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===Punti di vista e ricerche degli Studiosi===
 
===Punti di vista e ricerche degli Studiosi===
  
====Lesser vs Greater Jihad Hadith====
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====Minore vs Maggiore Jihad Hadith====
  
The "lesser versus greater jihad" hadith's [[isnad]] (the completeness of the chain of narrators and the reputation of each individual narrators within the chain of oral tradition) has been categorized by scholars as "weak" (da`if), and generally in [[Islamic law]], only the authentic ([[sahih]]) and good (hasan) hadiths are used in deriving the rules. The weak hadiths have no value for the purpose of [[Shariah|Shari'ah]].<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503547442|title= May People Act According to a Weak Hadith?|publisher= Islam Online|author= Muzammil Siddiqi|series= Fatwa Bank|date= September 27, 2003|archiveurl= http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=https%3A%2F%2Fweb.archive.org%2Fweb%2F20061216005731%2Fhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.islamonline.net%2Fservlet%2FSatellite%3Fpagename%3DIslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaE%26cid%3D1119503547442&date=2014-03-15|deadurl=yes}}</ref> Contemporary Islamic scholars have even classed it as "maudu" (fabricated), meaning this narration, by some, is not even considered to be a hadith at all.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.irfi.org/articles/articles_251_300/52_weak_ahadith.htm|title= 52 Weak Ahadith|publisher= Islamic Research Foundation International|author= Ibrahim B. Syed|date= accessed November 20, 2011|archiveurl= http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.irfi.org/articles/articles_251_300/52_weak_ahadith.htm&date=2011-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
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Gli hadith del "minore versus maggiore jihad" [[isnad]] (la completezza delle catene dei narratori e la reputazione individuale di ogni narratore all'interno della catena della tradizione orale) è stata categorizzata dagli studiosi come "debole" (da`if), e generalmente nella [[legge Islamica]], solo gli hadith autentici ([[sahih]]) e buoni (hasan) sono usati per ricavare le regole. Gli hadith deboli non hanno valore per gli scopi della [[Shariah|Shari'ah]].<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503547442|title= May People Act According to a Weak Hadith?|publisher= Islam Online|author= Muzammil Siddiqi|series= Fatwa Bank|date= September 27, 2003|archiveurl= http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=https%3A%2F%2Fweb.archive.org%2Fweb%2F20061216005731%2Fhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.islamonline.net%2Fservlet%2FSatellite%3Fpagename%3DIslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaE%26cid%3D1119503547442&date=2014-03-15|deadurl=yes}}</ref> Gli studiosi Islamici moderni li hanno ulteriormente classificati come "maudu" (fabbricati/inventati), che significa che questa narrazione, per alcuni, non è assolutamente considerata come hadith.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.irfi.org/articles/articles_251_300/52_weak_ahadith.htm|title= 52 Weak Ahadith|publisher= Islamic Research Foundation International|author= Ibrahim B. Syed|date= accessed November 20, 2011|archiveurl= http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.irfi.org/articles/articles_251_300/52_weak_ahadith.htm&date=2011-11-20|deadurl=no}}</ref>
  
Dr. Abdullah Azzam:
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Dott. Abdullah Azzam:
  
 
{{Quote||[It] is in fact a false, fabricated hadith which has no basis. It is only a saying of Ibrahim Ibn Abi `Abalah, one of the Successors, and it contradicts textual evidence and reality... The word "jihad", when mentioned on its own, only means combat with weapons, as was mentioned by Ibn Rushd, and upon this the four Imams have agreed.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.religioscope.com/info/doc/jihad/azzam_caravan_6_conclusion.htm|title= Join the Caravan: Conclusion|publisher= Religioscope (originally from al-haqq.org)|author= Imam Abdullah Azzam|date= December 2001|archiveurl= http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.religioscope.com%2Finfo%2Fdoc%2Fjihad%2Fazzam_caravan_6_conclusion.htm&date=2014-03-16|deadurl=no}}</ref>}}
 
{{Quote||[It] is in fact a false, fabricated hadith which has no basis. It is only a saying of Ibrahim Ibn Abi `Abalah, one of the Successors, and it contradicts textual evidence and reality... The word "jihad", when mentioned on its own, only means combat with weapons, as was mentioned by Ibn Rushd, and upon this the four Imams have agreed.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.religioscope.com/info/doc/jihad/azzam_caravan_6_conclusion.htm|title= Join the Caravan: Conclusion|publisher= Religioscope (originally from al-haqq.org)|author= Imam Abdullah Azzam|date= December 2001|archiveurl= http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.religioscope.com%2Finfo%2Fdoc%2Fjihad%2Fazzam_caravan_6_conclusion.htm&date=2014-03-16|deadurl=no}}</ref>}}

Revision as of 15:20, 29 March 2016

Questo articolo esamina il concetto della minore e maggiore Jihad, e del suo ruolo nell'Islam.

Rivendicazioni_

Le due forme di Jihad nell'Islam sono talvolta spiegate dagli apologeti nel modo seguente:

  • Minore (esterno) jihad (al-jihad al-asghar); uno sforzo militare, ossia una guerra santa;
  • Maggiore Jihad interiore (al-jihad al-akbar); l'impegno del miglioramento personale contro i propri desideri;

Loro affermano che il "Jihad interiore" si riferisce essenzialmente a tutti gli sforzi che un Musulmano pu affrontare, nell'aderire alla religione. Per esempio, uno studio di scolari dell'Islam può essere uno sforzo intellettuale che secondo alcuni può riferirsi alla "Jihad."

Origini

Durante la vita del Profeta Maometto, e fino ad oggi, la parola 'Jihad' era, ed è, usata quasi sempre in senso militare.[1] Questa idea della grande o piccola jihad fu un successivo sviluppo originato dall'11th secolo nel libro "La storia di Baghdad", dello studioso islamico al-Khatib al-Baghdadiis, mediante Yahya ibn al 'Ala', che disse:

Ci è stato detto da Layth, dall'autorità di 'Ata', dall'autorità di Abu Rabah, dall'autorità di Jabir, che disse, 'Il Profeta (salallaahu 'alayhee wa sallam) dopo essere tornato da una delle sue battaglie,e a quel punto ci disse, 'siete giunti ad un eccellente arrivo, siete venuti dalla Piccola Jihad alla Grande Jihad - la lotta di un servo (di Allah) contro i suoi desideri.'[2]

Infatti, tutte le quattro scuole di giurisprudenza (Fiqh) Sunnita così come la tradizione Shiita non fanno assolutamente riferimento alla "maggiore" jihad, ma solo alla minore. Quindi prima di esaminare le prove contro la validità di questo hadith, è chiaro che il concetto della maggiore jihad non è ortodosso ed è un'eresia per la maggioranza dei Musulmani del mondo.

Analisi

Non-conformità con il Corano

Uno dei più importanti fattori della classificazione di un genuino hadith, è che deve essere conforme con ciò che è scritto nel Corano. Comunque, questo hadith contraddice direttamente gli insegnamenti del Corano.

___Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and receive no hurt, and those who strive and fight in the cause of Allah with their goods and their persons. Allah hath granted a grade higher to those who strive and fight with their goods and persons than to those who sit (at home). Unto all (in Faith) Hath Allah promised good: But those who strive and fight Hath He distinguished above those who sit (at home) by a special reward,

Non-conformità con le maggiori collezioni di Hadith

In tutte e sei le maggiori collezioni di Hadith (Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Dawud, al-Sughra, Tirmidhi e Ibn Majah), la jihad si riferisce quasi sempre alla "minore", riguardo lo sforzo fisico e non alla "grande" sforzo spirituale interno. Come ad esempio, ci sono circa 200 riferimenti alla jihad nella collezione di hadith più affidabile, Sahih Bukhari, ed ogni singolo riferimento presuppone che la jihad indichi letteralmente la guerra.

Questi falsi hadith non appaiono in nessuna delle più famose collezioni di hadith e sono incoerenti e non canvalidati con gli insegnamenti presenti nei (Mutawatir) sahih hadith. Alcuni di questi hadith affermano che combattere per la jihad è secondo solo alla fede in Maometto ed Allah, e che stare per un'ora nei ranghi di una battaglia è meglio che essere in preghiera per sessanta anni.

Inoltre, lo stesso Maometto rifiuta l'affermazione che la "grande" jihad è lo sforzo spirituale interiore, quando egli afferma che la migliore jihad è quella di un uomo il cui "sangue è versato e il suo cavallo è ferito".

E' stato narrato che Amr bin Abasah disse: “Sono andato dal Profeta a chiedere : ‘O Messaggero di Allah, quale Jihad è la migliore?’ Egli rispose: ‘(Quella di un uomo) il cui sangue è stato versato e il suo cavallo ferito.’”
Sunan Ibn Majah 2794
Era stato domandato, 'Oh messaggero di Allah!, quale atto è più eccellente?'. Egli(Sallallahu alyhi wa salam) rispose: "Un credente che si sforza nella via di Dio con se stesso e le sue ricchezze.[3]
Saheeh Bukhari 4/45
All'Apostolo di Allah gli fu chiesto, "Qual'è la migliore azione?" Egli rispose, "Di credere in Allah e nel Suo Apostolo (Maometto). L'interrogatore poi chiese, "Qual'è la successiva (nel bene)? EGli rispose, "Di partecipare alla Jihad (guerra santa) nella causa di Allah."
Rimanere per un'ora nei ranghi in una battaglia è meglio che rimanere in preghiera per sessanta anni.[3]
Saheeh related by Ibn Ade and Ibn Asakir from Abu Hurayrah 4/6165. Sahih al Jaami as Sagheer no. 4305
Un mattino o un pomeriggio spesi nella via di Allah è meglio rispetto a stare nel mondo stesso e di tutto ciò che contenuto.[3]
Saheeh al Bukhari 4/50 , agreed upon
Devo dirti chi ha la condizione migliore tra le persone? Colui che prende le redini del suo cavallo per fare la jihad per la causa di Allah
E' stato narrato nell'autorità di Abu Sa'id Khudri che il Messaggero di Allah (possa la pace essere su di lui) disse (a lui): Abu Sa'id, chi accetta Allah lietamente come suo Signore, l'Islam come la sua religione e Maometto come il suo Apostolo ha il diritto di entrare in paradiso. Egli (Abu Sa'id) rifletté e disse: Messaggero di Allah, ripetilo per me. Egli (il Messaggero di Allah) lo fece e disse: C'è un'altro atto che eleva la posizione di un uomo in Paradiso di un livello cento volte (maggiore), e l'elevazione tra un livello e l'altro è uguale all'altezza del paradiso dalla terra. Egli (Abu Sa'id) disse: Qual'è tale atto? Egli rispose: la Jihad nella causa di Allah! La Jihad nella causa di Allah!
Nell'autorità Rashid, nell'autorità di Sa'd (radiallaahu 'anhu), nell'autorità di uno dei Compagni, che un uomo disse, "Oh Messaggero di Allah! Perchè i credenti sono tutti sottoposti a giudizio quando saranno nelle loro tombe, ad eccezione dei martiri?" Egli (salallaahu 'alayhee wa sallam) disse, "Lo scontrarsi delle spade sopra la sua testa era la prova sufficiente per lui."[4]
Sahih al-Jam'i

L'importanza posta nella Jihad "fisica" nell'Islam è visibile in un sahih hadith che testimonia come Maometto si riferisca ai Musulmani che si rifiutano di combattere o di valutare di intraprendere la Jihad come degli "ipocriti".

E' stato narrato nell'autorità di Abu Huraira che il Messaggero di Allah (possa la pace essere su di lui) disse: colui che è morto ma non combattendo per la causa di Allah o non manifestando alcun desiderio (o determinazione) per la Jihad è morto da ipocrita.
Chi muore ma non ha combattuto (i.e., per la causa di Allah), o non ha sinceramente considerato combattere, morirà come al tempo della Jahiliyyah (l'era pre-Islamica dell'ignoranza era.
Jihad is made Obligatory
Sahih hadith, Tafsir Ibn Kathir

Punti di vista e ricerche degli Studiosi

Minore vs Maggiore Jihad Hadith

Gli hadith del "minore versus maggiore jihad" isnad (la completezza delle catene dei narratori e la reputazione individuale di ogni narratore all'interno della catena della tradizione orale) è stata categorizzata dagli studiosi come "debole" (da`if), e generalmente nella legge Islamica, solo gli hadith autentici (sahih) e buoni (hasan) sono usati per ricavare le regole. Gli hadith deboli non hanno valore per gli scopi della Shari'ah.[5] Gli studiosi Islamici moderni li hanno ulteriormente classificati come "maudu" (fabbricati/inventati), che significa che questa narrazione, per alcuni, non è assolutamente considerata come hadith.[6]

Dott. Abdullah Azzam:

[It] is in fact a false, fabricated hadith which has no basis. It is only a saying of Ibrahim Ibn Abi `Abalah, one of the Successors, and it contradicts textual evidence and reality... The word "jihad", when mentioned on its own, only means combat with weapons, as was mentioned by Ibn Rushd, and upon this the four Imams have agreed.[7]

Ibn Taymiyyah (also known as Shaykh ul-Islam):

There is a Hadith related by a group of people which states that the Prophet [peace be upon him] said after the battle of Tabuk: 'We have returned from Jihad Asghar [lesser jihad] to Jihad Akbar [greater jihad].' This hadith has no source, nobody whomsoever in the field of Islamic Knowledge has narrated it. Jihad against the disbelievers is the most noble of actions, and moreover it is the most important action for the sake of mankind.[8]

Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani:

This saying is widespread and it is a saying by Ibrahim ibn Ablah according to Nisa'i in al-Kuna. Ghazali mentions it in the Ihya' and al-`Iraqi said that Bayhaqi related it on the authority of Jabir and said: There is weakness in its chain of transmission.[9]
Hajar al Asqalani, Tasdid al-qaws, see also Kashf al-Khafaa’ (no.1362)

Al Bayhaqi:

Its chain of narration is weak. Ibn Hajr said that this was a saying of Ibraaheem bin Abee Ablah, a Taabi’ee, and not a Ahaadeeth of the Messenger (SAW). [10][11]
Hajar ibn al Asqalani ’Kashf al-Khafaa’ (no.1362)

Al Haakim:

His hadith are unreliable.[12]

Abu Yala al Khalili:

He often Adulterates, is very weak and narrates unknown hadith. Their is also a narrator, Yahyah bin Alulah, who is a known liar and forger of hadith (Ahmed).[12]
Mashir al Ashwaq, Ibn Nuhad pg 1/31

Amru bin Ali an Nasai and Ad Darqutni:

His hadith are renounced.[12]

Ibn Adi:

His hadith are false.[12]
Tahzeeb ut Tahzeeb 11/261-262

Abu Dahadbi:

Abdu Hatim said he is not a strong narrator, Ibn Ma'een classified him as weak and Ad Daqatuni said he is to be neglected.[12]

Mufti Zar Wali Khan (who is given the title Sheikh ul hadith) mentioned in his "Dora Tafsir" that this hadith was fabricated by Sufis.

Related Hadith From the Same Source

A similar narration taken from the same source reads:

The ink of the scholar is more holy than the blood of the Martyr.

This hadith has also been classed as Maudu (fabricated), even by its originating source.

Dr. Suhaib Hassan:

Mentioned by al-Manjaniqi is his collection of ahadith of older narrators reporting from younger ones, on the authority of al-Hasan al-Basri. Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi said that it is maudu as a narration from the Prophet (s.a.w), but that is a statement of al-Hasan al-Basri [Kashf al-Khafa, no. 2276].[10]

Shaikh Abdullah Faisal:

Related by Khateeb in The History of Baghdad 2/193. He also said it was a fabricated hadith.

The above-mentioned fabricated hadith gives preference to the method of da'wah over jihad for spreading Islam. However, the best method for spreading Islam is jihad and not da'wah. Thus the Holy Prophet (s.a.w) spent thirteen years in Makkah giving da'wah and only approximately one hundred people embraced Islam. But when he (s.a.w) entered Makkah with military might and Shawka (power) two thousand took their Shahadah in one day.

The Mujahideen conquer lands and save the entire populace from entering Hell-fire by delivering Islam to them. This accomplishment is much greater than what books can do.

Also this fabricated hadith contradicts the Holy Qur'an:

Surah An Nisa verse 95:

"Not equal are those of the believers who sit at home(except those who are disabled by injury or are blind or lame), and those who strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah with their wealth and lives. Allah has preferred in grades those who strive hard and fight with their wealth and their lives above those who sit at home."[13]

Lesser vs Greater Jihad Concept

In the Editors preface to Yusuf al ‘Uyayree's "Thawaabit ‘ala darb al Jihad" (Constants on The Path of Jihad), we find the following in reference to the concept of the 'greater jihad' being the inner struggle:

This is a very twisted concept of Jihad via Western propagation albeit it is true from a linguistic point of view. However, the overall Islamic connotation of Jihad is fighting for the sake of Allah (Jihad fe Sabeelillah). Before Islam, the word Salat was used by the Arabs; it meant supplication. But when Islam came, it changed the meaning of the word to the prayer we know of, although, linguistically it remains as supplication. The same is applied to Jihad. Before, it had nothing to do with fighting for the sake of Allah; and when Islam came, it became very apparent that Islam changed its meaning. One may argue that the Qur’an uses the word Jihad for ‘struggling’. This is true as we see this in many ayaat of Qur’an. However, like we said, the overall implication of Jihad has changed, but its linguistic meaning remains the same. For example, when the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alayhe wassallam) said: Narrated by Abu Huraira: Allah’s Messenger said: “Whosoever dies without participating in an expedition (Jihad) nor having the intention to do so, dies on a branch of hypocrisy.” Is he referring to an “inner struggle” here? Not at all.[14]

Ibn Baaz:

Question: Is Jihad in the way of Allah the same level regardless of whether it is with one's life, wealth , or supplication , even if somebody is cabable of the type that involves one's life?

Answer: There are different kinds of jihad - with one's self, wealth, supplication, teaching, giving guidance, or helping others in good in any form.The highest form of jihad, however, is with one's life (the intent here is not suicide, for that is forbidden in Islam), then comes Jihad with one's wealth and jihad with teaching and guidance, and in this way Da'wah is a form of jihad, but jihad with one's life is the highest form.[15]

Dr. Muhammad Amin:

Jihad of the self and Jihad by wealth, if they do not lead one to establish the Call of Truth, and to stand beside it, enjoining the right and forbidding the wrong, and contributing one's life and wealth in the Path of Allah, are deficient Jihads containing inadequacy. It is astonishing that the hour of testing and of severity, in which the feet are shaken and the heart reaches the throat, can be called the Hour of the Lesser Jihad, while the hours of safety and comfort in secure homes, in the midst of one's family and friends, can be called hours of the Greater Jihad! In the like of such appellations do the holders-back rejoice in their sitting behind from obeying the Messenger of Allah (salallaahu 'alayhee wa sallam) and his Companions (radiallaahu 'anhum)? Such people find contentment and comfort in this way, while in reality they only deceive their weak souls, for the true values of the deeds are entirely the opposite.[16]

Conclusion

The lesser versus greater jihad "hadith" and other similar narrations have been shown by Islamic scholars to be, not only weak, but false. They serve no purpose in Islamic law or thought, and contradict sahih hadith and the Qur'an itself. Therefore, this concept of a lesser and greater jihad has no validity within Islam. We leave you with the words of Professor David Cook:

In reading Muslim literature -- both contemporary and classical -- one can see that the evidence for the primacy of spiritual jihad is negligible. Today it is certain that no Muslim, writing in a non-Western language (such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu), would ever make claims that jihad is primarily nonviolent or has been superseded by the spiritual jihad. Such claims are made solely by Western scholars, primarily those who study Sufism and/or work in interfaith dialogue, and by Muslim apologists who are trying to present Islam in the most innocuous manner possible.[17]
This page is featured in the core article, Islam and Propaganda which serves as a starting point for anyone wishing to learn more about this topic Core part.png

See Also

External Links

References

  1. Bernard Lewis, "The Crisis of Islam", chapter 2, 2001. 
  2. Fayd al-Qadir vol. 4, p. 511
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Imam Abdullah Azzam, "Join the Caravan (p. 4)", Religioscope (originally from al-haqq.org), December 2001, http://www.religioscope.com/info/doc/jihad/azzam_caravan_1_foreword.htm. 
  4. Abu Khubayb and Abu Zubayr, "The Slandered Jihad (Refutation of Jihad Asghar)"
  5. Muzammil Siddiqi, "May People Act According to a Weak Hadith?", Islam Online, Fatwa Bank, September 27, 2003 (archived from the original), http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=https%3A%2F%2Fweb.archive.org%2Fweb%2F20061216005731%2Fhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.islamonline.net%2Fservlet%2FSatellite%3Fpagename%3DIslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaE%26cid%3D1119503547442&date=2014-03-15. 
  6. Ibrahim B. Syed, "52 Weak Ahadith", Islamic Research Foundation International, accessed November 20, 2011 (archived), http://www.irfi.org/articles/articles_251_300/52_weak_ahadith.htm. 
  7. Imam Abdullah Azzam, "Join the Caravan: Conclusion", Religioscope (originally from al-haqq.org), December 2001 (archived), http://www.religioscope.com/info/doc/jihad/azzam_caravan_6_conclusion.htm. 
  8. Ibn Taymiyyah, "Al Furqan", pp. 44-45
  9. Shaykh Hisham Kabbani, "Jihad Al Akbar", As-Sunnah Foundation of America, (from: "Islamic Beliefs and Doctrine According to Ahl al-Sunna: A Repudiation of "Salafi" Innovations"), accessed November 20, 2011 (archived), http://www.sunnah.org/tasawwuf/jihad004.html. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Dr. Suhaib Hassan, "The Science of Hadith", TheReligionIslam, accessed November 20, 2011 (archived), http://www.thereligionislam.com/islamicideology/scienceofhadith.htm. 
  11. "Be Aware - Da'eef (weak), mawdoo’ (fabricated) hadeeth", World of Islam Portal, May 10, 2008 (archived), http://islam.worldofislam.info/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=729:qwe-have-returned-from-the-lesser-jihad-to-the-greater-jihad-jihad-un-nafs-jihad-ul-akbarq&catid=129&Itemid=63. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 Imam Abdullah Azzam, "Join the Caravan (p. 27)", Religioscope (originally from al-haqq.org), December 2001, http://www.religioscope.com/info/doc/jihad/azzam_caravan_1_foreword.htm. 
  13. Shaikh Abdullah Faisal, "100 Fabricated Hadiths", Darul Islam Publishers, 2000 (archived), http://www.missionislam.com/knowledge/books/100FabricatedHadith.pdf. 
  14. Shaykh al Uyayree - Constants in the Path of Jihad - Lecture series delivered by Imam Anwar al Awlaki, transcribed and edited by Mujahid Fe Sabeelillah
  15. Shaykh Abdul-Azeez Bin Baaz, Fatawa Islamiyah, Vol 8, p.24
  16. Dr. Muhammad Amin, Path of Islamic Propagation
  17. David Cook, "Understanding Jihad", University of California Press, pp. 165-6, ISBN 978-0-520-93187-9, 2005 (archived), http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/j.ctt1ppjtw.