Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Muhammad and Booty

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According to the Muslim tradition, the early Muslim community was involved in near constant conflicts with neighboring Arab tribes, local Jews, and the pagans of Mecca. The very first independently dated document we have to mention the prophet is the Greek Διδασκαλία Ἰακώβου Didaskalia Iacobou (The Teaching of Jacob), which mentions that the prophet and his Arabs had come to Palestine "armed with a sword." Such warfare in this historical period was always accompanied by looting and plunder on the part of the winning army, and the subject of taking booty comes up again and again in the early Islamic sources, as this was clearly an important, even driving factor for the early Muslim movement. The hadith and sira portray Muhammad as a typical Arab battle commander, very concerned with booty and driven by the need to acquire more of it.

Booty has been made legal for Muhammad

They ask thee (O Muhammad) of the spoils of war. Say: The spoils of war belong to Allah and the messenger, so keep your duty to Allah, and adjust the matter of your difference, and obey Allah and His messenger, if ye are (true) believers.
And know that whatever ye take as spoils of war, lo! a fifth thereof is for Allah, and for the messenger and for the kinsman (who hath need) and orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, if ye believe in Allah and that which We revealed unto Our slave on the Day of Discrimination, the day when the two armies met. And Allah is Able to do all things.
What Allah has bestowed on His Messenger (and taken away) from them [the Jews] - for this ye made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry: but Allah gives power to His messengers over any He pleases: and Allah has power over all things.

Had it not been for a previous ordainment from Allah, a severe penalty would have reached you for the (ransom) that ye took.

But (now) enjoy what ye took in war, lawful and good: but fear Allah: for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
Qur'an 8:68-69
Take alms out of their property, you would cleanse them and purify them thereby, and pray for them; surely your prayer is a relief to them; and Allah is Hearing, Knowing.
Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah: Allah's Apostle said, "Booty has been made legal for me."
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "A prophet amongst the prophets carried out a holy military expedition, so he said to his followers, 'Anyone who has married a woman and wants to consummate the marriage, and has not done so yet, should not accompany me; nor should a man who has built a house but has not completed its roof; nor a man who has sheep or shecamels and is waiting for the birth of their young ones.' So, the prophet carried out the expedition and when he reached that town at the time or nearly at the time of the 'Asr prayer, he said to the sun, 'O sun! You are under Allah's Order and I am under Allah's Order O Allah! Stop it (i.e. the sun) from setting.' It was stopped till Allah made him victorious.


Then he collected the booty and the fire came to burn it, but it did not burn it. He said (to his men), 'Some of you have stolen something from the booty. So one man from every tribe should give me a pledge of allegiance by shaking hands with me.' (They did so and) the hand of a man got stuck over the hand of their prophet. Then that prophet said (to the man), 'The theft has been committed by your people. So all the persons of your tribe should give me the pledge of allegiance by shaking hands with me.' The hands of two or three men got stuck over the hand of their prophet and he said, "You have committed the theft.' Then they brought a head of gold like the head of a cow and put it there, and the fire came and consumed the booty. The Prophet added: Then Allah saw our weakness and disability, so he made booty legal for us."
God said, 'It is not for any prophet,' i.e. before thee, 'to take prisoners' from his enemies 'until he has made slaughter in the earth,' i.e. slaughtered his enemies until he drives them from the land. 'You desire the lure of this world,' i.e.: its goods, the ransom of the captives. 'But God desires the next world,' i.e.: their killing them to manifest the religion which He wishes to manifest and by which the next world may be attended. 'Had there not previously been a book from God there would have come upon you for what you took,' i.e. prisoners and booty, 'an awful punishment,' i.e. had it not previously gone forth from Me that I would punish only after a prohibition--and He had not prohibited then--I would have punished you for what you did. Then He made it lawful to him and to them as a mercy from Him and a gift from the Compassionate, the Merciful. He said, 'So enjoy what you have captured as lawful and good, and fear God. God is Forgiving, Merciful.' The He said: 'O prophet, Say to those captives in your hands, If God knows any good in your hearts He will give you something better than that which has been taken from you and God will pardon you. God is Forgiving, Merciful.'
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, pp. 326-327, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 1, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 676, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
Then He said: 'God was pleased with the believers when they swore allegiance to you under the tree and He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down the Sakina upon them and rewarded them with a recent victory and much spoil which they will take. God is mighty, wise. God has promised you much spoil which you will capture and has given you this in advance, and kept men's hands from you, that it may be a sign to the believers and that He may guide you on an upright path, and other (things) which you have not been able to get. God encompasses them, and God is almighty.'
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, p. 506, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 321, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
Now Huyayy b. Akhtab had gone with B. Qurayza into their forts when Quraysh and Ghatafan had withdrawn and left them, to keep his word to Ka'b b. Asad; and when they felt sure that the apostle would not leave them until he had made an end of them Ka'b b. Asad said to them: 'O Jews, you can see what has happened to you; I offer you three alternatives. Take which you please.' (i) We will follow this man and accept him as true, for by God it has become plain to you that he is a prophet who has been sent and that it is he that you find mentioned in your scripture; and then your lives, your property, your women and children will be saved. They said, 'We will never abandon the laws of the Torah and never change it for another.' He said, 'Then if you won't accept this suggestion (ii) let us kill our wives and children and send men with their swords drawn to Muhammad and his companions leaving no encumbrances behind us, until God decides between us and Muhammad. If we perish, we perish, and we shall not leave children behind us to cause us anxiety. If we conquer we can acquire other wives and children.' They said, 'Should we kill these poor creatures? What would be the good of life when they were dead?' He said, 'Then if you will not accept this suggestion (iii) tonight is the eve of the sabbath and it may well be that Muhammad and his companions will feel secure from us then, so come down, perhaps we can take Muhammad and his companions by surprise.' They said: 'Are we to profane our Sabbath and do on the sabbath what those before us of whom you well know did and were turned into apes" He answered, 'Not a single man among you from the day of your birth has ever passed a night resolved to do what do what he knows ought to be done.'
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, pp. 461-462, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, pp. 235-236, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
Sa'd said, 'Then I give the judgement that the men should be killed, the property divided, and the women and children taken as captives.' 'Asim b. 'Umar b. Qatada told me from 'Abdu'l-Rahman b. 'Amr b. Sa'd b. Mu'adh from 'Alqama b. Waqqas al-Laythi that the apostle said to Sa'd, 'You have given the judgement of Allah above the seven heavens'.
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, p. 464, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 240, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
According to Ibn Humayd-Salamah-Muhammad b. Ishaq someone not to be doubted-Abu Hurayrah: When these cities were conquered in the time of 'Umar, 'Uthman, and afterward, [Abu Hurayrah] used to say, "Conquer for yourselves whatever seems good to you, for, by the one who holds Abu Hurayrah's soul in His hand, you have conquered no city, neither shall you conquer any until the Day of Resurrection, but that Muhammad was given its keys beforehand."
al-Tabari (d. 923), Michael Fishbein, ed, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. VIII, SUNY Press, p. 13, ISBN 0-7914-3149-5, 1997, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n2028/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 570, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 

Dividing the Booty

How the Booty was Divided

Narrated Qais: The Badr warriors were given five thousand (Dirhams) each, yearly. 'Umar said, "I will surely give them more than what I will give to others."
Narrated 'Amr bin Taghlib: Allah's Apostle gave (gifts) to some people to the exclusion of some others. The latter seemed to be displeased by that. The Prophet said, "I give to some people, lest they should deviate from True Faith or lose patience, while I refer other people to the goodness and contentment which Allah has put in their hearts, and 'Amr bin Taghlib is amongst them." 'Amr bin Taghlib said, "The statement of Allah's Apostle is dearer to me than red camels."


Narrated Al-Hasan: 'Amr bin Taghlib told us that Allah's Apostle got some property or some war prisoners and he distributed them in the above way (i.e. giving to some people to the exclusion of others) .
Narrated Ibn 'Umar: On the day of Khaibar, Allah's Apostle divided (the war booty of Khaibar) with the ratio of two shares for the horse and one-share for the foot soldier. (The sub-narrator, Nafi' explained this, saying, "If a man had a horse, he was given three shares and if he had no horse, then he was given one share.")
Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab: By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, were I not afraid that the other Muslims might be left in poverty, I would divide (the land of) whatever village I may conquer (among the fighters), as the Prophet divided the land of Khaibar. But I prefer to leave it as a (source of) a common treasury for them to distribute it revenue amongst themselves.
'Abdu'l-Rahman b. al-Harith and others of our friends from Sulayman b. Musa from Makhul from Abu Umama al Bahili said: 'I asked 'Ubada b. al-Samit about the chapter of al-Anfal and he said that it came down concerning those who took part in the battle of Badr when they quarrelled about the booty and showed their evil nature. God took it out of their hands and gave it to the apostle, and he divided it equally among the Muslims.'
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, p. 307, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 1, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 642, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
'Ubada b. al-Samit, so I have heard, when he was asked about this sura [al-Anfal] said: 'It came down about us, the people of Badr, when we quarrelled about the booty on that day, and God took it out of our hands when we showed an evil disposition and gave it to the apostle, who divided it equally among us. In that there was the fear of God, and obedience to Him and to His apostle, and peace among us.' Then He mentions the army, and their journey with the apostle when they knew that Quraysh had come out against them, and they had only gone out making for the caravan because they wanted booty, and He said, 'As thy lord brought thee out of thy house in truth when a part of the believers were unwilling, they disputed with thee about the truth after it had become plain, as though they were being driven to their death while they looked on.' i.e. Unwilling to meet the army and disliking to confront Quraysh when they were told of them.
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, p. 321, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol., al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
Then He taught them how to divide the spoil and His judgement about it when He made it lawful to them and said: 'And know that what you take as booty a fifth belongs to God and the apostle and next of kin and orphans and the poor and the wayfarer, if you believe in God and what We sent down to Our servant on the day of furqan, the day the two armies met; and God is able to do all things,'
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, pp. 324-325, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 1, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 672, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
Then the apostle divided the property, wives, and children of B. Qurayza among the Muslims, and he made known on that day the shares of horse and men, and took out his fifth. A horseman got three shares, two for the horse and one for the rider. A man without a horse got one share. On the day of B. Qurayza there were thirty-six horses. It was the first booty on which lots were cast and the fifth was taken. According to its precedent and what the apostle did the divisions were made, and it remained the custom for raids.
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, p. 466, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 244, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
Dihya b. Khalifa al-Kalbi had asked the apostle for Safiya, and when he chose her for himself he gave him her two cousins. the women of Khaybar were distributed among the Muslims. The Muslims ate the meat of the domestic donkeys and the apostle got up and forbade the people to do a number of things which he enumerated.
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, p. 511, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 331, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
When the spoil of Khaybar was divided, al-Shaqq and Nata fell to the Muslims while al-Katiba was divided into five sections: God's fifth; the prophet's share (T. fifth); the share of kindred, orphans, the poor (T. and wayfarers); maintenance of the prophet's wives; and maintenance of the men who acted as intermediaries in the peace negotiations with the men of Fadak. To Muhayyisa, who was one of these men, the apostle gave thirty loads of barley and thirty loads of dates. Khaybar was apportioned among the men of al-Hudaybiya without regard to whether they were present at Khaybar or not. Only Jabir b. 'Abdullah b. 'Amr b. Haram was absent and the apostle gave him the same share as the others. Its two wadis, al-Surayr and Khass, formed the territory into which Khaybar was divided. Nata and al-Shaqq formed 18 shares of which Nata formed 5 and al-Shaqq 13. These two places were divided into 1,800 shares.
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, p. 521, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 349, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
Then the apostle distributed al-Katiba which is Wadi Khass between his kindred and wives and to other men and women. He gave his daughter Fatima 200 loads; Ali 100; Usama b. Zayd 200 and 50 loads of dates; 'A'isha 200; Abu Bakr 100; 'Aqil b. Abu Talib 140; B. Ja'far 50; Rabi'a b. al-Harith 100; al-Salt b. Makhrama and his two sons 100, 40 of them for al-Salt himself; Abu Nabiqa 50; Rukana b. 'Abdu Yazid 50; Qays b. Makhrama 30; his brother Abu'l-Qasim 40; the daughters of 'Ubayda b. al-Harith and the daughter of al-Husayn b. al-Harith 100; B. 'Ubayd b. 'Abdu Yazid 60; Ibn Aus b. Makhrama 30; Mistah b. Uthatha and Ibn Ilyas 50; Umm Rumaytha 40; Nu'aym b. Hind 30; Buhayna d. al-Harith 30; 'Ujayr. 'Abdu Yazid 30; Umm Hakim d. al-Zubayr b. 'Abdu'l-Muttalib 30; Jumana d. Abu Talib 30; I al-Arqam 50; 'Abdu'l-Rahman b. Abu Bakr 40; Hamna d. Jahsh 30; Ummu'l-Zubayr 40; Duba'a d. al-Zubayr 40; I. Abu Khunaysh 30; Umm Talib 40; Abu Basra 20; Numayla al-Kalbi 50; 'Abdullah b. Wahb and his two daughters 90 of which 40 were for his two sons; Umm Habib d. Jahsh 30; Malku' b. Abda 30; and to his own wives 700.

In the Name of Allah the Compassionate and Merciful. A memorandum of what Muhammad the apostle of Allah gave his wives from the wheat of Khaybar. He distributed to them 180 loads. He gave his daughter Fatima 85, Usama b. Zayd 40, al-Miqdad b. al-Aswad 15, Umm Rumaytha 5. 'Uthman b. 'Affan was witness and 'Abbas wrote the document.

Salih b. Kaysan told me from Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri from 'Ubaydallah b. 'Abdullah b. 'Utbah b. Mas'ud: The only dispositions that the apostle made at his death were three: He bequeathed to the Rahawis land which produced a hundred loads in Khaybar, to the Dariyis, the Saba'is, and the Ash'aris the same. He also gave instructions that the mission of Usama b. Zayd b. Haritha should be carried through and that two religions should not be allowed to remain in the peninsula of the Arabs.
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, pp. 522-523, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, pp. 352-353, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
Abdullah b. Abu Bakr told me that he was told from Abu Qatada al-Ansari; and one of our companions whom I have no reason to suspect told me from Nafi', client of B. Ghifar Abu Muhammad from Abu Qatada, that the latter said: On the day of Hunayn I saw two men fighting, a Muslim and a polytheist. A friend of the latter was making to help him against the Muslim, so I went up to him and struck off his hand, and he throttled me with the other; and by God he did not let me go until I smelt the reek of blood. He had all but killed me and had not loss of blood weakened him he would have done so. But he fell and I struck and killed him, and was too occupied with the fighting to pay any more attention to him. One of the Meccans passed by and stripped him, and when the fighting was over and we had finished with the enemy the apostle said that anyone who had killed a foe could have his spoil. I told the apostle that I had killed a man who was worth stripping and had been too occupied with fighting at the time and that I did not know who had spoiled him. One of the Meccans admitted that I had spoken the truth and that the spoil was in his possession. ‘So pay him to his satisfaction on my behalf from his spoil. Abu Bakr said, ‘No, by Allah, he shall not “give him satisfaction’ from it. Are you going to make one of God’s lions who fought for His religion go shares with you in his prey? Return the spoil of the man he killed to him!’ The apostle confirmed Abu Bakr’s words, so I took the spoil from him and sold it and bought with the money a small palm-grove. It is the first property I ever held.

One I do not suspect told me from Abu Salama from Ishaq b. 'Abdullah b. Abu Talha from Anas b. Malik: Abu Talha alone took the spoil of twenty men.

My father Ishaq b. Yasar told me that he was told from Jubayr b. Mut'im: Before the people fled and men were fighting one another I saw the like of a black garment coming from heaven until it fell between us and the enemy. I looked, and lo black ants everywhere filled the wadi. I had no doubt that they were the angels. Then the enemy fled.
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, pp. 571-572, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, pp. 448-449, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
Then the Messenger of God gave orders concerning the contents of the camp which the people had collected, and it was all brought together. Among the Muslims, however, there was a difference of opinion concerning it. Those who had collected it said, "It is ours. The Messenger of God promised every man that he could keep the booty he took." Those who were fighting and pursuing the enemy said, "If it had not been for us, you would not have taken it. We distracted the enemy from you so that you could take what you took." Those who were guarding the Messenger of God for fear that the enemy would attack him said, "By God, you have no better right to it than we have. We wanted to kill the enemy when God gave us the opportunity and made them turn their backs, and we wanted to take property when there was no one to protect it; but we were afraid that the enemy might wheel round and attack the Messenger of God, so we remained standing before him; you have no better right to booty than we have."
According to Ibn Humayd-Salamah-Muhammad b. Ishaq -'Abd al-Rahman b. al-Harith and other companions of ours Sulayman b. Musa al-Ashdaq-Makhul-Abu Umamah alBahili: I asked 'Ubadah b. al-Samit about (Surat) al-Anfal (8). He replied, "It was revealed concerning us, the participants in the battle of Badr, when we disagreed about the booty and became very bad-tempered about it. God removed it from our hands and handed it over to his Messenger, and the Messenger of God divided it equally among the Muslims. In this matter there can be seen fear of God, obedience to his Messenger, and the settling of differences."
al-Tabari (d. 923), W. Montgomery Watt; M. V. McDonald, eds, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. VII, SUNY Press, pp. 63-64, ISBN 0-88706-344-6, 1987, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n1805/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, pp. 457-458, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 
See Also Ishaq:307
Then the Messenger divided the wealth, wives, and children of the Banu Qurayza Jews among the Muslims.
al-Tabari (d. 923), Michael Fishbein, ed, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. VIII, SUNY Press, p. 38, ISBN 0-7914-3149-5, 1997, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n2028/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 591, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 
Khaybar was divided among the people who had been at Hudaybiyah, both those who were present at Khaybar and those who were absent. Only Jabir b. 'Abdallah b. Haram al-Ansari was absent, and the Messenger of God allotted him a share like that of those who were present.
al-Tabari (d. 923), Michael Fishbein, ed, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. VIII, SUNY Press, pp. 128-129, ISBN 0-7914-3149-5, 1997, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n2028/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 3, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 19, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 
According to Ibn Humayd-Salamah-Ibn Ishaq, who said: I asked Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri how the Messenger of God's grant to the Jews of Khaybar of their date palms, when he granted them the palm trees with the proviso of a tax on them, had taken place: did he concede them these terms as established [only] until his death, or for some necessity did he grant them to them without such a. proviso? Ibn Shihab informed me that the Messenger of God conquered Khaybar by force after fighting. Khaybar was something that God gave as booty to His Messenger. The Messenger of God took one-fifth of it and divided [the remainder] among the Muslims. Those of the inhabitants who surrendered did so on condition that they should be expelled after having fought. The Messenger of God summoned them and said, "If you wish, we will deliver these properties to you on condition that you shall work them and that their produce shall be divided between us and you) I will allow you to remain as long as God allows you to remain." They accepted, and they worked the properties on those terms. The Messenger of God used to send 'Abdallah b. Rawalliah) he would divide the produce and assess it fairly for the inhabitants. After the death of the Prophet, Abu Bakr after the Prophet confirmed the properties in their hands on the same terms of sharecropping on which the Messenger of God had dealt with them. When Abu Bakr died, 'Umar confirmed the sharecropping arrangement in the beginning of his term as commander) then, however, 'Umar was informed that the Messenger of God had said during his final illness, "Two religions cannot coexist in the Arabian peninsula." 'Umar investigated the matter until trustworthy evidence reached him) then he sent to the Jews, saying: "God has given permission for you to be expelled) for I have received word that the Messenger of God said that two religions cannot coexist in the Arabian peninsula. Let anyone who has a treaty from the Messenger of God bring it to me, and I will carry it out for him. Let any Jew who has no treaty from the Messenger of God make ready to leave." Thus 'Umar expelled any of them who had no treaty from the Messenger of God.
al-Tabari (d. 923), Michael Fishbein, ed, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. VIII, SUNY Press, pp. 129-130, ISBN 0-7914-3149-5, 1997, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n2028/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 3, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, pp. 20-21, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 
Ibn Humayd-Salamah-Ibn Ishaq-Hammad b. Salamah-Ishaq b. 'Abdallah b. Abi Talhah-Anas b. Malik: On the day of Hunayn, Abu Talhah alone took the spoils of twenty men whom he had killed.
al-Tabari (d. 923), Ismail K. Poonawala, ed, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. IX, SUNY Press, p. 13, ISBN 0-88706-691-7, 1990, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n2267/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 3, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 77, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 
After the Messenger of God had completed the return of the captives of Hunayn to their families, he rode away and the people followed him, saying, "O messenger of God, divide our booty of camels and small cattle among us," until they forced him back against a tree and his mantle was pulled away from him. He said, "O men, give me back my mantle! By God, if I had as many sheep as the trees of the Tihamah I would have divided them among you. You have not found me miserly or cowardly or a liar." Then he stood near his camel and took a hair from its hump and holding it aloft in his fingers said, "O men, by God, I do not have anything of your booty, even this hair, except the fifth, and that fifth will be returned to you. So bring back the needle and the thread, for dishonesty will be a shame, a flame, and a disgrace on the Day of Judgement." A man from the Ansar came with a ball of hair thread, and said, "O Messenger of God, I took this ball to make a pad for my sore camel." He replied, "As for my share in that, you can keep it." The man said, "If it has come to that, I don't want it," and he threw it away.
al-Tabari (d. 923), Ismail K. Poonawala, ed, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. IX, SUNY Press, p. 31, ISBN 0-88706-691-7, 1990, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n2267/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 3, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, pp. 89-90, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 
See Also Ishaq:594
"Now then: Your messenger reached us on our return from Byzantine territory and met us in Medina. He conveyed your message and told us your news and informed us of your [acceptance of] Islam and your killing of the polytheists. Indeed, God has guided you with His guidance. If you [wish to] do well and obey God and His Messenger [you must] perform prayers, pay the zakat tax, give God's fifth of booty, the share of His Messenger, his selected portion (safiyy), and alms (sadaqah) to the poor, which is incumbent on the faithful. [The required zakat is:] from land one tenth of that watered by springs and rain, and one twentieth of that watered by the leathern bucket; from camels, a milch camel for every forty camels, and a young male camel for every thirty camels; a sheep for every five camels; two sheep for every ten camels; one cow for every forty cows; a bull calf or a cow calf for every thirty cows; a sheep for every forty sheep at pasture. This is God's ordinance, which He has made obligatory on the faithful with regard to alms. If anyone adds more thereto, it is to his credit. He who professes this and bears witness to his Islam and helps the faithful against the polytheists is one of the faithful with his rights and obligations as theirs, and has the protection of God and His Messenger. If a Jew or a Christian embraces Islam, then he has the same rights and obligations as the faithful. He who holds fast to his religion, Judaism or Christianity, is not to be tempted from it. It is incumbent on him to pay the poll tax: for every adult, male or female, free or slave, one full dinar (denarius), or its value in al-ma`afir, or its substitute in clothes. He who pays that to the Messenger of God has the protection of God and His Messenger, and he who holds back from it is the enemy of God and His Messenger.
al-Tabari (d. 923), Ismail K. Poonawala, ed, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. IX, SUNY Press, pp. 74-75, ISBN 0-88706-691-7, 1990, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n2267/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 3, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 121, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 
The Messenger of God said, "Are your sons and wives dearer to you or your possessions ?" They replied, "O Messenger of God, you have given us the choice between our honor and our possessions, so give us back our wives and sons, for they are dearer to us." He said, "As for what I and the Banu 'Abd al-Muttalib have [of your goods], they are yours. When I have prayed [the noon prayer] with the people, then [stand up and] say, 'We ask the Messenger of God's intercession with the Muslims, and the Muslims' intercession with the Messenger of God for our sons and wives.' I will then give them to you and will request [the Muslims] on your behalf." When the Messenger of God had prayed the noon prayer with the people, they stood up and spoke as he had asked them, and he did what he had promised to do. The Muhajirun said that what was theirs was the Messenger of God's, and the Ansar said the same. Al-Aqra' b. Habis [al-Tamimi], however, said that as far as he and the Banu Tamim were concerned, [they would not agree to give up their share]. 'Uyaynah b. Hisn also refused on behalf of himself and the Banu Fazarah, and so did 'Abbas b. Mirdis [al-Sulami] for himself and the Banu Sulaym. The Banu Sulaym, however, said, "[Yes], what is ours is the Messenger of God's." Therefore, 'Abbas said to them that they had rendered him a coward. Then the Messenger of God said, "He who holds to his share of these captives shall have six camels for every captive from the first booty we take." So the Muslims returned the women and children to their kinsfolk.
al-Tabari (d. 923), Ismail K. Poonawala, ed, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. IX, SUNY Press, p. 28, ISBN 0-88706-691-7, 1990, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n2267/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 3, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 87, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 

Booty was Guaranteed to Muslim Fighters

O ye who believe! When ye go forth (to fight) in the way of Allah, be careful to discriminate, and say not unto one who offereth you peace: "Thou art not a believer," seeking the chance profits of this life (so that ye may despoil him). With Allah are plenteous spoils. Even thus (as he now is) were ye before; but Allah hath since then been gracious unto you. Therefore take care to discriminate. Allah is ever Informed of what ye do.

And much booty that they will capture. Allah is ever Mighty, Wise.

Allah promiseth you much booty that ye will capture, and hath given you this in advance, and hath withheld men's hands from you, that it may be a token for the believers, and that He may guide you on a right path.
Qur'an 48:19-20
Narrated Abu Huraira: I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "The example of a Mujahid in Allah's Cause-- and Allah knows better who really strives in His Cause----is like a person who fasts and prays continuously. Allah guarantees that He will admit the Mujahid in His Cause into Paradise if he is killed, otherwise He will return him to his home safely with rewards and war booty."

Swindling

Instances of Swindling

Narrated Ibn Shihab: These were the battles of Allah's Apostle (which he fought), and while mentioning (the Badr battle) he said, "While the corpses of the pagans were being thrown into the well, Allah's Apostle said (to them), 'Have you found what your Lord promised true?" 'Abdullah said, "Some of the Prophet's companions said, "O Allah's Apostle! You are addressing dead people.' Allah's Apostle replied, 'You do not hear what I am saying, better than they.' The total number of Muslim fighters from Quraish who fought in the battle of Badr and were given their share of the booty, were 81 men." Az-Zubair said, "When their shares were distributed, their number was 101 men. But Allah knows it better."

Preventing and Punishing Swindling

Narrated Umar ibn al-Khattab: Salih ibn Muhammad ibn Za'idah (AbuDawud said: This Salih is AbuWaqid) said: We entered the Byzantine territory with Maslamah. A man who had been dishonest about booty was brought.
He (Maslamah) asked Salim about him. He said: I heard my father narrating from Umar ibn al-Khattab from the Prophet (peace be upon him). He said: When you find a man who has been dishonest about booty, burn his property, and beat him. He beat him. He said: We found in his property a copy of the Qur'an. He again asked Salim about it. He said: Sell it and give its price in charity.

Goods Plundered

Narrated Abu Huraira: When we conquered Khaibar, we gained neither gold nor silver as booty, but we gained cows, camels, goods and gardens. Then we departed with Allah's Apostle to the valley of Al-Qira, and at that time Allah's Apostle had a slave called Mid'am who had been presented to him by one of Banu Ad-Dibbab. While the slave was dismounting the saddle of Allah's Apostle an arrow the thrower of which was unknown, came and hit him. The people said, "Congratulations to him for the martyrdom." Allah's Apostle said, "No, by Him in Whose Hand my soul is, the sheet (of cloth) which he had taken (illegally) on the day of Khaibar from the booty before the distribution of the booty, has become a flame of Fire burning him." On hearing that, a man brought one or two leather straps of shoes to the Prophet and said, "These are things I took (illegally)." On that Allah's Apostle said, "This is a strap, or these are two straps of Fire."
Narrated Al-Bara bin Azib: The Prophet appointed 'Abdullah bin Jubair as the commander of the infantry men (archers) who were fifty on the day (of the battle) of Uhud. He instructed them, "Stick to your place, and don't leave it even if you see birds snatching us, till I send for you; and if you see that we have defeated the infidels and made them flee, even then you should not leave your place till I send for you." Then the infidels were defeated. By Allah, I saw the women fleeing lifting up their clothes revealing their leg-bangles and their legs. So, the companions of 'Abdullah bin Jubair said, "The booty! O people, the booty ! Your companions have become victorious, what are you waiting for now?" 'Abdullah bin Jubair said, "Have you forgotten what Allah's Apostle said to you?" They replied, "By Allah! We will go to the people (i.e. the enemy) and collect our share from the war booty." But when they went to them, they were forced to turn back defeated. At that time Allah's Apostle in their rear was calling them back. Only twelve men remained with the Prophet and the infidels martyred seventy men from us.


On the day (of the battle) of Badr, the Prophet and his companions had caused the 'Pagans to lose 140 men, seventy of whom were captured and seventy were killed. Then Abu Sufyan asked thrice, "Is Muhammad present amongst these people?" The Prophet ordered his companions not to answer him. Then he asked thrice, "Is the son of Abu Quhafa present amongst these people?" He asked again thrice, "Is the son of Al-Khattab present amongst these people?" He then returned to his companions and said, "As for these (men), they have been killed." 'Umar could not control himself and said (to Abu Sufyan), "You told a lie, by Allah! O enemy of Allah! All those you have mentioned are alive, and the thing which will make you unhappy is still there." Abu Sufyan said, "Our victory today is a counterbalance to yours in the battle of Badr, and in war (the victory) is always undecided and is shared in turns by the belligerents, and you will find some of your (killed) men mutilated, but I did not urge my men to do so, yet I do not feel sorry for their deed" After that he started reciting cheerfully, "O Hubal, be high! (1) On that the Prophet said (to his companions), "Why don't you answer him back?" They said, "O Allah's Apostle What shall we say?" He said, "Say, Allah is Higher and more Sublime." (Then) Abu Sufyan said, "We have the (idol) Al Uzza, and you have no Uzza." The Prophet said (to his companions), "Why don't you answer him back?" They asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What shall we say?" He said, "Says Allah is our Helper and you have no helper."
Nubayh b. Wahb brother of B. 'Abdu'l-Dar told me that the apostle divided the prisoners amongst his companions and said, 'Treat them well.' Now Abu 'Aziz b. 'Umayr b. Hashim, brother of Mus'ab b. 'Umayr by the same mother and father, was among the prisoners and he said, 'My brother Mus'ab passed by me as one of the Ansar was binding me and he said: "Bind him fast, for his mother is a wealthy woman; perhaps she will redeem him from you." I was with a number of the Ansar when they brought me from Badr, and when they ate their morning and evening meals they gave me the bread and ate the dates themselves in accordance with the orders that the apostle had given about us. If anyone had a morsel of bread he gave it to me. I felt ashamed and returned it to one of them but he returned it to me untouched'.
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, p. 309, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 1, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 645, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
Ibn Hamid from Salama from Ibn Ishaq from al-Kalbi from Abu Salih from Ibn 'Abbas told me that the apostle said to al-'Abbas when he was brought to Medina, 'Redeem yourself, O 'Abbas, and your two nephews 'Aqil b. Abu Talib and Naufal b. al-Harith b. Fihr, for you are a rich man.' He replied, 'I was a Muslim but the people compelled me (to fight). He answered, 'God knows best about your Islam. If what you say is true God will reward you for it. But to all outward appearance you have been against us, so pay us your ransom.' Now the apostle had taken twenty okes of gold from him and he said, 'O apostle of God, credit me with them in my ransom.' He replied, 'That has nothing to do with it. God took that from you and gave it to us.' He said, 'I have no money.' 'Then where is the money which you left with Ummu'l-Fadl d. al-Harith when you left Mecca? You two were alone when you said to her, "If I am killed so much is for al-Fadl, 'Abdullah and Qutham and 'Ubaydallah."' 'By him in who sent you with the truth,' he exclaimed, 'none but she and I knew of this and now I know that you are God's apostle.' So he redeemed himself and the three men named above.
'Abdullah b. Abu Bakr told me that Abu Sufyan's son 'Amr whom he had by a daughter of 'Uqba b. Abu Mu'ayt was a prisoner in the apostle's hands from Badr; and when Abu Sufyan was asked to ransom his son 'Amr he said, 'Am I to suffer the double loss of my blood and my money? They killed Hanzala and I am to ransom 'Amr? Leave him with them. They can keep him as long as they like!'
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, pp. 312-313, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 465, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 
On the Badr expedition, the Messenger took the sword of Dhu al-Faqar as booty. It had belonged to Munabbih. On that day he also took Abu Jahl's camel as booty. It was a Mahri dromedary on which he used to go on raids. It is said that he wrote ‘Ma'aqil' [Blood-Money] on his sword
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 100, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
[footnote in the Arabic edition; not found in English version]
The apostle besieged the people of Khaybar in their two forts al-Watih and al-Sulalim until when they could hold out no longer they asked him to let them go, and spare their lives, and he did so. Now the apostle had taken possession of all their property-al-Shaqq, Nata, and al-Katiba and all their forts--except what appertained to these two
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, p. 515, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 337, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
Then Abu Basir went off until he halted at al-'Is in the region of Dhu'l-Marwa by the sea-shore on the road which Quraysh were accustomed to take to Syria. The Muslims who were confined in Mecca heard what the apostle had said of Abu Basir so they went out to join him in al-'Is. About seventy men attached themselves to him, and they so harried Quraysh, killing everyone they could get hold of and cutting to pieces every caravan that passed them, that Quraysh wrote to the apostle begging him by the ties of kinship to take these men in, for they had no use for them; so the apostle took them in and they came to him in Medina (755).
When Suhayl heard that Abu Basir had killed his 'Amiri guard he leant his back against the Ka'ba and swore that he would not remove it until this man's bloodwit was paid. Abu Sufyan b. Harb said, 'By God, this is sheer folly. It will not be paid.' Three times he said it.
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, p. 508, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 324, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
See Also Al-Tabari, Vol. 8, p. 91
Then a deputation from Hawazin came to him in al-Ji'rana where he held 6,000 women and children, and sheep and camels innumerable which had been captured from them.
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, p. 592, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up 
ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 488, https://app.turath.io/book/23833 
Then the Messenger of God came back to Medina, bringing with him the booty which had been taken from the polytheists. In charge of the booty he put 'Abd Allah b. Ka'b b. Zayd b. 'Awf b. Mabdhul b. 'Amr b. Mazin b. al-Najjar. Then he himself advanced, halting when he had emerged from the defile of al-Safra' at a sand dune called Sayar between the defile and al-Naziyah beside a sarh tree. There he divided equally the booty which God had bestowed upon the Muslims from the polytheists. After water had been brought to him from the spring there called al-Arwaq, he travelled on. When he was at al-Rawha', the Muslims met him, congratulating him and the Muslims with him on the victory which God had given them.

According to Ibn Humayd-Salamah-Muhammad b. Ishaq -'Asim b. 'Umar b. Qatadah and Yazid b. Ruman: Salamah b. Salamah b. Waqsh said, "What are they congratulating us on? By God, we met nothing but bald old women like hobbled sacrificial camels, so we slaughtered them." The Messenger of God smiled and said, "My nephew, those were the mala'."

The polytheist captives were with the Messenger of God, and there were forty-four of them. There was a similar number of dead.' Among the captives were 'Ugbah b. Abi Mu'ayt and alNadr b. al-Harith b. Kaladah,"' but when the Messenger of God was at al-Safra' he had al-Nadr b. al-Harith killed by 'Ali b. Abi Talib.
al-Tabari (d. 923), W. Montgomery Watt; M. V. McDonald, eds, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. VII, SUNY Press, p. 65, ISBN 0-88706-344-6, 1987, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n1805/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, pp. 458-459, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 
According to al-Waqidi, In this year, in the month of Rabi' II, the Messenger of God sent out 'Ukkashah b. Mihsan with forty men to al-Ghamr. Among them were Thabit b. Aqram and Shuja' b. Wahb. He traveled quickly, but the enemy became aware and fled. He encamped by their water and sent out scouts. They captured a spy who guided them to some of their cattle. They found two hundred camels and brought them down to Medina.
al-Tabari (d. 923), Michael Fishbein, ed, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. VIII, SUNY Press, pp. 92-93, ISBN 0-7914-3149-5, 1997, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n2028/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 640, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 
It has been reported to me that, when Ghatafan heard that the Messenger of God had encamped near Khaybar, they assembled because of him and set out to aid the Jews against him. Having traveled a day's journey, they heard a sound behind them in their possessions and families. Thinking that the enemy had come at them from behind, they turned back and stayed with their families and possessions, leaving the way to Khaybar open to the Messenger of God. The Messenger of God began taking herds and property bit by bit and conquering Khaybar fortress by fortress. The first of their fortresses that he conquered was the fortress of Na'im. Mahmud b. Maslamah was killed at it-a millstone was hurled on him from it and killed him. Next was al-Qamus, the fortress of lbn Abi al-Huqayq. The Messenger of God took some of its people captive, including Safiyyah bt. Huyayy b. Akhtab (the wife of Kinanah b. al-Rabi' b. Abi al-Huqayq) and two daughters of her paternal uncle. The Messenger of God chose Safiyyah for himself. Dihyah al-Kalbi had asked the Messenger of God for Safiyyah; when the latter chose her for himself, he gave Dihyah her two cousins. The captives of Khaybar were divided among the Muslims. Then the Messenger of God began taking the fortresses and property that were closest to him.
According to Ibn Humayd-Salamah-Muhammad b. Ishaq-'Abdallah b. Abi Bakr-a member of the Aslam: The Banu Sahm, who were a part of Aslam, came to the Messenger of God and said, "Messenger of God, by God we have been struck by drought and possess nothing." But they found that the Messenger of God had nothing to give them. So the Prophet said: "O God, Thou knowest their condition-that they have no strength and that I have nothing to give them. Open to them [for conquest] the greatest of the fortresses of Khaybar, the one most abounding in food and fat meat." The next morning God opened the fortress of al- Sa'd b. Mu'adh for them [to conquer]. There was no fortress in Khaybar more abounding in food and fat meat than it
al-Tabari (d. 923), Michael Fishbein, ed, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. VIII, SUNY Press, pp. 116-117, ISBN 0-7914-3149-5, 1997, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n2028/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 3, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, pp. 9-10, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 
See Also Ishaq:511
Concerning the affairs of the Messenger of God, the Muslims, and the [clans of] Hawazin, we have received an account on the authority of both 'Ali b. Nasr b. 'Ali al-Jahdami and 'Abd al-Warith b. 'Abd al-Samad b. 'Abd al-Warith--'Abd al-Samad [b. 'Abd al-Warith]--Aban al-'Attar--Hisham b. 'Urwah--'Urwah: The Prophet had been staying in Mecca during the year of its conquest for only a fortnight when [he received the news that the clans of] Hawazin and Thaqif [were marching against Mecca and] had already encamped at Hunayn intending to fight him. Hunayn is a valley next to Dhu al-Majaz. Both the aforementioned tribes had assembled before [their march] after hearing about the Messenger of God's departure from Medina, thinking that he was intending [to invade] them. When they learned that he had occupied Mecca, Hawazin marched against him [to Mecca] with their women, children, and possessions. Their leader was Malik b. 'Awf from the Banu Nasr. [The clans of] Thaqif joined forces with them and encamped at Hunayn intending to fight the Prophet. When the Prophet, still in Mecca, was informed about them he decided to march against them. He met them at Hunayn, and God, the Great and Mighty, inflicted defeat on them. God has mentioned this battle in the Qur'an. Since they had marched with their women, children, and flocks, God granted them as booty to His Messenger, who divided the spoils among those Quraysh who had [recently] embraced Islam.
al-Tabari (d. 923), Ismail K. Poonawala, ed, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. IX, SUNY Press, pp. 2-3, ISBN 0-88706-691-7, 1990, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n2267/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 3, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 70, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 
Among the captives was Abu Wada'ah b. Dubayrah al-Sahmi. The Messenger of God said,. "He has a son who is a shrewd merchant with much money. It is as though he had already come to you about his father's ransom." When Quraysh said, "Do not hurry in ransoming your captives, so that Muhammad and his companions do not make excessive demands on you," al-Muttalib b. Abi Wada'ah, who was the man the Messenger of God meant, said, "You are right! Do not hurry in ransoming your captives." Then he slipped away at night, went to Medina, ransomed his father for four thousand dirhams, and departed with him. After that, Quraysh sent to discuss ransoming the captives. Mikraz b. Hafs b. al-Akhyaf came to ransom Suhayl b. 'Amr, who had been taken captive by Malik b. al-Dukhshum, the brother of the Banu Salim b. 'Awf; Suhayl b. 'Amr had a split lower lip.
al-Tabari (d. 923), W. Montgomery Watt; M. V. McDonald, eds, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. VII, SUNY Press, p. 71, ISBN 0-88706-344-6, 1987, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n1805/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, pp. 464-465, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 
Then the Messenger of God sent Sa'd b. Zayd al-Angara (a member of the Banu 'Abd al-Ashhal) with some of the captives from the Banu Qurayzah to Najd, and in exchange for them he purchased horses and arms. The Messenger of God selected for himself from their women Rayhanah bt. 'Amr b. Khunafah, a woman from the Banu 'Amr b. Qurayzah, and she remained his concubine; when he predeceased her, she was still in his possession.' The Messenger of God offered to marry her and impose the curtain (hijab) on her, but she said, "Messenger of God, rather leave me in your possession [as a concubine], for it is easier for me and for you." So he did so. When the Messenger of God took her captive, she showed herself averse to Islam and insisted on Judaism. So the Messenger of God put her aside, and he was grieved because of her. Then, while he was with his companions, he heard the sound of shoes behind him and said, "This must be Tha'labah b. Sa'yah coming to bring me tidings of Rayhanah 's acceptance of Islam." He came to him and said, "Messenger of God, Rayhanah has become a Muslim"--and it gave the Messenger of God joy.
al-Tabari (d. 923), Michael Fishbein, ed, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. VIII, SUNY Press, p. 39, ISBN 0-7914-3149-5, 1997, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n2028/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 592, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 

Muhammad Takes his own Clansmen Captive

According to Ahmad b. Mansur--'Asim b. 'Ali--'Ikrimah b. 'Ammar--Abu Zumayl--'Abd Allah b. 'Abbas--'Umar b. al-Khattab: On the day of Badr, the two armies met, and God defeated the polytheists. Seventy of them were killed and seventy were taken captive. On that day the Messenger of God consulted Abu Bakr, `Ali and `Umar. Abu Bakr said, "O Prophet of God, these people are cousins, fellow clansmen and nephews. I think that you should accept ransoms for them so that what we take from them will strengthen us, and perhaps God will guide them aright so that they may be an assistance for us." The Messenger of God said, "What do you think, Ibn al-Khattab?" I said, "I say no, by God! I am not of the same opinion as Abu Bakr. I think that you should hand so-and-so over to me so that I can cut off his head, and that you should hand Hamzah's brother over to him so that he can cut off his head, and that you should hand over 'Aqil to `Ali (his brother) so that he can cut off his head. Thus God will know that there is no leniency in our hearts towards the unbelievers. These are their chiefs, their leaders, and their foremost men."
al-Tabari (d. 923), W. Montgomery Watt; M. V. McDonald, eds, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. VII, SUNY Press, pp. 80-81, ISBN 0-88706-344-6, 1987, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n1805/mode/2up 
أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 474-475, https://app.turath.io/book/9783 

Muhammad's Sources of Income

Narrated Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet (SA) said, "My livelihood is under the shade of my spear,(1) and he who disobeys my orders will be humiliated by paying Jizya" Footnote: (1) "Under the shade of my spear" means "from war booty".[1]
Sahih Bukhari 2757 (Mu'allaq hadith); see English reference in footnote

References

  1. The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari, Arabic-English, Vol.IV (page 104) by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, Islamic University—Al-Medina Al-Munauwara