah ibn Rawaha February 628 [94] Kill Al-Yusayr ibn Rizam because Muhammad heard that his group was preparing to attack him[184][185]
51 Treaty of Hudaybiyyah March 628 [189] March to Mecca to perform the lesser pilgrimage (Umrah)[190]
  • None
52 Conquest of Fidak May 628 [192] To force the Jews of Fidak to surrender their properties and wealth (accepting his terms) or be attacked[137]
  • None
53 Battle of Khaybar May/June 628 [195] To attack the Jews of Khaybar for booty to distribute to his followers whose expectations had recently been disappointed (according to Watt)[196]
  • Muslims: 16-18 killed
  • Jews: 93 killed[197]
54 Third Expedition of Wadi al Qura May 628 [192] Attack the Jews of Wadi al Qura to conquer their land[200]
55 Expedition of Umar ibn al-Khatab December 628 [94] Attack Banu Hawazin for booty[202]
56 Expedition of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq December 628 [94] Attack the Banu Kilab tribe[203]
  • Many killed[203]
    (at least 7 families killed[204]) by Muslims
57 Expedition of Bashir Ibn Sa’d al-Ansari (Fadak) December 628 [206] Attack for Banu Murrah tribe to capture booty [207][208]
  • Muslims: 29 killed,[185] Bashir wounded[209]
  • Non-Muslims: large amount killed[185]
58 Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Mayfah) January 629 [206] Attack the Banu ‘Awâl and Banu Thalabah tribes to capture booty (camels and flock)[210]
  • Some killed by Muslims[185]
59 Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Fadak) May 629[213] Attack the Banu Murrah as revenge for the killing of Muslims in a failed raid carried out by Muslims[214]
  • Everyone who came into contact with Muslims were killed[214]
60 Expedition of Bashir Ibn Sa’d al-Ansari (Yemen) February 629 [206] Attack a large group of polytheists who Muhammad believed gathered to raid the outskirts of Madinah[185]
  • 1 killed, 2 captured by Muslims[216]
61 Expedition of Ibn Abi Al-Awja Al-Sulami April 629[213] 50 men sent to demand the allegiance of the Banu Sualym tribe to Islam[217]
62 Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Al-Kadid) May 629 [213] To raid the Banu al-Mulawwih tribe for booty[185][215]
  • Large amount killed,[185] and 1 captured by Muslims[215]
63 Raid on Banu Layth June 629 [126] Attack Banu Layth, camels plundered[214]
  • "We killed the warriors and took the children prisoner." No numbers given, but the Muslims were "about ten men".
  • Al-Waqidi, Kitab al-Maghazi. Translated by Faizer, R., Ismail, A., & Tayob, A. (2011). The Life of Muhammad, pp. 369–370. London & New York: Routledge.
64 Expedition of Shuja ibn Wahb al-Asadi June 629 [213] Raid the Banu Amir tribe to plunder camels for booty[220][221]
  • Unknown
65 Expedition of Ka’b ibn 'Umair al-Ghifari June 629 [213] Attack Banu Quda‘a tribe because Muhammad received intelligence that they had gathered a large number of men to attack the Muslim positions[218]
  • 14 Muslims killed, 1 wounded[218]
66 Battle of Mu'tah August 629 [213] Raid the inhabitants of Mut'ah, because one of Muhammad's messenger was killed by the chief of Ma’ab or Mu’tah[224]
  • Muslims: 12 killed
  • Non-Muslims: Unknown[224]
67 Expedition of Amr ibn al-As September 629 [226] To subjugate the Banu Qudah tribe, and incite the tribes friendly to Muhammad to attack them, because of a rumour that the Banu Qudah were preparing to attack Medina and to improve Muslim prestige[227][228]
  • None, Qudah tribe flees[229]
68 Expedition of Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah October 629 [230] Attack the tribe of Juhaynah and raid a caravan[231][232][233]
69 Expedition of Abi Hadrad al-Aslami 629 [234][235] To kill Rifa’ah bin Qays, because Muhammad heard they were allegedly enticing the people of Qais to fight him[235]
70 Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari (Khadirah) November[238] or Dec 629[231] Attack the Ghatafan tribe because he heard that they were amassing troops and were still outside the "domain of Islam"[239]
  • Some killed, some captured by Muslims[239]
71 Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab'i al-Ansari (Batn Edam) December 629 [238] To divert the attention from his intention of attacking Mecca, he despatched 8 men to attack a caravan passing through Edam[241]
72 Conquest of Mecca December 629 [238] To Conquer Mecca[245]
  • 5 killed by Muslims:[246]
  1. Abdullah b. Khatal[247]
  2. Fartana (slave girl)[248]
  3. Huwayrith b. Nafidh[246]
  4. Miqyas b. Subabah[246]
  5. Harith b. Talatil[246]
73 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Nakhla) December 629 [250] To destroy al-Uzza because Muhammad wanted "the submission of neighbouring tribes"[251] and wanted to eliminate "symbols reminiscent of pre-Islamic practices"[252]
74 Raid of Amr ibn al-As December 629 [250] To destroy Suwa because Muhammad wanted "the submission of neighbouring tribes"[251] and wanted to eliminate "symbols reminiscent of pre-Islamic practices"[252]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[255]
75 Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali December 629 [250] To destroy Manat because Muhammad wanted "the submission of neighbouring tribes"[251] and wanted to eliminate "symbols reminiscent of pre-Islamic practices"[252]
  • 1 women killed by Muslims[252]
76 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Banu Jadhimah) January 630 [250] Invite the Banu Jadhimah tribe to Islam[258]
  • Entire tribe taken prisoner, portion executed[258][259]
77 Battle of Hunayn January 630 [250] To attack the people of Hawazin and Thaqif for refusing to surrender to Muhammad and submit to Islam because "they thought that they were too mighty to admit or surrender" after the Conquest of Mecca[263]
  • Muslims: 5 killed[264]
  • Non-Muslims: 70 killed,[263] 6000 women and children captured[265]
78 Expedition of At-Tufail ibn 'Amr Ad-Dausi January 630 [250] Destroy the idol Yaguth[267] and to secure the allegiance of the Banu Daws tribe to Islam so they can lend him catapults to use in the Siege of Taif[268]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[267]
79 Battle of Autas 630 [269] Defend against an attack by a league of tribes that formed an alliance to attack him. Washington Irving claims that the tribes were hostile to Muhammad and wanted to attack him because he was spreading Islam by the sword, and because the tribes feared Muhammad would attack them anyway for vengeance[270]
80 Expedition of Abu Amir Al-Ashari January 630 [3] Chase the enemies who fled from the Battle of Hunayn[274]
  • Muslims: 1 Killed
  • Non-Muslims: 9 Killed[275]
81 Expedition of Abu Musa Al-Ashari January 630 [3] Chase the enemies who fled from the Battle of Hunayn[274]
  • At least 1 killed,[276] men, women and children taken captives by Muslims[277]
82 Siege of Ta'if January 630 [278] Attack enemies who fled from the Battle of Hunayn and sought refuge in the fortress of Taif[265]
  • Muslims: 12 killed[279]
  • Non-Muslims: Unknown
83 Expedition of Uyainah bin Hisn April 630 [281] Attack the Muslim tribe of Banu Tamim for refusing to pay tax (Zakat)[282]
  • 11 men, 21 women and 30 boys, captured by Muslims[283]
84 Expedition of Qutbah ibn Amir May 630 [287] Attack the Banu Khatham tribe to capture booty[283][288]
  • Muslims: many wounded, some killed
  • Non-Muslims: many wounded, some killed, some women captured[283]
85 Expedition of Dahhak al-Kilabi June 630 [289] To call the Banu Kilab tribe to embrace Islam[283]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[290]
86 Expedition of Alqammah bin Mujazziz July 630 [291] Attack a group of Abyssinians (Ethiopians) who Muhammad suspected were pirates[283][292][293]
  • None, Ethiopians flee[292]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[292]
87 Third Expedition of Dhu Qarad July 630 [292] Muhammad sent him to take revenge for the killing of the son of Abu Dhar Ghifari at al-Ghaba[292][294]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[295]
88 Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib July 630 [296] Destroy al-Qullus, an idol worshipped by pagans[297]
  • Many men, women and children taken captive by Muslims[297][298]
89 Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan (Udhrah and Baliy) July 630 [300] Attack the tribes of Udhrah and Baliy, no further details[300][301]
  • Unknown
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[301]
90 Battle of Tabouk October 630 [300] Attack the Byzantine empire. Mubarakpuri claims, reason was revenge for the killing of 1 of Muhammad's ambassadors by a Christian chief of al-Balaqa, which led to the Battle of Mutah. Mubrakpuri claims this was the reason for the Battle of Tabouk also, and that there was a rumour Heraclius was preparing an attack on Muslims.[302] William Muir claims Heraclius wanted to prevent the recurrence of Muslim attacks such as the Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan against the Banu Udrah tribe.[303] A tribe that was aligned to the Byzantine Empire[304]
  • None, no enemies met[302]
91 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Dumatul Jandal) October 630 [300] Attack the Christian prince of Duma.[307]
  • 1 killed, 2 taken captive[308]
92 Expedition of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb 630 [310] To demolish the idol al-Lat[311]
  • Unknown
93 Demolition of Masjid al-Dirar 630 [313] Demolish a mosque for promoting opposition[307]
  • None (speculation that people may have been burnt[314])
94 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (2nd Dumatul Jandal) April 631 [317][318] Demolish an idol called Wadd,[318][319] worshipped by the Banu Kilab tribe[320]
  • Banu Abd-Wadd and Banu Amir al-Ajdar tribe members killed by Muslims[317][318]
95 Expedition of Surad ibn Abdullah April 631 [322][323] Ordered Surad ibn Abdullah (new convert) to war against the non-Muslim tribes in his neighbourhood[322]
  • Heavy casualties, people of Jurash killed[324]
96 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Najran) June 631 [300] Call on the people of Najran to embrace Islam or fight the Muslims[325]
  • None, Banu Harith tribe surrenders and converts to Islam[325]
97 Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Mudhij) December 631 [300] Attack the Banu Nakhla tribe to reduce them to submission[329]
  • 20 killed by Muslims.[329]
98 Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Hamdan) 632 [300] To call the people of Hamdan to embrace Islam[331]
99 Demolition of Dhul Khalasa April 632 [322] Demolish the Temple of Dhul Khalasa worshipped by the Bajila and Khatham tribes[333]
100 Expedition of Usama bin Zayd May 632 [336] Invade Palestine and attack Moab and Darum[337]
  • Local population "slaughtered" by Muslims, "destroying, burning and taking as many captives as they could" according to Moshe Gil of Cambridge University[337]

Notes

  • Ibn Hisham edited the biography of Muhammad written by Ibn Ishaq.[340] Ibn Ishaq's work is lost and is now only known in the recensions of Ibn Hisham and al-Tabari.[341] Therefore, when Ibn Hisham is mentioned as a primary source, so is Ibn Ishaq

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "In the first two or three expeditions the numbers involved are given as from 20 to 80. In those of the later part of 623 (ii-vi/2), however, when Muhammad himself took part, they are said to have ranged up to 200.". Watt, W. Montgomery. Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0195773071, 1956  (free online)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 127. (online)
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 Hawarey, Dr. Mosab. The Journey of Prophecy; Days of Peace and War (Arabic). Islamic Book Trust. ISBN 9789957051648, 2010. https://books.google.com/books?id=vJVqNwAACAAJ&dq=9789957051648. Note: Book contains a list of battles of Muhammad in Arabic, English translation available here
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Mu?ammad Ibn ?Abd al-Wahhab, Mukhta?ar zad al-ma?ad, p. 345.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Richard A. Gabriel, Muhammad, Islam's first great general, p. 73.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Mu?ammad Ibn ?Abd al-Wahhab, Mukhta?ar zad al-ma?ad, p. 346.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 4. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 "august 623 Then occurred the sariyyah of Sa'd Ibn Abi Waqqa towards al-Kharar in Dhu al-Qa'dah (May–June 623 AC)". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 4. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&q  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "autogeneratedy" defined multiple times with different content
  9. "In Safar (which began August 4, 623), nearly twelve months after his arrival in Medina on the twelfth of Rabi' al- Awwal, he went out on a raid as far as Waddan", Tabari, Al, The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 12, ISBN 978-0887063442, 2008, https://books.google.com/books?id=ctvk-fdtklYC&pg=PA12 
  10. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Is?aq's Sirat rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. p. 345, 1998. https://books.google.com/books?id=w7tuAAAAMAAJ&q. 
  11. Muhammad Siddique Qureshi (1989), Foreign policy of Hadrat Muhammad (SAW), Islamic Publications, p. 118.
  12. "Expeditions Led by Muhammad Then the Messenger of God led an expedition in Rabi' al-Akhir (which began October 2, 623) in search of Quraysh. He went as far as Buwat", Tabari, Al, The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 13, ISBN 978-0887063442, 2008, https://books.google.com/books?id=ctvk-fdtklYC&pg=PA12 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 128. (online)
  14. 14.0 14.1 Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Is?aq's Sirat rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. p. 285, 1998. https://books.google.com/books?id=w7tuAAAAMAAJ&q. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications, p. 245, ISBN 978-9960899558, 2005, https://books.google.com/books?id=r_80rJHIaOMC&pg=PA245 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Is?aq's Sirat rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. pp. 285–286, 1998. https://books.google.com/books?id=w7tuAAAAMAAJ&q. 
  17. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Is?aq's Sirat rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. pp. 286, 1998. https://books.google.com/books?id=w7tuAAAAMAAJ&q. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp.128-131. (online)
  19. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications, p. 246, ISBN 978-9960899558, 2005, https://books.google.com/books?id=r_80rJHIaOMC&pg=PA246 
  20. Muhammad Ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, Mukhta?ar zad al-ma?ad, p. 347.
  21. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, Darussalam Publications, p. 247, ISBN 978-9960899558, 2005, https://books.google.com/books?id=r_80rJHIaOMC&pg=PA247  See footnote 1, page 247
  22. "Some say the Battle of Badr took place on 19 Ramadan (March 15, 624).", Tabari, Al, The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 12, ISBN 978-0887063442, 2008, https://books.google.com/books?id=ctvk-fdtklYC&pg=PA12 
  23. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 132. (online)
  24. Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman, The Meaning and Explanation of the Glorious Qur'an (Vol 3) 2nd Edition, p. 386, ISBN 1861797699, MSA Publication Limited, 2009. (online)
  25. Mu?ammad A?mad Bashmil, The great battle of Badr, p. 122.
  26. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 133-138. (online)
  27. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 137. (online)
  28. 28.0 28.1 Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Is?aq's Sirat rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. p. 210, 1998. https://books.google.com/books?id=w7tuAAAAMAAJ&q. 
  29. William Muir, The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder and co, p. 130, 1861, https://books.google.com/books?id=YDwBAAAAQAAJ&pg=front 
  30. 30.0 30.1 "SARIYYAH OF `UMAYR IBN `ADI. Then (occurred) the sariyyah of `Umayr ibn `Adi Ibn Kharashah al-Khatmi against `Asma' Bint Marwan, of Banu Umayyah Ibn Zayd, when five nights had remained from the month of Ramadan, in the beginning of the nineteenth month from the hijrah of the apostle of Allah.". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 35. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&q 
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Is?aq's Sirat rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. pp. 675–676, 1998. https://books.google.com/books?id=w7tuAAAAMAAJ&q. 
  32. William Muir, The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder and co, p. 133, 1861, https://books.google.com/books?id=YDwBAAAAQAAJ&pg=front 
  33. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Is?aq's Sirat rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. pp. 675, 1998. https://books.google.com/books?id=w7tuAAAAMAAJ&q. 
  34. ""Then occurred the "sariyyah" of Salim Ibn Umayr al-Amri against Abu Afak, the Jew, in [the month of] Shawwal in the beginning of the twentieth month from the hijrah". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 31. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&q 
  35. Tabari, Al, The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. xiii, ISBN 978-0887063442, 2008, https://books.google.com/books?id=ctvk-fdtklYC&pg=PR13 
  36. 36.0 36.1 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp.150-151. (online)
  37. "Raid called al-Sawiq". Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Is?aq's Sirat rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. pp. 361, 1998. https://books.google.com/books?id=w7tuAAAAMAAJ&q 
  38. Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 33–34. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&q. 
  39. Muhammad Siddique Qureshi (1989), Foreign policy of Hadrat Muhammad (SAW), Islamic Publications, p. 254.
  40. Watt, Muhammad at Medina, p. 209, 1956 .
  41. 41.0 41.1 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp.149-150. (online)
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  43. "This was the taunt of the jews of the tribe of Kainoka, when Muhammad demanded tribute of them in the name of God.", Rodwell, JM, The Koran, Phoenix, p. 342, ISBN 978-1-8421-2609-7, https://books.google.com/books?id=h-pqPwAACAAJ&dq 
  44. Abu Khalil, Shawqi. Atlas of the Quran. Dar-us-Salam. p. 248. ISBN 978-9-9608-9754-7, 2003. https://books.google.com/books?id=8BziirH6UKMC&pg=PA248. (online)
  45. Francis E. Peters. A Reader on classical Islam. Princeton University Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0691000404, 1993. https://books.google.com/books?id=KnAO36Jh6bMC&pg=PA78. 
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  47. Tabari, Al, The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 86, ISBN 978-0887063442, 2008, https://books.google.com/books?id=ctvk-fdtklYC&pg=PA86 
  48. William Muir, The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder and co, p. 140, 1861, https://books.google.com/books?id=YDwBAAAAQAAJ&pg=front 
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  55. "SARIYYAH FOR SLAYING KA'B IBN AL-ASHRAF Then (occurred) the sariyyah for slaying Ka'b Ibn al-Ashraf, the Jew. It took place on 14 Rabi' al-Awwal (4. September AC 624))". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 35. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&q 
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  61. Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 290 (footnote 1).
  62. Tabari, Al, The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 99, ISBN 978-0887063442, 2008, https://books.google.com/books?id=ctvk-fdtklYC&pg=PA99 
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  66. "THE KILLING OF SALLAM IBN ABU'L-HUQAYQ". Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Is?aq's Sirat rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. p. 482, 1998. https://books.google.com/books?id=w7tuAAAAMAAJ&q 
  67. "The Battle of Uhud (23rd March 625) About...", William Montgomery Watt, Muhammad, Prophet and Statesman, Oxford University Press, p. 135, ISBN 0198810784, 1961, https://books.google.com/books?id=zLN2hNidLw4C&dq 
  68. "Messenger of God to Uhud. This is said to have been on Saturday, 7 Shaw- wal, in Year Three of the Hijrah (March 23, 625).", Tabari, Al, The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 105, ISBN 978-0887063442, 2008, https://books.google.com/books?id=ctvk-fdtklYC&pg=PA12 
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  89. 89.0 89.1 "The common version, however, is that B. Lihyan wanted to avenge the assassination of their chief at Muhammad's instigation, and bribed two clans of the tribe of Khuzaymah to say they wanted to become Muslims and ask Muhammad to send instructors.". Watt, W. Montgomery. Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0195773071, 1956  (online)
  90. "The common version, however, is that B. Lihyan wanted to avenge the assassination of their chief at Muhammad's instigation, and bribed two clans of the tribe of Khuzaymah to say they wanted to become Muslims and ask Muhammad to send instructors.". Watt, W. Montgomery. Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-19-577307-1, 1956  (online)
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  100. "Then in Safar (which began July 13, 625), four months after Uhud, he sent out the men of Bi'r Ma'unah", Tabari, Al, The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 151, ISBN 978-0887063442, 2008, https://books.google.com/books?id=ctvk-fdtklYC&pg=PA151 
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  104. "The Messenger of God remained in Medina after the expedition against the Banu al-Nadir for the two months of Rabi' and part of the month of Jumada (from August 1 1 to late October, 625)", Tabari, Al, The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 161, ISBN 978-0887063442, 2008, https://books.google.com/books?id=ctvk-fdtklYC&pg=PA161 
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  106. "The main underlying reason for the expulsion of the clan of al-Nadir was the same as in the case of Quaynuqa, namely, that Jewish criticisms endangered the ordinary Muslim's belief in Muhammad's prophethood and in the Quran as revelation from God.", Tabari, Al, The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. xxxv, ISBN 978-0887063442, 2008, https://books.google.com/books?id=ctvk-fdtklYC&pg=PR35 
  107. Vesselin Popovski, Gregory M. Reichberg, Nicholas Turner. World religions and norms of war. United Nations University Press. p. 296. ISBN 9789280811636, 2009. https://books.google.com/books?id=0gPXAAAAMAAJ&q. 
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  115. Muir, William, The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder & Co, pp. 222, 1861, https://books.google.com/books?id=YDwBAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA222  See footnote
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  119. "Ghazwah of the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, to Dumat Al-Jandal". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir. 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 76. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&q=jandal 
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  139. Muhammad Yasin Mahzar Siddiqi, Role of Booty in the economy during the prophets time, Vol. 1, King Abdul Aziz University , p.11. (archive), "In the sixth year of the hijrah (June, 627-May, 628A.D.) there were three ghazawa t but no booty was obtained from them. Of the 18 saraya, during this year only seven yielded any monetary or material benefits to the Muslims The very first expedition of the year i.e. Muhammad b. Maslamah's expedition..."
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  148. "despatched Muhammad Ibn Maslamah with ten men towards Bana Tha'labah and Bana 'Uwal, a branch of Bana Tia'labah who were...". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 105. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq 
  149. Al Tabari, Isma'il Qurban Husayn (translator), The last years of the Prophet, State University of New York Press, p. 123, ISBN 978-0887066917, 25 Sep 1990, https://books.google.com/books?id=XxG8BsHNw-MC&printsec=frontcover  (online)
  150. Yahiya ibn Sharaf al-Nawawi, Riyad-us Saliheen, Islamic Books, 2005, https://books.google.com/books?id=28KCOnhdJHsC&printsec=frontcover  See no. 1309
  151. Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 97. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq. 
  152. 152.0 152.1 152.2 152.3 Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 99. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq. 
  153. Muhammad Husayn Haykal, The Life of Muhammad, p. 351, Islamic Book Trust
  154. Tabari, The History of Al-Tabari Vol. 8: The Victory of Islam: Muhammad at Medina A, p. 43, SUNY Press, 1997, ISBN 0791431509
  155. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 231. (online)
  156. "Then there was the raid on Muhammad's private herd of camels by 'Uyaynah b. Hisn al-Fazari, who was doubtless annoyed because Muhammad had broken off negotiations with him over the withdrawal of Ghatafan. The raid was a small affair. Only 40 enemy horsemen were involved, and the booty was only 20 milking camels; 8 Muslims pursued on horseback, recovered half the camels, and killed 4 of the raiders for the loss of i of their own number.". Watt, W. Montgomery. Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0195773071, 1956  (free online)
  157. Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 100. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq. 
  158. "Haritha on the raid to al-Jamum and Zayd obtained goats and sheep and captured a group of unbelievers...", Uri Rubin, The Life of Mu?ammad, Ashgate, p. 223, ISBN 9780860787037, 1998, https://books.google.com/books?id=bsXXAAAAMAAJ&q 
  159. Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 106. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq. 
  160. "One was a little-known expedition about September 627". Watt, W. Montgomery. Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0195773071, 1956  (free online)
  161. 161.0 161.1 161.2 Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 107. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq. 
  162. 162.0 162.1 162.2 162.3 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 206. (online)
  163. "Sariyyah of Zayd ibn Haritha towards al-Taraf". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 107. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq 
  164. 164.0 164.1 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 226. (online)
  165. "Sariyyah of Zayd ibn Haritha against Hisma". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 108. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq 
  166. William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, pp. 12-13.
  167. 167.0 167.1 "Sariyyah of Zayd ibn Haritha towards Wadi al-Qura". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 109. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq 
  168. Sir William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira: with introductory chapters on the original sources for the biography of Mahomet and on the pre-Islamite history of Arabia, Volume 3, Smith, Elder & Co, pp. 237, 1861, https://books.google.com/books?id=LMkUAAAAYAAJ&pg=front  (abridged version)
  169. 169.0 169.1 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 207-209. (online)
  170. William Muir, The life of Mahomet, Kessinger Publishing, p. 310, ISBN 9780766177413, 2003, https://books.google.com/books?id=QyIPouT4DqcC&printsec=frontcover  (original)
  171. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Is?aq's Sirat rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. p. 490, 1998. https://books.google.com/books?id=w7tuAAAAMAAJ&q. 
  172. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 211. (online)
  173. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Is?aq's Sirat rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. p. 672, 1998. https://books.google.com/books?id=w7tuAAAAMAAJ&q. 
  174. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 211. (online)
  175. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Is?aq's Sirat rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. p. 672, 1998. https://books.google.com/books?id=w7tuAAAAMAAJ&q. 
  176. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 211. (online)
  177. 177.0 177.1 "SARIYYAH OF 'ALI IBN ABl TALIB AGAINST BANU SA'D IBN BAKR AT FADAK". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 110. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq 
  178. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 211. (online)
  179. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 211. (online)
  180. 180.0 180.1 180.2 Al Tabari, Michael Fishbein (translator), Volume 8, Victory of Islam, State University of New York Press, pp. 95–97, ISBN 9780791431504, 1997, https://books.google.com/books?id=sD8_ePcl1UoC&dq 
  181. 181.0 181.1 181.2 William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, pp. 18-19.
  182. Template:Hadith-usc
  183. Tafsir ibn Kathir, Surai Madiah 5:39, "The Punishment of those who cause mischief in the Land", and Tafsir ibn Kathir, 5:39, Text version
  184. 184.0 184.1 William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 17
  185. 185.0 185.1 185.2 185.3 185.4 185.5 185.6 185.7 185.8 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 241. (online)
  186. Tirmidhi (Partial translation), see no. 3923, p. 182.
  187. Nasiruddin Khattab, English Translation of Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal, Darussalam, 2012, ISBN 6035001076 (online txt) (onlinde pdf)
  188. "Abdullah b. Rawaha's raid to kill al-Yusayr b. Rizam". Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Is?aq's Sirat rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. p. 665, 1998. https://books.google.com/books?id=w7tuAAAAMAAJ&q 
  189. Emory C. Bogle (1998), Islam: origin and belief, University of Texas Press, p. 19.
  190. 190.0 190.1 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 214-215.
  191. Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 211. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq. 
  192. 192.0 192.1 Abu Khalil, Shawqi. Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 180. ISBN 978-9960897714, 1 March 2004. https://books.google.com/books?id=mZmBkoDa9fcC&pg=PA180. (online)
  193. Tafsir ibn Kathir (abridged), Pg 554, By Ibn Kathir, Translation by Saifur Rahman al Mubarakpuri, also see Tafsir ibn Kathir 59:7, Text Version
  194. Ibn Kathir, Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri (translator), Tafsir ibn Kathir (abridged), p. 555 (footnote 1 & 2).
  195. "Muhammad had thus a straightforward reason for attacking Khaybar. The moment he chose for the attack May /June 628 (i/y) shortly after his return from the expedition of al-Hudaybiyah was one when it was also convenient for him to have booty to distribute to his followers whose expectations had recently been disappointed.". Watt, W. Montgomery. Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0195773071, 1956  (free online)
  196. "Muhammad had thus a straightforward reason for attacking Khaybar. The moment he chose for the attack May /June 628 (i/y) shortly after his return from the expedition of al-Hudaybiyah was one when it was also convenient for him to have booty to distribute to his followers whose expectations had recently been disappointed.". Watt, W. Montgomery. Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0195773071, 1956  (free online)
  197. 197.0 197.1 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 238. (online)
  198. Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , p. 432.
  199. Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet , pp. 433-434.
  200. William Muir, The Life of Mahomet (2003), p. 394.
  201. 201.0 201.1 "enumerating with them the expedition of Wadi al-Qura. He stated that he fought there with his slave Mid'am", Tabari, Al, The last years of the Prophet (translated by Isma’il Qurban Husayn), State University of New York Press, 25 Sep 1990, https://books.google.com/books?id=XxG8BsHNw-MC&pg=PA118 
  202. 202.0 202.1 "The Sariyyah of 'Umar Ibn al-Khattab, may Allah show him mercy, on Turabah". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 146. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq 
  203. 203.0 203.1 William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 83 (footnote 2).
  204. Template:Hadith-usc
  205. "The Sariyyah of Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, on Banu Kilab at Najd". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 146. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq 
  206. 206.0 206.1 206.2 Abu Khalil, Shawqi. Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 205. ISBN 978-9960897714, 1 March 2004. https://books.google.com/books?id=mZmBkoDa9fcC&pg=PA205. 
  207. William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 83 (footnote 3).
  208. 208.0 208.1 Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 148. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq. 
  209. William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 83 (footnote 3).
  210. William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 84.
  211. Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 149. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq. 
  212. Al Tabari, Michael Fishbein (translator), Volume 8, Victory of Islam, State University of New York Press, p. 132, ISBN 9780791431504, 1997, https://books.google.com/books?id=sD8_ePcl1UoC&dq 
  213. 213.0 213.1 213.2 213.3 213.4 213.5 213.6 Abu Khalil, Shawqi. Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 212. ISBN 978-9960897714, 1 March 2004. https://books.google.com/books?id=mZmBkoDa9fcC&pg=PA212. 
  214. 214.0 214.1 214.2 William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 94.
  215. 215.0 215.1 215.2 215.3 Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 156. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq. 
  216. 216.0 216.1 "THE SARIYYAH OF BASHIR IBN SA'D AL-ANSARI TOWARDS YAMAN AND JAMAR". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 149. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq 
  217. 217.0 217.1 William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 93.
  218. 218.0 218.1 218.2 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 244. (online)
  219. "THE SARIYYAH OF IBN ABI AL-'AWJA AL-SULAMI AGAINST BAND SULAYM". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 153. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq 
  220. William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 93 (footnote).
  221. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 244. (online)
  222. "THE SARIYYAH OF SHUJA' IBN WAHB AL-ASADl AGAINST BANU AMIR AT AL-SIYYI". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 157. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq 
  223. "THE SARIYYAH OF KA'B IBN 'UMAYR AL-GHIFARl TOWARDS DHAT ATLAH BEYOND WADI AL-QURA. Then (occurred) the sariyyah of Ka'b Ibn 'Umayr al-Ghifar? towards Dhat Atlah which lies beyond Wadi al-Qura in the month of Rabi' al-Awwal of the eighth...". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 158. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq 
  224. 224.0 224.1 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 246. (online)
  225. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 245. (online)
  226. Abu Khalil, Shawqi. Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 218. ISBN 978-9960897714, 1 March 2004. https://books.google.com/books?id=mZmBkoDa9fcC&pg=PA218.  Note: 6th Month, 8AH = September 629
  227. William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 104.
  228. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 247.
  229. 229.0 229.1 "The Sariyyah of 'Amr Ibn al-'As towards DMt al-Salasil which is beyond Wadi al-Qura". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 162. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq 
  230. Abu Khalil, Shawqi. Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 218. ISBN 978-9960897714, 1 March 2004. https://books.google.com/books?id=mZmBkoDa9fcC&pg=PA218.  Note: Rajab, 8AH = October 629
  231. 231.0 231.1 William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 106.
  232. Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 206. (online)
  233. 233.0 233.1 233.2 Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 163. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq. 
  234. Al Tabari, Isma'il Qurban Husayn (translator), The last years of the Prophet, State University of New York Press, pp. 123, ISBN 978-0887066917, 25 Sep 1990, https://books.google.com/books?id=XxG8BsHNw-MC&pg=PA123  (online)
  235. 235.0 235.1 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 242. (online)
  236. 236.0 236.1 Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Is?aq's Sirat rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. pp. 671–672, 1998. https://books.google.com/books?id=w7tuAAAAMAAJ&q. 
  237. 237.0 237.1 Al Tabari, Michael Fishbein (translator), Volume 8, Victory of Islam, State University of New York Press, p. 151, ISBN 9780791431504, 1997, https://books.google.com/books?id=sD8_ePcl1UoC&dq 
  238. 238.0 238.1 238.2 Abu Khalil, Shawqi. Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 218. ISBN 978-9960897714, 1 March 2004. https://books.google.com/books?id=mZmBkoDa9fcC&pg=PA218. 
  239. 239.0 239.1 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 247. (online)
  240. Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 164. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq. 
  241. 241.0 241.1 "THE SARIYYAH OF ABO QATADAH IBN RIB'I AL- ANSARl TOWORDS BATN IDAM.". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 164. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq 
  242. Template:Hadith-usc
  243. Ibn Kathir, Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman (translator). Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz' 5 (Part 5): An-Nisaa 24 to An-Nisaa 147 2nd Edition. p. 94. https://books.google.com/books?id=GxzFCrGdyQoC&pg=PA94. 
  244. Ibn Kathir, Muhammad Saed Abdul-Rahman (translator). Tafsir Ibn Kathir Juz' 5 (Part 5): An-Nisaa 24 to An-Nisaa 147 2nd Edition. p. 94. https://books.google.com/books?id=GxzFCrGdyQoC&pg=PA94. 
  245. 245.0 245.1 Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 165–174. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq. 
  246. 246.0 246.1 246.2 246.3 Wahid Khan, Maulana, Muhammad: a prophet for all humanity, Goodword, pp. 327–333, 2002, https://books.google.com/books?id=k8xyO3fQkccC&pg=PT326 
  247. Template:Hadith-usc
  248. Template:Hadith-usc
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  250. 250.0 250.1 250.2 250.3 250.4 250.5 Abu Khalil, Shawqi. Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 226. ISBN 978-9960897714, 1 March 2004. https://books.google.com/books?id=mZmBkoDa9fcC&pg=PA226. 
  251. 251.0 251.1 251.2 William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 134.
  252. 252.0 252.1 252.2 252.3 252.4 252.5 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 256. (online)
  253. Ibn Kathir, ?afi al-Ra?man Mubarakfuri (translator). Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Volume 9), Volume 9. p. 320. https://books.google.com/books?id=kN3V_Cs6gswC&pg=PA320.  (online)
  254. Ibn al Kalbi, Hisham. The book of idols: being a translation from the Arabic of the Kitab al-asnam. Princeton University Press. p. 25. ASIN B002G9N1NQ, 1952. https://books.google.com/books?id=G4HXAAAAMAAJ.  (online)
  255. "THE SARIYYAH OF 'AMR IBN AL-'AS AGAINST SUWA'". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 181. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq 
  256. Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir,By Ibn Sa'd,Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. pp. 181. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. https://books.google.com/books?ei=AUL5Tf7sN8jIsgaVreXVDw&ct=result&id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&dq. 
  257. Ibn al Kalbi, Hisham. The book of idols: being a translation from the Arabic of the Kitab al-asnam. Princeton University Press. pp. 13–14. ASIN B002G9N1NQ, 1952. https://books.google.com/books?id=G4HXAAAAMAAJ.  (online)
  258. 258.0 258.1 William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 135.
  259. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Is?aq's Sirat rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. p. 561, 1998. https://books.google.com/books?id=w7tuAAAAMAAJ&q. 
  260. Muhsin Khan, The translation of the meanings of ?ahih AL-Bukhari, Arabic-English, Volume 5, p. 440.
  261. Ibn Hisham , Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator). The life of Muhammad: a translation of Is?aq's Sirat rasul Allah. Oxford University Press. p. 561, 1998. https://books.google.com/books?id=w7tuAAAAMAAJ&q. 
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