Difference between revisions of "Shi'ism"

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'''Shi‘ites''' (or ''Shi‘as'') are adherents of ''Shi‘ite Islam'' (also referred to as ''Shi‘a Islam'' or ''Shi‘ism''), and make up the second largest sect of [[Islam]] with an estimated 10-20% of the total Muslim population.<ref>[http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/comparison_charts/islamic_sects.htm Comparison of Sunni and Shia Islam] - ReligionFacts</ref><ref>[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/540503/Shiite Shīʿite] - Encyclopædia Britannica Online (2010)</ref><ref>[http://pewforum.org/Muslim/Mapping-the-Global-Muslim-Population%286%29.aspx Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Muslim Population] - Pew Research Center, October 7, 2009</ref><ref>Tracy Miller - [http://pewforum.org/newassets/images/reports/Muslimpopulation/Muslimpopulation.pdf Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population] - Pew Research Center, October 2009</ref><ref>[https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2122.html The World Factbook]</ref>
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The '''Shia''' ( ''Shīʿah''), or the '''Shiites''', represent the second largest [[Islamic schools and branches|denomination]] of [[Islam]]. with an estimated 50% of the total Muslim population.
  
The historic background of the [[Sunni]]–Shi'ite split lies in the schism that occurred when the Islamic prophet [[Muhammad]] died in the year 632 AD, leading to a dispute over succession to Muhammad as a [[caliph]] of the Islamic community spread across various parts of the world which led to the Battle of Siffin.  
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Adherents of Shia Islam are called '''Shias''' or the '''Shi'a''' as a collective or '''Shi'i''' individually.<ref>''Shi'a'' is an alternative spelling of ''Shia'', and ''Shi'ite'' of ''Shiite''. In subsequent sections, the spellings ''Shia'' and ''Shiite'' are adopted for consistency, except where the alternative spelling is in the title of a reference.</ref> ''Shi'a'' is the short form of the historic phrase ''Shīʻatu ʻAlī'' meaning "followers", "faction" or "party" of [[Muhammad]]'s son-in-law and cousin [[Ali]], whom the Shia believe to be Muhammad's successor in the [[Caliphate]]. [[Twelver Shia]] (''Ithnā'ashariyyah'') is the largest branch of Shia Islam, and the term Shia Muslim is often taken to refer to Twelvers by default. {{as of|2009}} Shia Muslims constituted 10-13% of the world's Muslim population, Shias comprised 11-14% of the Muslim population in the Middle East-North Africa region, and between 68% and 80% of Shias lived in four countries: Iran, Pakistan, India and Iraq.<ref name=PEW2009>{{cite web|title=Mapping the Global Muslim Population|url=http://www.pewforum.org/2009/10/07/mapping-the-global-muslim-population/|accessdate=10 December 2014}}</ref>
  
According to this Shi'ite view, Ali as the successor of Muhammad, not only ruled over the community in [[justice]], but also interpreted the [[Shari'ah law]] and its esoteric meaning. Hence he was regarded as being free from error and sin (infallible), and appointed by [[Allah]] by divine decree (nass) to be the first Imam. Shi'ites combine five [[Salah|prayers]] into three prayer times; morning, afternoon and night. So, technically, they still partake in the same number of prayers a day as their Sunni counterparts.
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Shia Islam is based on the [[Quran]] and the message of the [[Prophets in Islam|Islamic prophet]] [[Muhammad]] attested in [[hadith]] recorded by the Shia, and certain books deemed sacred to the Shia ([[Nahj al-Balagha]]).<ref name="Esposito, John 2002. p. 40">Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam." Oxford University Press, 2002 | ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p. 40</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e2189?_hi=26&_pos=238 |title=From the article on Shii Islam in Oxford Islamic Studies Online |publisher=Oxfordislamicstudies.com |accessdate=2011-05-04}}</ref> Shia consider Ali to have been divinely appointed as the successor to Muhammad, and as the first [[Imamah (Shia doctrine)|Imam]]. The Shia also extend this "Imami" doctrine to Muhammad's family, the ''[[Ahl al-Bayt]]'' ("the People of the House"), and certain individuals among his descendants, known as ''Imams'', who they believe possess special spiritual and political authority over the community, infallibility, and other divinely-ordained traits.<ref name=franc46>{{cite web|url=http://www.al-islam.org/principles-shiite-creed-ayatullah-ibrahim-amini/lesson-13-imams-traits|title=Lesson 13: Imam’s Traits|work=Al-Islam.org}}</ref> Although there are myriad Shia subsects, modern Shia Islam has been divided into three main groupings: [[Twelver]]s, [[Ismailism|Ismaili]]s and [[Zaidiyyah|Zaidi]]s with  [[Twelver Shia]] being the largest and most influential group among Shia.<ref>Tabataba'i (1979), p. 76</ref><ref>God's rule: the politics of world religions - Page 146, Jacob Neusner - 2003</ref><ref name="Britannica">{{cite web |url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/540503/Shiite |title=Shīʿite |work= |publisher=[[Encyclopædia Britannica]] Online |year=2010 |accessdate=2010-08-25}}</ref><ref>Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam," Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p.40</ref>
 
 
Shi'ites, as with the Sunnis, also follow the Qur'an and [[Sunnah]]. Shi'ites have their own form of [[hadith]] largely based on sermons by Ali, ''Al-Kafi'' and ''Nahj al-Balagha'' being seen as the most reliable.<ref>[http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=viewarticle&artid=72 Al Kafi - The Bukhari of Shi'ism] - AHYA</ref> Shi'ite [[fiqh]] (according to a fatwa by Al-Azhar, the most respected authority in Sunni Islam)<ref>[http://www.al-islam.org/encyclopedia/chapter1b/14.html al-Azhar Verdict on the Shia] - Shi'ite Encyclopedia v2.0, Al-islam</ref> is accepted as a fifth [[Madh'hab|school of Islamic thought]].
 
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==

Revision as of 14:43, 9 June 2015

The Shia ( Shīʿah), or the Shiites, represent the second largest denomination of Islam. with an estimated 50% of the total Muslim population.

Adherents of Shia Islam are called Shias or the Shi'a as a collective or Shi'i individually.[1] Shi'a is the short form of the historic phrase Shīʻatu ʻAlī meaning "followers", "faction" or "party" of Muhammad's son-in-law and cousin Ali, whom the Shia believe to be Muhammad's successor in the Caliphate. Twelver Shia (Ithnā'ashariyyah) is the largest branch of Shia Islam, and the term Shia Muslim is often taken to refer to Twelvers by default. Template:As of Shia Muslims constituted 10-13% of the world's Muslim population, Shias comprised 11-14% of the Muslim population in the Middle East-North Africa region, and between 68% and 80% of Shias lived in four countries: Iran, Pakistan, India and Iraq.[2]

Shia Islam is based on the Quran and the message of the Islamic prophet Muhammad attested in hadith recorded by the Shia, and certain books deemed sacred to the Shia (Nahj al-Balagha).[3][4] Shia consider Ali to have been divinely appointed as the successor to Muhammad, and as the first Imam. The Shia also extend this "Imami" doctrine to Muhammad's family, the Ahl al-Bayt ("the People of the House"), and certain individuals among his descendants, known as Imams, who they believe possess special spiritual and political authority over the community, infallibility, and other divinely-ordained traits.[5] Although there are myriad Shia subsects, modern Shia Islam has been divided into three main groupings: Twelvers, Ismailis and Zaidis with Twelver Shia being the largest and most influential group among Shia.[6][7][8][9]

See Also

  • Sunni
  • Shi'ites - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Shi'ites

References

  1. Shi'a is an alternative spelling of Shia, and Shi'ite of Shiite. In subsequent sections, the spellings Shia and Shiite are adopted for consistency, except where the alternative spelling is in the title of a reference.
  2. "Mapping the Global Muslim Population", http://www.pewforum.org/2009/10/07/mapping-the-global-muslim-population/. 
  3. Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam." Oxford University Press, 2002 | ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p. 40
  4. "From the article on Shii Islam in Oxford Islamic Studies Online", Oxfordislamicstudies.com, http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e2189?_hi=26&_pos=238. 
  5. "Lesson 13: Imam’s Traits", Al-Islam.org, http://www.al-islam.org/principles-shiite-creed-ayatullah-ibrahim-amini/lesson-13-imams-traits. 
  6. Tabataba'i (1979), p. 76
  7. God's rule: the politics of world religions - Page 146, Jacob Neusner - 2003
  8. "Shīʿite", Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2010, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/540503/Shiite. 
  9. Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam," Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p.40