Vědecké chyby v Koránu< WikiIslam:Sandbox
Zpráva od vševědoucí bytosti by neměla obsahovat žádné chyby, nebo informace, které jsou v rozporu se známými fakty o vesmíru. Pokud by ve svaté knize Islámu existovala jediná chyba, tak tvrzení o božím autorství a neomylnosti nejsou pravdivá. Objektivní zhodnocení Koránu ukázalo početné vědecké a historické chyby a před-vědecký pohled na svět na úrovni 7. století.
Někteří budou oponovat těmto početným chybám v Koránu, že je to metafora nebo, že to má jiný význam nebo fenomenologickou interpretací textu. I za předpokladu existence alternativních vysvětlení pro každou chybu, stále zůstává problém v tom, že Korán neobsahuje žádné zjevné snahy odlišit své chápání přírodního světa a historických události od lokálního folklóru a mylných koncepci lidí žijících v Arábii v 7. století. Všemocný, vševědoucí, dokonalý sdělovatel by byl schopen předpovědět, jak taková zavádějící sdělení budou pochopena budoucími generacemi a jaké pochyby a zmatky způsobí. Tato obrovská slabost v Koránu, když bychom očekávali dokonalost, je již sama dostatečným důvodem odmítnout jakékoliv tvrzení o božím autorství.
The Qur'an mentions a few times that the sun and the moon travel in an orbit (falak - a rounded course), but does not mention once that the Earth does too. This is consistent with an Earth-centered (geocentric) view of the cosmos that places a motionless Earth at the center of the universe and all "heavenly bodies" travel around the Earth. This was the prevailing understanding of the universe prior to the 16th century when Copernicus helped explain and popularize a sun-centered (heliocentric) view of the universe. Tellingly, the sun's orbit is almost always mentioned in the context of night and day (13:2 is the only exception) and is always mentioned with that of the moon, which does in fact orbit the Earth each month, and to a naive observer seems to traverse the sky each night when it is visible.
This is in a passage about night and day. Right after describing the change from day to night, it says that the sun runs on to a resting place for it (لِمُسْتَقَرٍّ لَّهَا). There are also sahih hadith (Sahih Muslim 1:297) that mention the sun's daily cycle using the same Arabic word to mean a resting place, which is underneath Allah's throne, and is where each night the sun prostrates and is asked to go and rise 'from its rising place' (مِنْ مَطْلِعِهَا). This cycle repeats, until one day Allah asks the sun to rise 'from your setting place' (مِنْ َغْرِبِكِ).
The alternative view was that it refers to the sun's final resting on the last day. Other verses talk about the sun swimming for a 'term appointed' (using a different arabic word). Another version of the above hadith probably supports this view (for details of all these things see footnotes in the main article). Whichever interpretation was intended, the sun's movement is nevertheless mentioned right after describing day and night, just as the next verse mentions the different mansions appointed for the moon each night. The whole passage is about day and night and the sun and moon's movement in that context.
Some try to explain away the above Qur'anic description of the sun moving in an orbit as a reference to our sun orbiting the black hole at the center of the milky way galaxy every 225 million years. This is an Ad hoc hypothesis, of no relevance to human time scales, and nothing from the text implies that the sun is orbiting anything other than the Earth. If the author had knowledge of the sun orbiting a black hole then it is conspicuous that he never mentions it explicitly nor in any way differentiates the sun's orbit from that of the moon.
Notice also that the running / floating of the sun is something that the author expects people to have seen (another problem for the galactic orbit interpretation).
The Arabic word translated "follow" is primarily defined as to follow, go or walk behind, follow in way of immitation, of action etc. and was often used for animals like camels following behind each other. Yet the Moon does not actually follow behind the sun's movement, nor does it provide its own light like the sun. The verse is most suggestive of a worldview in which the moon and sun traverse the same or similar paths after one another, which is what a 7th century person might believe from observing the sky. A less suspicious choice of word would have been better for a supposedly perfect book if it merely meant the sun and moon appear one after the other. One day instead of following the sun, the moon will by joined with it according to another verse (see the Similar Size and Distance of the Sun and Moon section below).
Here the Qur'an quotes a few lines from a debate between Abraham and a disbelieving King, where Abraham replies that Allah 'brings the sun' (yatee biashshamsi يَأْتِى بِٱلشَّمْسِ) from the east. The arabic verb and preposition indicates that the sun actually moves. The verb means to come, and when it has an object with the bi preposition it means to bring, as in many other instances in the Qur'an. While the story is quoting a mere human's words, the author clearly believes it to be a good response and sees no problem with it.
Místo západu a východu Slunce
The Qur'an assumes a flat earth which has physical places into which the sun sets and rises from. Since the earth is a rotating sphere, the sun does not set in any particular place and you can never travel to "the spot" where the sun sets nor a place where it rises; the sun appears to set or rise on the horizon no matter where you are on the planet. In these verses, the author propagates a popular legend from the 7th century of a man named Dhu'l-Qarnayn who visits the places where the sun sets and rises; here he finds the sun going down into a muddy spring and later rising on a tribe with no coverings.
Centuries after Muhammad lived, people with better astronomical knowledge than him started to come up with creative interpretations of these verses to say that Dhu'l-Qrnayn only traveled until he reached "the west" or to a spot "at the time" when the sun set and not the "place" where the sun set. Unfortunately, these alternative interpretations are severely undermined by the context and Arabic words used in these verses, which instead point to a physical location. There is plenty of evidence showing that the early Muslims understood the verse in this straightforward way. Again, we must ask why an all-knowing being would use such misleading verses that mimic the misconceptions and legends prevalent at the time if one of these alternative explanations is correct.
Meteory jsou hvězdy házené po ďáblech
The Qur'an says that stars (kawakib ٱلْكَوَاكِبِ) / lamps (masabih مَصَٰبِيحَ) adorn the heavens and guard against devils.
The author of the Qur'an does not seem to know the difference between stars (giant balls of gas thousands of times larger than the earth) and meteors which are small rocky masses of debris which brighten up after entering the earth's atmosphere. Many ancient people confused the two, as meteors look like stars that are streaking across the sky; this is why there were often called shooting stars or falling stars. In the following verse, the Qur'an claims that Allah uses stars as missiles to ward away devils. This repeats a common Arab myth at the time the Qur'an was first recited.
The same Arabic words are used at the start of verse 67:5 as in 37.6 (زَيَّنَّا ٱلسَّمَآءَ ٱلدُّنْيَا), except the stars are described as lamps. Clearly the lamps that 'beautify the heaven' refer to stars (and perhaps also the 5 visible planets), which are always there. Meteors are generally not much larger than grains of sand and are only visible for a second when they burn up, generating light in the Earth's atmosphere after millions of years in darkness, but the author of the Qur'an believes that meteors (the 'missiles') are a kind of star.
In Sahih Muslim we have a hadith confirming that the pursuing flames / missiles in the two verses refer to what we would call meteors which they saw shooting across the sky.
Země a nebe stvořeny za šest dní
The Earth first formed around 9 billion years after the Big Bang. The Qur'an, however, repeats the prevailing Middle-Eastern myth that the Earth and universe were formed in six days.
In the hundreds of other Qur'anic verses where the Arabic word 'yawm' appears, everyone understands it to mean day. Yet Islamic websites try and rescue the Qur'an by pointing to an alternative meaning of yawm, which almost always means 'day', but can sometimes mean 'time period'. Curiously, and rather conveniently, yawm is only claimed to mean time period in the verses about the creation of the world. Clearly, the predominant meaning of the word is day and when a specific number is used, in this case six, the word almost always means a literal day. Again, nothing in the context of the verses, nor the Qur'an in general, suggests awareness that the universe or Earth were formed over long time periods. The author makes precisely zero attempt to distingish his description from the prevailing Middle-Eastern creation myths in this regard, which feature six literal days of creation ("Evening came and morning came: The first day." - Genesis 1:5).
Secondly, neither the universe nor Earth were formed in six distinct long periods of time. It would have been trivial for an all-knowing diety to have indicated the vast duration in which the universe has developed, which has taken place over the past 13.8 billion years.
The Earth specifically was created in two days according to the Qur'an, and in four days (on days three and four according to the tafsirs) were created mountains and the sustenance of the Earth.
Mountains in fact continue to rise and erode to this day. Similarly, living things and their sustenance continue to evolve, yet the Qur'an says that the creation of mountains and sustenance occurred in a specific period that ended two days before the creation of the universe was completed. See the next section regarding the final two of the six days in 41:11-12 which immediately follow the verses shown above.
Země stvořena před hvězdami
The author of the Qur'an is also unaware that the elements in the Earth's crust and core were first formed in stars by nucleosynthesis. When those stars exploded as supernovas, they expelled the elements that were used in future solar systems such as our own. Yet the Qur'an describes the Earth being formed before the stars. All rocky and gaseous planets in the universe were formed in a similar manner to the Earth and the Qur'an singling out the Earth only further highlights the author's ignorance of the history of the formation of celestial objects.
Verse 41:12 says that lamps (or more specifically, stars in the similar verse Quran 37:6) were placed in the lowest of the seven heavens. But before there were seven heavens, while heaven was just smoke, the Earth already existed according to verse 11, and the Earth's creation in the preceeding days is described in verses 9-10 already discussed in the previous section.
The verse below further confirms that heaven was only made into seven heavens when the Earth already existed according to the Qur'an.
Some websites attempt to reconcile the Qur'anic description with modern science by denying that the word 'Then' in the verses above indicate sequence, and instead claim that it means 'moreover'. They claim this despite the fact that these words (thumma in 41:11 and 2:29, and fa in 41:12 - all translated as 'Then') generally are used to indicate sequence. In other contexts thumma was sometimes used to mean 'moreover', which is generally clear from those contexts, but the passages quoted above describe a process - the creation of the heavens and Earth, and it would be ludicrous to use these words when describing such a process if they were not indicating sequence.
Země a obloha byly odtrženy
Some websites claim that the following verse is compatible with the Big Bang theory. But according to this theory, the Universe was formed about 13.8 billion years ago due to a rapid expansion from singularity. The earth was formed 4.54 billion years ago from accretion of debris that surrounded the precursor of the Sun. There was no "separation" of the "joined" earth and heavens as this verse suggests. It is, in fact, a repetition of cosmic egg myths in which an egg-like structure was split into two halves, the lower half forming the earth and the upper half forming the heaven.
There is no scientific theory in which the Earth and heavens were split apart from each other. To imagine that this describes the big bang, the atomic particles that would later form the Earth would at the beginning have to be separated from those that would go on to form everything else in the universe. This bears no resemblance to scientific cosmology, wherein the material that forms the Earth passed through at least one earlier generation of star, and more recently was part of various asteroids, comets and planetesimals orbiting the sun (which could all be described as being in the 'heavens') that sometimes collided and merged with each other, sometimes split apart, and gradually coalesced under gravity to form the Earth and other planets.
Moreover, the very next verse Quran 21:31 speaks of mountains being placed on the Earth. Here 'the Earth' clearly means an actual world, so how do the Islamic websites expect anyone to believe that in the previous verse 'the Earth' refers merely to atomic particles at the time of the big bang that would billions of years later form the Earth?
Vesmír byl stvořen z kouře
Looking once again at the verses discussed above, it is worth pointing out that there was no stage of formation of the Universe that involved smoke (carbon particles suspended as a result of combustion; the word translated smoke is the noun dukhan دُخَانٍ, which literally means smoke, as from a fire). Nor did the Earth and heavens each "come" as separate entites at any point of time. Earth is a part of this Universe and has developed within it.
Apologetics that try to reinterpret 'smoke' as the primordial state of the universe after the big bang should notice (aside from their poor grasp of science) that the Qur'an indicates a time when just the heaven, but not Earth is smoke. Furthermore, the Earth and its mountains are clearly mentioned as already existing in the previous two verses (Quran 41:9-10 discussed above).
This verse claims there are seven Earths.
A hadith reveals that these are seven Earths stacked above each other.
The number, like seven heavens, might have come from a misunderstanding of mythology from classical antiquity in which there were seven moving planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the sun and moon). If instead we take it to mean seven actual planets the Qur'an is still wrong. According to astronomers, there are eight ordinary planets and five dwarf planets, which leaves the grand total at thirteen in our solar system. Modern astronomy also has found thousands of other planets in other solar systems and Cosmologists estimate that hundreds of billions of stars and planets exist in the universe. The author of the Qur'an singling out such a small number of celestial objects only reaffirms his ignorance of the makeup of the universe.
The universe consists of hundreds of billions of galaxies, each with hundreds of billions of stars. There is no such thing as seven layers to the universe. This myth of seven heavens was a common idea prevalent in the Middle East during the time when the Qur'an was first recited.
Some Islamic websites claim that these are seven layers of the atmosphere, despite the fact that verse 37:6 (see next section) says that stars are in the nearest heaven. There are only 5 not 7 principal layers to the Earth's atmosphere, and likewise only 5 not 7 major layers to the Earth itself.
Hvězdy se nacházejí v nejbližším nebi
Stars are spread throughout the Universe and there is no such thing as the "nearest" heaven or layer. Also, this verse is in keeping with the author's claim (Quran 71:15 as described above) that the seven heavens are arranged one above the other.
Podobná velikost a vzdálenost Slunce a Měsíce
The Qur'an has statements about the end of the world that are much as one would expect if the author believed the sun and moon to be of similar size and a similar distance from Earth.
The word translated "are joined" is Arabic jumi'a, a verb which means to collect together, gather together, bring together. Given that this would actually require the moon to travel 98 million miles away from Earth and into the sun, which dwarfs it by over 600 times in diameter, it seems vastly less fitting as an apocalyptic event than if the ancient conception of the cosmos was correct. Thus it is far more likely that the author had such a misconception about the sun and moon.
A popular claim is that the Qur'an has knowledge that the moon does not emit its own light, but simply reflects light coming from the Sun. The Arabic word for reflected (in`ikaas) does not appear in the two Qur'anic verses that say the Moon is a "light". It instead uses the word "noor" (nooran نُورًا) which simply means a light, and in another verse, muneer (muneeran مُّنِيرًا), which means giving light and is from the same root as noor. This is vague enough to be interpreted either way, so is not necessarily an error, but nor can any special knowledge be claimed.
Noor appears again (this time as a participle muneeran مُّنِيرًا) in a similar verse about the moon:
Perhaps the best example of a verse showing the noor simply means light and not reflected light can be found in 33:45-46 in which a lamp is shining light with the exact same Arabic word as in 25:61 above (muneeran مُّنِيرًا):
In Lane's Lexicon of classical arabic, this word muneer (مُّنِيرً) is defined as 'Giving light, shining bright, bright, or shining brightly'. Noor is defined on the previous page as 'Light; whatever it may be; and the rays thereof'. In reference to Qur'an verse 10:5 (quoted above) that describe the moon with this word, he says, 'In the Kur. x. 5, the sun is termed ضياء and the moon نور and it is said that ضياء is essential, but نور is accidental [light]'. It is important to note that this notion of essential and accidental light and its application to the sun and moon originates not from the Arabs at the time of the Qur'an, but rather from the book Kitab al-Manazir, commonly known as 'Optics', published in 1572 by the great polymath and optics pioneer al-Hazen. Lane goes on to say, citing the highly regarded Taj al-Arus classical dictionary, 'it is of two kinds, the light of the present world and that of the world to come; and the former is either perceived sensibly, by the eye, and this is what diffuses itself from luminous bodies, as the sun and moon and stars, and is mentioned in the Kur. x. 5 referred to above'.
The word "Noor" is also used in this verse to show that Allah is the "light" of the universe. Clearly the author is not implying that Allah reflects light from another source but is the source of the light.
Měsíc byl rozpůlen
The Qur'an and Hadith claim that the moon was miraculously split into two pieces and then, presumably, put back together again. There is absolutely no scientific evidence whatsoever that the moon has ever been split into two. Since the moon is visible to half the planet at any given time, we should expect to see numerous accounts from different parts of the world attesting to this event if it actually happened. The Romans, Greeks, Egyptians, Persians, Chinese and Indians had avid astronomers who should have seen this event and recorded it in their histories. The absence of historical record from other civilizations, contemporary to Muhammad, is a strong indication that this event never happened.
Nebe je stan/kupole
A common myth at the time of the Quran's composition was that the sky or heavens were held up with pillars. Many Bedouin people living in Arabia imagined the sky as a large tent covering, similar to the tents they used. The author repeats this myth by describing the sky as being "raised" above the earth.
In another verse, the author says that the sky / heaven is a covering that can be removed.
Nebe je střežená klenba
This verse seems to relate to the verses about devils chased by shooting stars (meteors) that guard the lowest heaven. See for example Quran 37:6-10 discussed above, in which we find a noun meaning guard from the same Arabic root (hafiza) as the verb in this verse). Somewhat ironically, the things supposedly guarding the sky / heaven can actually pose a threat to living things on Earth.
Asteroids and meteorites have penetrated the atmosphere and hit the earth throughout the course of history. This includes the massive meteorite that hit near the Yucatán Peninsula 65 million years which killed off numerous species including most dinosaurs.
Nebe může spadnout na lidi
The Qur'an author thought that the sky/heaven is like a ceiling held up by Allah that can fall to earth or fragments break off and fall on someone. This is obviously impossible as the earth's atmosphere is simply made of gas and outer space is not a solid object.
Nebe může být srolováno
This is another verse implying that the sky or heaven is something solid.
The Qur'an says that the stars will fall (inkadarat ٱنكَدَرَتْ) along with other dramatic events surrounding the last day. The author clearly had no idea of the size and distance of the stars. The word كدر in the form used in this verse (form VII) meant to dart down as is said of a bird or hawk, or to fall and scatter.
The structure of space-time is such that nothing, not even stars, can move faster than the velocity of light. Even if stars were to somehow move close to light speed across the sky their motion would be imperceivable to the naked eye as many visible stars are hundreds of light years away. Neither would we be able to see anything that the stars are doing recently (when we see a star 100 light years away, we are seeing it as it was 100 years ago).
Příčina změny délky stínů
Shadows are produced when the sun's light is blocked by an obstacle. It is the Earth's rotation that causes these shadows to change size and lengthen. However, verse 25:45 seems to say that the reason that shadows lengthen rather than being stationary is because Allah has made the sun their guide. Yet if the Earth did not rotate (so shadows were stationary) and then the Earth was made to rotate (so that they could lengthen and draw in) the sun would not need to be made to do anything different in either case. Thus the most likely explanation is that the verse represents a geocentric worldview where the sun moves across the sky, guiding the shadows.
Then the next verse, 25:46, says that shadows are drawn towards Allah which has no scientific meaning.
Nevědomost o existenci severního a jižního pólu
In polar regions, the longevity of day and night vary during summer and winter. The day gets shorter and shorter in winter until there are days or weeks of uninterrupted night. At the poles themselves, day and night alternately last for six months and all phases of the moon occur several times between sunrise and sunset. The author of the Qur'an did not know about this and he only repeated earlier geocentric ideas. See also the Fasting and Prayer Requirements Near the Poles section below.
Furthermore, when reading this verse one should wonder in what sense day and night each have an orbit. See Geocentrism and the Quran regarding that question.
The Qur'an presupposes a creationist view of life on earth. Its understanding of the history of human life is incompatible with the overwhelming scientific evidence that humans have evolved from prior life forms, over the course of millions of years, through natural selection . While some Muslims accept the theory of evolution, most reject it in favor of a creationist world view. Opinion polls show that the majority of Muslims agree Islam and evolution are not compatible.
Stvoření člověka z hlíny
The Qur’an states that man was created instantaneously from clay (salsalin صَلْصَٰلٍ) / mud (hamain حَمَإٍ). There is no indication that the author is aware of the evolution of human life over millions of years nor our common ancestry with apes and primates.
Similarly, it says that the first man was created from dust (turabin تُرَابٍ).
První lidé: Adam a Eva
The Qur’an and Hadith contains stories concerning the 'first humans' and how all people are descended from these two earliest ancestors. It states that humans were created in a garden (paradise) and then brought to earth fully formed. This view of the origins of human life is clearly contradicted by DNA evidence and the numerous fossils of pre-homosapien species that lived on earth for millions of years before modern humans first evolved.
Another verse is clear on literal descent of humanity from one man by sexual means (i.e. semen) after Allah had created him out of clay.
The word translated “seed” in Pickthall’s translation is nasl نسل, which means progeny (i.e. descendants).
Some Muslim creationists will claim the view of two ancestral “parents” is consistent with recent scientific findings that show a common female and male ancestor of all modern humans. They often exploit the confusion caused by scientists referring to these genetic ancestors as Mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam. These two individuals bear little resemblance to the Quranic account as they are simply the last common male and female ancestors of everyone alive today, not of all humans in history. The Qur'an clearly states Eve was created later than Adam, however Mitochondrial Eve lived some 50,000 to 80,000 years earlier than Y-chromosomal Adam. Genetic evidence overwhelmingly indicates that humans diverged from earlier species as a population, not a single couple. .
The Qur'an and Hadith contain statements about bodily fluids and the stages of development of the human embryo. Many of these descriptions are vague and unscientific. Most bear a striking resemblance to similar descriptions found in the Jewish Talmud and the ideas of ancient Greeks such as Galen, including their errors.
Sperma se vytváří mezi páteří a žebry
The Qur'an states, incorrectly, that semen originates from a spot between the backbone and ribs. Today we know sperm comes from the testicles and semen from various glands behind and below the bladder, which is not between the spine and ribs.
Embryo je na začátku zformováno ze semena
The author of the Qur'an describes the initial formation of a human embryo out of fluid emanating from the man (and possibly also of the woman), which is stored in the womb. This reflects the contemporary, but incorrect, view that the material for the embryo is initially formed out of semen, as taught by Hippocrates, Galen, and the Jewish Talmud. In fact, semen is the vehicle for the sperm cells, one of which fuses with a woman's ovum in her fallopian tube, and the resulting cell divides and travels back into the womb for implantation.
While English translations mention a "drop of seed", or "drop of sperm", the Arabic word in question is nutfah, which literally means a small amount of liquid, a euphemism for semen.
Ženské vajíčko nebylo zmíněno
The Qur'an's author did not mention the role of the ovum in human reproduction and appears to have no knowledge of it. This verse fails to mention the important role of the female egg, or ovum, plays in the reproduction of humankind. It implies that reproduction is caused simply by the male semen. The human ovum is very small, though visible to the human eye, and it's purpose wasn't understood in the 7th century. Again, we are left wondering why an all-knowing deity would omit such information.
Lidé stvoření ze sraženiny krve
The Qur'an and Hadith depict that humans are formed from a clot of blood. There was never a stage in embryonic development where humans are formed into a clot of blood. This description is likely influenced by an unscientific and primitive understanding of human reproduction based on observations from an early-term miscarriage and a woman's menstrual cycle. While in modern times some Muslims seek to use alternative meanings for the relevant word, the mere fact that it certainly can mean clotted blood (as also is the consensus of the classical tafsirs), in a passage about a biological process (formation of a baby), is a major weakness in what should be a perfect description.
Pohlaví dítěte je rozhodnuto poté co se stane sraženinou
The Qur'an says that an embryo is transformed from a sperm to a clot, then it is shaped, and then the male or female sex is determined. Modern genetics has shown that the sex of a human is decided at the moment of conception.
While translators mostly use "And" in verse 39, the Arabic word is fa, as also in the previous conjunction, which indicates sequence (i.e. 'and then'). The tafsirs also take this view, and it is very much reflected in a sahih hadith found in Bukhari and Muslim:
Narrated Anas bin Malik:
Kosti se zformují před masem
The Qur'an explains that the bones of a human embryo are formed first and then covered up with flesh. Modern scientific studies and research have shown that the cartilage models and muscles start to form at the same time and in parallel. Muscles have started to form before the cartilage models start to be replaced with bone.
The Qur'an again parallels the influential Greek physician Galen, who says:
Všechny organismy jsou stvořeny v párech
Not every creature procreates or reproduces through male and female sexual relationship. The whiptail lizard in the U.S. Southwest, Mexico, and South America, is an all-females species which reproduces by parthenogenesis. Viruses reproduce using a host's DNA and are neither female nor male. Bacteria reproduce by cell division. Fungus can reproduce either sexually or asexually. Many species of plants also reproduce either asexually or through pollination.
Plod ve třech vrstvách temnoty
The word butun (بطن) means belly/abdomen/midriff, though some translators like to use the more specific word "womb". Tafsirs interpreted the "three darknesses" as the placenta, womb (uterus) and belly. There are in fact many more layers in the human body such as the endometrium, myometrium, perimetrium, peritoneum, besides the cervix uteri, corpus uteri, abdomen (with walls), and placenta (with layers). The idea of three membranes around the fetus (chorion, allantois, and amnion) was taught by the highly influential Greek physician, Galen. Perhaps the Qur'anic author is simply repeating this idea, which applies only to the embryonic membranes.
The allantois is a sac-like structure which becomes part of the umbilical cord, hardly a 'a darkness' for the embryo. The other two membranes, the chorion and amnion, together form the amniotic sac, which is quite thin and transparent.
In several verses, the Qur'an ascribes understanding and thinking to the heart instead of the brain.
Zdroj a čistota mléka
The Qur'an states that milk is produced, in the body, somewhere between excretions and blood. The mammary glands, where milk is produced and stored, are nowhere near the intestines which is where excrement is stored. Many kinds of cattle and goat milk needs processing or pasteurization before they can safely be consumed; the milk is often infected with bacteria and other micro-organisms. A significant number of humans are lactose intolerant and unable to digest milk without experiencing abdominal bloating and cramps, flatulence, diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting. This makes the Qur'anic claim that milk is 'pure' and 'agreeable' to those who drink it dubious.
Geologie a meteorologie
Země je placatá
Obracení se k Mekce
The Qur'an tells all Muslims to face in the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca when they pray. However, even if you suppose that alligning yourself with a great circle around the globe counts as facing the direction of Mecca, you are simultaneously facing opposite its direction as the circle can be traced behind you. Even worse, on the opposite side of the Earth every direction is equally facing towards and away from Mecca. Astronauts in Earth orbit or (one day) on the Moon and Mars would require even more contrived solutions. The author here presupposes a small world, local to Arabia, that is flat. Only in that world view can people everywhere face Mecca.
Požadavky na půst a modlitbu blízko pólům
The Qur'an commands Muslims to fast from eating and drinking from sunrise till sunset during Ramadan. The author of the Qur'an was apparently unfamiliar with the polar regions in which there are six months of sunlight and six months of perpetual night during Summer and Winter. Such fasting is not observable by anyone living in the polar regions, and very easy (depth of Winter) or extremely hard (height of Summer) in places within around 40 degrees latitude of the poles. Various contrived rules have been proposed by Muslim scholars for those at such latitudes to try to accommodate the inconvenient fact that we live on a round Earth.
A similar issue exists for the five daily prayers. Anyone living in the polar region would not be able to make a sunset or sunrise prayer for much of the year. Even for cities further south like Aberdeen in Scotland, the gap between the night prayer (Isha) and the dawn prayer (Fajr) is around 4 and a half hours in June, so anyone following these rules has to interupt their sleep around 3.20am, then go back to sleep before getting up for the day. Such issues would not have crossed the mind of a 7th century man in Arabia, who believed that everyone experiences sunrise and sunset when he does, and where it would be perfectly natural to arise at dawn any time of the year.
Země je roztažena a plochá
The author of the Qur'an mentions to his audience that the Earth is 'spread out' and layed flat. The arabic word here (sataha) was used to describe making the flat top or roof of a house or chamber and making a top surface flat. Words from the same root mean the flat top surface or roof of a house or chamber, a flat plane in geometry, a level place upon which dates can be spread, a rolling pin (which expands the dough), plane or flat.
The Qur'anic commentary of al-Jalalayn agrees with this understanding of the verse saying that most scholars at his time agree that the earth is flat and not spherical.
Země je koberec
The arabic word (bisaatan) used here means a thing that is spread or spread out or forth, and particularly a carpet.
Země je jako pohovka
The Earth is described using an arabic word (firashan) that means a thing that is spread on the ground to sit or lay upon.
Ibn-Kathir in his Tafsir agrees with this interpretation that the earth is flat and comfortable like a bed.
The same root word for couch in 2:22 is used as a verb in 51.48 in the sense of to spread (the first word translated spread here).
Země je postel
The Earth is described like a bed (or carpet in Yusuf Ali's translation) in verse 20:53, and similarly Quran 43:10. The arabic word (mahdan) suggests something completely flat and spread out on the ground and not rolled up for storage.
Sometimes the same Arabic word is translated as expanse as in this verse. Together with the next verse, the Earth is a thing spread out and pegged down by mountains.
The same root word is used as a participle at the end of 51.48
Země byla roztažena
Země je rovina
The Qur'an describes a time in the future when mountains will be removed. Verse 18:47 uses an arabic word (baarizatan) that means "entirely apparent" to describe the Earth at this time. Verse 20:106 uses words (qa'an and safsafan) that mean a level plain. This description assumes the Earth is already flat and level with only the mountains giving it shape. The author here appears to have no knowledge that the Earth is round and not level.
Permanentní bariéra mezi sladkou a slanou vodou
When a fresh water river flows into the sea or ocean, there is a transition region in between. This transition region is called an estuary where the fresh water remains temporarily separated from the salt water. However, this separation is not absolute (thus cannot be described as a "barrier"), is not permanent, and the different salinity levels between the two bodies of water eventually homogenize. The Qur'an however erroneously says that the seperation between the two types of water is absolute and permanent.
Hory zabraňují zemětřesením
Modern geology has discovered that large plates in the crust of the earth are responsible for the formation of mountains. Called Plate tectonic these massive plates meet and the pressure between them pushes up the crust forming mountains but also causing earthquakes and faults. the Qur'an propagates the idea that mountains are crucial in stabilizing the earth when, in fact, the earth would be much more stable and have less earthquakes if mountains did not exist.
Hory zaraženy do Země
Mountains are usually formed through the movement of lithosphere plates. They were not thrown down into the earth.
The word he has cast is alqa (lam-qaf-ya), which in this form means to throw or cast down and is the same word used in 12:10 when Yusuf is cast down into the well, and in 20:20 when Moses casts down his staff, which becomes a snake.
Hruď se zmenšuje s nadmořskou výškou
This verse says that your chest cavity gets smaller with higher altitude when in reality the opposite is true.
Zemětřesení jsou tresty od boha
Some of the highest death tolls from natural disasters in the last decade were in Muslim countries. In fact, natural disasters do not differentiate between Muslim or non-Muslim nations nor are they controlled by a divine being. Earth quakes are extremely common along tectonic fault lines and are not a punishment for human behavior but the byproduct of natural forces. The Qur'anic author perpetuates an unscientific understanding of his phenomena in there verses.
Hurikány a vánice jsou tresty od boha
Two of the deadliest blizzards in history happened in Muslim countries. However, the Qur'an regards those natural disasters as violent punishment from God. Weather patterns follow predictable patterns and are not controlled by a divine being.
Dešťová voda je čistá
The Qur'an says rainwater is pure, though in some industrial areas rainwater can contain significant amounts of pollution and acidity. Called acid rain this type of rain causes harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and buildings.
Chybí vypařování v koloběhu vody
Every verse about rain in the Qur'an implies that rain comes either directly from the sky or from Allah. However the crucial step of evaporation of water into the air is conspicuously never mentioned, despite apologetics claiming that the water cycle is described in the Qur'an.
Ledové hory na obloze
Hail forms in cumulonimbus clouds when updrafts raise water droplets to an altitude where they freeze. However, the Qur'anic author seems to have imagined mountain-like masses of hail in the sky / heaven.
Hast thou not seen how Allah wafteth the clouds, then gathereth them, then maketh them layers, and thou seest the rain come forth from between them; He sendeth down from the heaven mountains wherein is hail, and smiteth therewith whom He will, and averteth it from whom He will. The flashing of His lightning all but snatcheth away the sight.
Transliteration: wayunazzilu (and he sends down) mina (from) alssamai (the sky) min (from) jibalin (mountains) feeha (in it ['it' is feminine here so must refer to the sky]) min (of) baradin (hail)
Tafsirs such as Jalalayn and the one attributed to Ibn Abbas say that this means mountains in the sky. Ibn Kathir notes two views, that these are literally mountains of hail in the sky, or that they are a metaphor for clouds. Clouds could poetically be described as mountains in the sky, but for the verse to literally say "mountains of hail in the sky" strongly suggests large masses of ice (in the clouds or otherwise), and we can see it being understood in this literal way as evidenced in tafsirs.
Aláh používá blesky aby uděřil lidi
The Qur'anic author was superstitious about thunder and lightning and imagined that they strike those whom Allah wishes to smite.
More light on this verse comes in the following hadith, graded hasan (good) by Dar-us-Salam. Muhammad believed the sound of thunder was an angel striking the clouds, which he drives along with a piece of fire.
Mravenci rozpoznají lidi a mluví mezi sebou
Ants typically communicate with each other using pheromone which are a chemical signal. While scientists have also discovered that ants make some noises, nothing has ever indicated that the brains of ants could produce such complex communication as is depicted in the Quranic story of Solomon and the ants. However, the Qur'an tells us that not only does an ant warn her fellow ants of the approach of a large army of humans, but it recognizes one of the humans as Solomon. Then, he also understands her speech. How an ant could even see that far or have known the identify of Solomon is never explained. This account of a talking ant is clearly a legend and not scientific.
Pouze čtyři / osm typů dobytka
While the Qur'an states that there are eight kinds of cattle for use by humans, In fact there are more than a dozen kinds of cattle. The word "cattle" in 39:6 is al-ana'ami, meaning pasturing (i.e. grazing) animals. The word azwajin ("kinds" in the translation of 39:6 below) generally means mate or member of a pair. Quran 6:143-144 clarifies that these refer to male and female pairs of sheep, goats, oxes and camels, so in fact the author of the Qur'an is aware only of four kinds of cattle useful for humans. This neglects other types of cattle from the regions outside of Arabia such as reindeer, which are important to people in northern latitudes.
Koně jsou stvoření jako transportace
It took thousands of years of domestication and cross-breeding before horses were domesticated approximately 4,000 years ago in East Europe and Central Asia. Prior to this, horses were wild animals though the Qur'an neglects to mention this important fact. Even today feral horses are descendants of once domesticated horses that aren't tamed or used for human transportation.
Všechny zvířata žijí v komunitách
The Qur'an is emphatic that all animals live in communities. Some animals such as the jaguar or leopard are well known for being solitary creatures, rarely meeting in pairs and only to mate. They do not live in communities and routinely fight each other over territory.
There are also species even whose young are not raised as a family, which lay eggs and abandon them before hatching. Sea Turtles bury their eggs on a beach and leave them. When an egg hatches the baby turtle must dig to the surface and make a sprint to the sea or perish. Some reptiles behave similarly. An even better example is the Carolina anole, which is a lizard species. They lay just a single egg every 2 weeks, around 10 in total, each taking 5 to 7 weeks to hatch. Anole hatchlings must fend for themselves and are by nature solitary creatures from birth.
One translation attempts to interpret umamun (community / nation) to mean genus (group of species, plural: genera). Even supposing this to be the correct interpretation, it would represent the pre-scientific understanding in which every creature can be neatly categorised, ignorant of the on-going process in which sub-groups of many species are diverging and gradually evolving into new species.
Let ptáků je zázrak
Today, engineers and scientists are well aware of the aerodynamic properties of a bird's wing. It functions by creating a difference in the air pressure between the lower and upper part of the wing and this creates lift that pushes the bird upward. The wings of birds evolved over millions of years to acquire this feature. The author of the Qur'an, however, is unaware of these scientific details and says that 'nothing' holds up the bird except the miraculous power of Allah.
Vrozené vady a nedokonalosti
The author of the Qur'an states that there are no flaws in anything. The author fails to mention the numerous defects and imperfections in all species.
Železná zeď mezi dvěma horami
Autor Koránu opakuje syrskou legendu o Alexandrovi Velikém, jakožo velkému královi, který pomáha kmenu lidí postavit masivní stěnu z železa mezi dvěma horami. Dokonce ani se satelity a téměř kompletním probádání světa, žádny archeolog nenašel ani známku po takové masivní struktuře.
Přineste mi kusy železa!“ A když je narovnal mezi dvě úbočí, rozkázal: „Foukejte!“ Když z toho vznikl oheň, dodal: „Přineste mi k vylití do něho mosaz roztavenou!“
Křesťané uctívají Marii jako část Trojice
Křesťané nikdy neuctívali Marii jako součást svaté trojice. Autor Koránu zřejmě špatně pochopil doktrínu svaté trojice a křesťanskou teologii.
Další důkaz, že autor věřil, že Marie byla součástí křesťanské trojice je v súře Al-Ma'idah, kde je téma trojice explicitně zmíněno:
A jsou věru nevěřící ti, kdo prohlašují: „Bůh je třetí z trojice“ - zatímco není božstva kromě Boha jediného. A nepřestanou-li s tím, co říkají, věru se dotkne těch, kdož z nich jsou nevěřící, trest bolestný!Proč se tedy kajícně neobrátí k Bohu a neprosí jej za odpuštění, když Bůh zajisté je odpouštějící a slitovný? Mesiáš, syn Mariin, není leč posel, před nímž byli již poslové jiní. A matka jeho byla pravdomluvná - a oba se živili pokrmy. Pohleď, jak jim objasňujeme znamení, a pohleď, do jakých lží se dostali!
Stojí za povšimnutí, že žádná jiná entita není zmíněna (tedy Duch svatý, což je třetí člen trojice podle křesťanské doktríny). Verš 75 dokonce používá tvrzení, že Mesiáš a Marie oba jedli jídlo, aby demonstroval, že jsou normální lidé a nejsou části božské trojice.
Samaritání existovali ve starověkém Egyptě
Korán tvrdí, že Mojžíš jednal se Samaritány v jeho době, nicméně oni neexistovali až do asi půl tisíciletí poté co se událost údajně stala. Samotný termín Samari pochází od města Samaria, archeologicky potvrzené město, které bylo postaveno králem Omri kolem roku 870 př. Kr., téměr 700 let poté, co Mojžíš údajně existoval.
Tyto verše se zabývají příběhem zlatého telete v době Mojžíše. Zdá se, že Mohamed byl zmatený, protože existuje jiná Biblická pasáž v Ozeáš 8:5-6 o mnohem pozdějším zlatém teletu, které uctívali Samaritáni v době Šalamouna.
Marie popletená s Mirjam
Každý z následujících veršů vypráví příběh o Ježíšově početí. Ale Marie, Ježíšova matka, byla narozena v prvním století před Kristem a není v žádném vztahu k Mojžíšovi a jeho rodině, která existovala o 1500 let dříve. Mirjam, ne Marie, byla sestra Mojžíše a Árona a dcerou Amrama (Imrana).
Tedy tvrzení, že Mariina matka je manželkou Imrána je taky lež.
Fakt, že dva rozdílní lidé mají stejné jméno přestože žili asi 1000 let od sebe, v komunitách, které mluvily úplně jinými jazyky (starověká paleo-hebrejština a poté syrštino-aramejština), s různými abecedami, také zpochybňuje historicitu Koránského popisu.
Poštovní schránky byly vynalezeny během vlády Davida
There is no evidence that Coats of mail existed during the time of David (10th century BCE). The earliest example of a coat of mail was Celtic and its invention is commonly credited to the Celts in the 3rd century BCE.. Mail has also been found in a 5th century BCE Scythian grave, and there is a cumbersome Etruscan pattern mail artifact from the 4th century BCE. Such artifacts would have been easily preserved and found by archeologists if they had existed much earlier.
In the Qur'an, David is taught by Allah how to make coats of iron chainmail (sabighatin سَٰبِغَٰتٍ) and to measure the chainmail links (as-sardi ٱلسَّرْدِ) thereof. It says people should be thankful for this knowledge which has been passed down from him.
Ukřižovávání ve starověkém Egyptě
There are no references from any culture anywhere in the world to crucifixion as a method of execution before 500 BCE, where they started to appear in several middle eastern cultures, and it is not clear that their crucifixions were the same as what we know (the Roman crucifixion)/they are the same type. Ancient Egypt has been extensively studied in archaeology as well. However, the Qur’an tells of crucifixions at the time of Joseph (approximately 2000 BCE) and Moses (approximately 1500 BCE).
Not only that, but crucifixions are often mentioned in a very casual way in the Qu'ran, so the practice must have been widespread enough to be understood by common people, as common people are being addressed in these suras.
Islamic websites try to escape the embarrassment that the Qur'an contains an un-historical, world-wide flood story as found in the Bible and ancient near-Eastern mythology. They claim instead that the textual evidence supports nothing more than a regional flood in the Qur'anic story of Noah. There are many severe weaknesses in this claim.
If the flood was not world-wide then why was Noah instructed to spend time building a boat at all when he could have just taken his family out of the flood region with sufficient warning? Animals in the region could have done likewise by the same kind of miracle needed to bring them all to an ark.
Why would Noah have to put every kind of animal on the ark to save them when there would have been more members of most species elsewhere in the world, unaffected by the regional flood?
A mountain, or simply fleeing the region would be enough to save someone from a regional flood, but this verse says nothing can save them.
"The Earth" here could also be translated "the land", but why would Noah only care about a single region of disbelievers?
The story of Noah was a famous myth of a world-wide flood. At very least it is a major weakness that the Qur'an makes no attempt to distinguish itself from the same world-wide flood myth that its listeners were familiar with.
Noeamova archa obsahovala všechny živočišné druhy
The legend of Noah and the Ark states that two of each kind of animal was placed on an ark. However, there are over a hundred thousand species of animals including penguins, polar bears, koala bears, and kangaroos that live spread across the entire planet and in different climates and requiring specialized diets. There is no way such an event could have occurred.
Faraon nebo faraoni
Geographically, the Coptic land of Egypt was adjacent to Arabia. Thus, most Arabs were aware of the preservation method applied by the ancient Egyptian to their Pharaohs. There were so many Pharaohs ranging from numerous dynasties, many of them were preserved intact. But the Qur'an merely narrated one Pharaoh that was preserved.
Židé nazývají Ezru synem božím
Historically, Judaism has been a strict form of monotheism. But the author of the Qur'an accuses Jews of polytheism by stating that they call Uzair (Ezra) the son of God in the same way that Christians see Jesus as the son of God. The author of the Qur'an seems to be unaware of the different theological implications of these two terms between Judaism and Christianity.
Nikomu před Janem Křtitelem nebylo dáno jméno "Jan"
The name "John" originates from the Hebrew name Yohanan. Several figures in the Old Testament bore this name. To quote historical examples, there was a high priest named Johanan (3rd century BC) and a ruler named John Hyrcanus (died 104 BC). These people existed before John the Baptist, who was a contemporary of Jesus. But the Qur'an claims that nobody before John the Baptist (Yahya in Arabic) bore his name.
Nadpřirozená destrukce měst
Autor Koránu si myslel, že v okolí Arábie jsou města a kmeny zničené Aláhem za to, že odmítli jeho posly a islám. V každém konkrétním příkladu v Koránu (A'ad, Thamud, Midian, Lotův lid, faraonova armáda), zničení nevěřících je rázem a zcela. Díky dnešnímu vědeckému pokroku, historická města a kmeny jsou známé, že byly zničeny přírodníma katastrofama, hladomory, válkami, migrací, nebo zanedbáním, což často zabere léta nebo desítky let. Ale Korán pouze opakuje obvyklý mýtus starověkého blízkého východu, kde se tyto příhody považují za okamžité a rychlé a náhlé tresty od boha za lidské hříchy.
Náhlost Aláhova trestu je zvýrazněna mnohokrát v súře al-A'raf:
V Koránu, lid Thamud byl zabit okamžitě zemětřesením Quran 7:78 anebo hromobitím Quran 11:67, Quran 41:13-17, Quran 51:44, Quran 69:5. Lid A'ad byl zabit silným větrem po 7 dní Quran 41:13-16,Quran 46:24-35,Quran 51:41, Quran 69:6-7. Lid Midian (Midyan) byl zabit přes noc zemětřesením Quran 7:91, Quran 29:36. Města Lota byla zničena deštěm kamenů z nebe Quran 54:32, Quran 29:34. Konkrétní umístění těchto měst jsou momentálně neznáma, a Midian byla široká geografická oblast, tedy tvrzení o jejich náhlém zničení mohou být nefalzifikovatelná. Mnoho jiných polyteistických měst rozhodně nezažilo žádné náhlé zničení.
Lidé mohou žít tisíc let
Nejstarší potvrzený lidský život byl něco přes 120 let. Na základě fosilních záznamů a zkoumání lidských pozůstatků, antropologové došli k závěru, že délka lidského života se zvyšuje, ne snižuje. Nicméně Korán tvrdí, že Noe žil téměř tisíc let.
Neexistující mešita v Jeruzalémě
Muslimové tvrdí, že mešita Al-Aqsa je zmíněna v Koránu jakožto nejvzálenější mešita, přestože v Jeruzálémě nebyla žádná mešita v době Mohameda.
Lidé jsou v Mekce ochránění
Korán tvrdí, že Aláh udělal Mekku a Kábu bezpečným místem. Nicméně ty místa byly v historii mnohokrát napadeny a válčilo se tam. Juhayman al-Otaybi, Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr a Abu Tahir al-Janabi zabili tisíce muslimských poutníků v Mekce. Navíc, Yazid Bin Muawiya poslal vojenský prapor aby zaútočil na Mekku a znesvětil Kábu. Obecná bezpečnost lidí v Mekce nemá žádné historické důkazy, které by ji podporovaly.
Anglický překlad od Yusuf Ali překládá آمِنًا jako "a place of safety" .
Anglický překlad od Yusuf Ali překládá قِيَامًا jako "an asylum of security" .
Požadavek učit se v arabštině
Existuje více, než 5000 jazyků a dialektů ve světě, s méně než 4% lidské populace rodilých mluvších arabštiny. Nicméně je nutné aby se muslimové modlili v arabštině, recitovali Korán v arabštině a chápali komentáře a tradice Mohameda v arabštině. Divíme se, proč by vše-vědoucí bytost neposkytla efektivnější metodu pro zaslání své zprávy všem lidem na Zemi a proč nepočítá s tou obrovskou diverzitou jazyků.
Mýty a legendy
Zatímco zázraky by podle definice měly porušovat zákony přírody a vědecká vysvětlení, je zajímavé všimnout si některých podivných a absurdních mýtů a legend v Koránu.
Lidé transformování na opice
Korán zachycuje zázračnou událost, kdy byli porušovatelé sabatu transformování na opice. Tento popis se zdá být pouhou legendou, jelikož nemá žádné vědecké opodstatnění.
Socha zlatého telete bučí
Sice to byla jenom socha, ale přesto mohla bučet.
Kmeny chycené za zdí
Příběh "dvourožce" (Dhul-Qarnayn) říká, že jsou dva kmeny chycené za masivní železnou zdí. Podle Koránu, tu zeď postavil dvourožec a oni budou vypuštění v Den soudný. Evidentně, žádná taková zeď nebyla nalezena a ani nejsou žádné kmeny, které by za ní byly schované.
Korán tvrdí, že Marie obdržela jídlo poslané z nebes. Neexistují žádné vědecky ověřené případy plně uvařeného jídla padajícího z nebe.
Hůl se transformuje na plaz
Šalamounova armáda džinů a ptáků
V průběhu historie, králové a císaři poroučeli větším či menším armádám. Nikdo z nich, ale není znám, že by vlastnil armády, které jsou složené z ptáků a džinů. Tento příběh v Koránu čerpá z židovského folklóru.
Mluvil s dudkem a chtěl jej potrestat za malou chybu.
Dudek byl ve skutečnosti zaneprázdněn odposloucháváním krásné vládkyně Sáby.
Jonáš provádí pokání uvnitř ryby
Člověk by nemohl žít v rybě a modlit se v ní.
Mohamed letí na okřídleném koni do nebe
Trvalo jeden týden, odcestovat z Mekky až k nejvzdálenější mešitě na velbloudovi. Ale Korán zjevuje, že magický létající kůň, zvaný Burák, odcestoval podobnou vzdálenost za pár minut. Nikdy se neukázalo, že by taková bytost byla reálná a zdá se, že existuje jen v legendách a mýtech.
Části těla mluví
Končetiny a orgány lidí jsou ovládány mozkem, který posílá elektrický signál skrze nervový systém. Ale Korán věří, že končetiny mohou mluvit a svědčit proti člověku, přestože nemají žádný vlastní hlas, paměť nebo mysl.
Mojžíš a Izraelité přešli moře které bylo rozděleno na dvě části.
Šalamoun může ovládat vzduch
Král Šalamoun měl moc ovládat vzduch jeho příkazem a mohl letět kam chtěl.
Mrtvý muž svědčil proti svému vrahovi
Aláh řekl lidem aby udeřili zavražděnou oběť kusem krávy, aby jej dočasně oživili.
Hory a ptáci můžou zpívat písně
Korán v mnoha súrách uvádí, že první lidé "Adam a Eva" spolu mluvili jakýmsi jazykem, a také že jim můh řekl názvy všeho. Díky současnému oboru lingvistiky a historie jazyka víme, že typy vět které jsou v Koránu jednoduše nemohly být mluveny lidmi dříve než 100 000 let po vyvinutí prvních lidí. Jazyk prvních lidí by nám byl nesrozumitelný a oni by nebyli schopni vyjádřit věty, které v Koránu říkají Adam a Eva.
Matematická chyba v zákonech o dědictví
4.11: A Bůh vám stanoví o dětech vašich toto: synovi podíl rovný podílu dvou dcer; a je-li dcer více než dvě, patří jim dvě třetiny toho, co zůstavil. A jestliže je dcera pouze sama, tedy jí patří polovina. A rodičům jeho: každému z nich jedna šestina toho, co zůstavil, jestliže měl mužského potomka. Jestliže neměl mužského potomka, pak po něm dědí jeho rodiče, přičemž matce jeho patří jedna třetina. A jestliže měl bratry, pak matce náleží jedna šestina toho, co zůstane po vyplacení odkazů a uhrazení dluhu“. A vy nevíte, kdo z rodičů či dětí vašich je vám užitečnější. A toto je ustanovení od Boha a věru Bůh je vševědoucí, moudrý.4.12: Vám náleží polovina z toho , co zůstavily manželky vaše, jestliže neměly mužského potomka. A jestliže měly mužského potomka, patří vám z toho, co zůstavily, jedna čtvrtina poté, když byly vyplaceny odkazy a uhrazeny dluhy jejich. A manželkám patří jedna čtvrtina toho, co zůstavíte, jestliže nemáte mužského potomka. A jestliže máte mužského potomka, pak patří manželkám jedna osmina toho, co jste zůstavili po vyplacení odkazů a po uhrazení dluhů. Jestliže muž nebo žena zanechají dědictví po boční linii a mají bratra nebo sestru, pak každému z obou patří jedna šestina. A je-li jich více, pak jsou podílníky na jedné třetině po vyplacení odkazů a po uhrazení dluhů aniž se tím někomu uškodí. A toto je ustanovení od Boha a Bůh je vševědoucí, blahovolný.
- Manželka: 1/8 = 3/24,
- Dcery: 2/3 = 16/24,
- Otec: 1/6 = 4/24,
- Matka: 1/6 = 4/24,
- Součet = 27/24=1.125
Součet se nerovná 1. Tato chyba nemůže být nijak vyřešena. 
Lidé ke lhaní používají čelo
Dle obzvláště nápaditého tvrzení o zázraku, které prohlašují některé islámské stránky, Korán identifikuje která část mozku se používá pro říkání lží. Studium mozkových vln ukázalo, že elektrická aktivita probíhá v celém mozku když člověk klame.
- Harrison's principles of internal medicine. (17th ed. ed.). New York [etc.]: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 2339–2346. ISBN 978-0-07-147693-5, 2008.
- Richard A. Gabriel, The ancient world, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007 P.79
- Robinson, H. R., Oriental Armour, New York:Dover Publications, 1995, pp.10-12