List of Genuine Islamic Inventions, Innovations, Records and Firsts

From WikiIslam, the online resource on Islam
Jump to: navigation, search

Many articles (for example, "How Islamic Inventors Changed The World" and "Setting the Record Straight: The Miracle of Islamic Science") have made provably false claims, attributing various inventions, innovations and discoveries made by others to Islam and its followers. This article lists only genuine Islamic/Muslim inventions, innovations, records and firsts.

Ibrahim Hassan al-Asiri, the Muslim inventor behind the underpants bomb (a device described as “ingenious” by counterterrorism officials).[1][2]

Inventions[edit]

Historical[edit]

  • The yellow badge that was to be eventually used by the Nazis against the Jews, was invented by a Muslim caliph in Baghdad in the 9th century as a variant of the zunnār belt. This then spread to the western world in medieval times.[3]
  • According to Dr. K. Ajram, the author of "Miracle of Islamic Science", Muslim scholars invented racial-typing centuries before the German Johann Friedrich Blumenbach "divided mankind into white, yellow, brown, black and red peoples".[4]
  • The “military band” is thought to have its origins in the Ottoman military, the same military behind the Armenian Genocide, performed by the Janissary and accompanying the marching Muslim conquerors into battle since the 16th century.[5]
  • The hookah (a flask used to vaporize and smoke tobacco), which causes cancer, heart diseases and pulmonary diseases, was invented either in India under the Mughals or in Safavid Persia.[6][7][8][9][10]

Modern Day[edit]

  • The world's first PC virus, Brain.a, was created in September, 1986, by two brothers from Lahore, Pakistan, Amjad Farooq Alvi and Basit Farooq Alvi. They included their names, phone number and address in the code.[11][12]
  • The word "genocide"[13] was created in 1943, in order to describe the systematic killing of Armenian Christians by the Muslim Turks.[14][15] It is widely acknowledged to have been one of the first modern genocides,[16][17][18] and inspired the Jewish holocaust.[19]
  • In January 2013, Iran unveiled its new "amputation machine" via its official press agency, INSA. The device resembles a rotary saw and is used to mete out Shari'ah compliant punishments to thieves.[20][21][22]

Innovations[edit]

  • The "Islamic tie"; registered in Iran’s Law of Registration of Patents, Industrial Designs and Trademarks, it is a tie shaped as a scimitar (a backsword or sabre with a curved blade).[23]
  • The "turban bomb"; a bomb hidden in the turban of a suicide bomber. In a case of life imitating art, this innovative use of a turban was first witnessed during a July 2011 memorial service for Ahmed Wali Karzai in an Afghani mosque, but has since been used in other suicide bombings.[24][25]
  • The "underpants bomb"; described as “ingenious” by counterterrorism officials, it is a device that incorporates plastic explosives and is worn by a suicide bomber in place of regular underwear. First used on a flight to Detroit on Christmas Day 2009, al-Qaeda planned to use an updated underpants device in another attack in 2012.[1][2]
  • The "donkey bomb"; an explosive-laden donkey that is detonated by remote control. Although donkey bombs are rare in Afghanistan, they are occasionally used by insurgents as a way of getting close to targets.[26]
  • The "butt bomb"; from the creator of the ‘underpants bomb’, an explosives device that is inserted into the rectum. First used by the bomb maker’s brother in an attack that left the bomber dead and his target only slightly injured. The National Security Center says full-body scanners may not be able to detect these anally hidden bombs. [27][28]

Records[edit]

All records are referenced and correct at the time of entry.

Crime[edit]

  • 9 of the 11 most corrupt countries in the world (including the top-spot) are all Muslim majorities. None of the top 11 least corrupt countries are Muslim majorities.[29]
  • The only countries that still have beheading as a form of punishment in law are all Muslim majorities; Iran, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. 151 beheadings were carried out in Saudi Arabia in 2007.[30][31]
  • The only countries that still have amputation as a form of punishment in law are all Muslim majorities; Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Yemen and Muslim majority states of Nigeria.[32]
  • The only countries that still have stoning as a form of punishment in law are all Muslim majorities; Iran, Mauritania, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Yemen, United Arab Emirates, and Muslim majority states of Nigeria. Iran also has the world's highest rate of execution by stoning.[33]
  • The only countries that consider eye-gouging a legitimate judicial punishment are Iran and Saudi Arabia.[34] This punishment is derived from the Shari'ah principle of Qisas (equality in punishment between Muslims).
  • Afghanistan is the world's leading producer of opium. In 2007, 93 percent of all non-medical opium produced originated from the country. In fact, no other country has "ever produced narcotics on such a deadly scale."[35]
  • Afghanistan has around one million heroin and opium addicts out of a population of 30 million, making it the world's top user per capita.[36]

Disasters[edit]

  • 6 of the 8 countries affected by the 10 most deadly earthquakes in the last 50 years, were populated by a Muslim majority (Indonesia, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, Iran, Turkey and Tajikistan).[37][38]
  • 4 of the 10 most deadly stampedes in human history involved religious Muslims and occurred during various Islamic holy pilgrimages.[39]
  • The 1990 al-Ma'aisim Tunnel Stampede in Mecca was the most deadly peacetime stampede and human crush until that time, killing 1,426 Hajj pilgrims.[40] [39] This was surpassed by the 2015 Mina stampede, also during Hajj, with a death toll of at least 2,236.[41]
  • The 2005 stampede during a march to a shrine for a religious festival in Iraq was the 3rd most deadly stampede in history, killing at least 965 Shi'ite pilgrims.[42][39]
  • The largest oil spill in history (240 to 336 million gallons) was deliberately created by Iraqi forces whilst retreating from Kuwait during the first Gulf War.[43]

Intolerance[edit]

  • There are 13 countries in the world where the state can execute you for being atheist. Every single one is officially Islamic, making Islam the world-leader in persecuting atheists.[44]
  • 9 of the top 10 countries that persecute Christians (the most persecuted religious group on earth),[45] include Afghanistan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Iran, Maldives, Uzbekistan, Yemen, Iraq and Pakistan. Making Islam the world-leader in persecuting Christians.[46][47]
  • 3 of the 5 most dangerous countries for women (including the top-spot) are Muslim majorities, and in terms of cultural/tribal/religious danger to women, 4 of the 5 most dangerous countries (including the top-spot) are Muslim majorities, making Islam the world-leader in persecuting women.[48][49]
  • The only countries that carry the death penalty for homosexual acts are all Muslim majorities; Iran, Mauritania, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Yemen.[50]
  • More than 4,000 lesbians and gays have been executed in Iran between 1979-1999 (I.e. since its Islamic revolution). Making Iran the world's leading persecutor of homosexuals.[51]
  • Turkey has more journalists in prison than any other country, almost double that of China and Iran. Making Turkey (a member of NATO and a "showcase" Muslim democracy), in terms of imprisonments, the most repressive country in the world.[52][53]
  • Iran executes more people per capita than any other nation in the world. Reasons include drugs and sexual orientation, and June 2011 reports indicated that up to 63 people were executed in only one week.[54]
  • In 2009, during Israel’s Operation Cast Lead in Gaza, the largest anti-Semitic riots in Norway’s history took place in Oslo. All participants were Muslim.[55]
  • The are more hate crimes against LGBT individuals in Turkey than in any other member of the Council of Europe, and 84 percent of Turks say gays or lesbians are among the groups they would least like living in their area.[56][57]

Terrorism[edit]

  • Sunni Muslims have been behind the greatest number of terrorist attacks and fatalities for three consecutive years, accounting for more than 70 percent of all terrorism-related fatalities in 2011, making Islam the world-leader in terrorism.[58][59]
  • With more than 95 percent of all suicide bombing attacks around the world being carried out by Muslims, Islam is a world-leader in producing suicide bombers.[60]
  • 8 out of the 10 most deadliest terror attacks of all time (including the top-five) were carried out by Muslim terrorists (1. 9/11 attacks 2. Mumbai terror attacks 3. Beslan siege 4. Mumbai blasts 5. Madrid train blasts 8. Pan Am flight bombing 9. Bali bombings 10. Beirut barracks bombing).[61]
  • 6 of the least peaceful countries in the world are all Muslim majorities (Afghanistan, Somalia, Syria, Iraq, Sudan and Pakistan), whilst 6 of the most peaceful are all non-Muslim countries (Iceland, Denmark, New Zealand, Austria, Switzerland and Japan).[62]
  • The top ten nations suffering from terrorist attacks are all nations facing Islamic terrorism (Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, India, Yemen, Somalia, Nigeria, Thailand, Russia and Philippines).[63]
  • The youngest suicide bomber ever used in a terrorist attack in Afghanistan was an eight-year-old Muslim girl, and the youngest suicide bomber ever intercepted was a nine-year-old Muslim boy working for the Taliban. He was told that the Qur’an was being burned by Americans, and that the bomb would only kill infidels.[64][65]
  • The September 11, 2001 attacks were the United States and the world's most deadly terrorist attacks. The 19 Muslim aircraft hijackers belonged to the al-Qaida terrorist network. Nearly 3000 people, citizens of 78 countries, were killed.[66]
  • The 2004 Manila ferry bombing by the Rajah Sulaiman Movement was the Philippines' most deadly terrorist attack and the world's most deadly terrorist attack at sea, killing 116 people.[67][68]
  • The 2002 Bali bombings by members of Jemaah Islamiyah was Indonesia's most deadly terrorist attack, killing 202 people (including 88 Australians, and 38 Indonesian citizens), and injuring 240 others.[69]
  • The 2004 Beslan school siege by a group of armed Islamic separatist militants in Russia was the world's most deadly terrorist attack committed against children, killing 337 in total (156 were children).[70][71] It was also Russia's most deadliest terrorist attack.[61]
  • The 2007 suicide bombing at a public ceremony in Baghlani-jadid, Afghanistan, was the world's second most deadly terrorist attack committed against children, killing 77 in total (61 were children).[71]
  • There were 5 times more suicide attacks by Iraqi groups in 2005 (where more than 400 attacks killed more than 2,000 people) than in the entire 30-year history of the secular Tamil Tigers (77 attacks in total from 1976 to 2006).[72]
  • The Thugs, or members of the Thuggee cult, were professional countryside robbers and murderers in India who originated from seven Muslim tribes.[73] They used to befriend travellers and eventually overpower and kill them. The number of victims of thugs is estimated from 500,000 to as high as 2 million over a period of five centuries, because of which they have been described as the most destructive terrorist group in history.[74][75]

Women[edit]

  • With 91 percent of all honor-related killings around the world being carried out by Muslims, Islam is a world-leader in producing honor killers.[76]
  • All 12 countries with the largest gap in gender equality are countries where Muslims are the majority or Islam is the largest religion (the only country not to have a Muslim majority is Côte d'Ivoire, but Islam is its single largest religion).[77][78]
  • The Maldives, an Islamic country with a 100% Muslim population,[79] also has the highest divorce rate in the world, with 10.97 divorces per 1,000 inhabitants per year.[80]
  • According to Somayya Jabarti of Arab News, Saudi Arabia has the second highest divorce rate in the world (most divorces occur during the first three years of marriage).[81]
  • The world's most wanted women is a British convert to Islam. She is believed to be the main financier of a major terrorist cell affiliated to al-Shabaab, an al-Qaida-linked group in Somalia.[82]
  • Turkey is the most promiscuous nation on earth, with the average Turk having had 14.5 sexual partners. The world average is 9 sexual partners (Indian and Chinese have had only 3 partners).[83][84][85]
  • The largest human trafficking case in US history involved a sex trafficking ring run by a gang of Somali Muslim immigrants in Tennessee and Minnesota.[86]
  • Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim country with a population of 246 million, tops the UN bodies list for child trafficking cases (yet measures to protect children against sexual exploitation there "remain weak").[87]
  • 8 of the top 10 countries (including the top-spot) with the highest obesity rates among women are Muslim majorities (Qatar, Saudi Arabia, West Bank and Gaza, Lebanon, Albania, Bahrain, Egypt and the United Arab Emirates).[88]
  • Contrary to popular belief, Saudi Arabia, one of the most strictest Muslim countries in the world, also has one of the highest rape scales in the world.[89]
  • Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world that imposes a state ban on female drivers.[90] It was also the last country in the world to deny women the right to vote in elections.[91]
  • According to a report by UN Women, Turkey tops Europe and the United States in the number of incidences of violence against women.[92] More women die from gender-based violence than from cancer, traffic accidents, wars and malaria.[93]

Firsts[edit]

Intolerance[edit]

  • Muslims (including Islam's founder, Prophet Muhammad) were the aggressors in the very first religious/military conflicts between Islam and the other two most notable Abrahamic faiths; the Tabuk raid where Christian leaders were forced to pay Jizyah and submit to Islamic rule, and the exile of the Jewish Qaynuqa tribe from Medina.
  • The first ever prosecution and conviction in the United Kingdom for inciting hatred on the grounds of sexuality were of three Muslim men who distributed leaflets calling for gay men to be killed. One of the men had said the leaflets – which suggested 3 different ways to murder gay people – simply expressed what Islam says about homosexuality.[94]
  • The first ever arrest-warrant for genocide was issued by the International Criminal Court against Sudan's Muslim President, Omar al-Bashir, who is responsible for the religiously and racially-motivated deaths of millions of people.[95]
  • In 2011, Muslims[96] attacked young girls, both white and Asian, selling Remembrance Day poppies in the United Kingdom – the first such incidents in the Royal British Legion’s history.[97][98]
  • The 2012 Asian Champions League quarterfinal soccer match between the Egyptian Al Ahly and Iranian Sepahan FC clubs became the first ever match where a live bomb was thrown by fans at the players. The Sepahan midfielder Adel Kolahkaj narrowly escaped losing a limb.[99]
  • The first honor killing in decades to take place in Kolkata, the capital city of the Indian state of West Bengal, involved a Muslim man who publicly beheaded his sister in December 2012 for dishonoring the family through an affair.[100][101]

Terrorism[edit]

  • The first ever female European suicide bomber was a Belgian Catholic convert to Islam who detonated her explosive vest amid an American military patrol in the town of Baquba, Iraq, killing herself and wounding only one American soldier.[102][103][104]
  • The first ever suicide bombing in Bangladesh was carried out by a Muslim inside a library near a courthouse, killing seven people and injuring 50 others. The bomber belonged to Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen, a militant group that aims to establish Islamic law in Bangladesh.[105]
  • The first ever suicide bombing in Bulgaria was carried out by a Muslim at a Bulgarian airport, killing seven people and wounding dozens of others. It was in reaction to the assassinations of Iranian nuclear scientists.[106]
  • The first ever suicide bombing in Kazakhstan was carried out by a Muslim at the head office of the state security services in the north-western Kazakh city of Aktobe, killing the bomber and wounding three security services personnel. It was in reaction to arrests of fundamentalist Muslims.[107]
  • The first ever suicide bombing in Mali was carried out by a Muslim, wounding a soldier. A spokesman for the group said "We claim today’s attack against the Malian soldiers who chose the side of the miscreants, the enemies of Islam".[108]
  • The first ever suicide bombing in Mauritania was carried out by a Muslim outside the French embassy, killing the bomber and wounding three people. The reason is not known but Mauritania had recently witnessed a series of terrorist attacks against "Western" interests, including the kidnapping and murder of French tourists and an American teacher by Al-Qaeda.[109]
  • The first ever suicide bombing in Nigeria was carried out by a Muslim belonging to the Boko Haram terrorist group at the Nigeria Police Force headquarters in Abuja, killing the bomber and five others. Boko Haram's stated goal is to establish an Islamic state and implement shari'ah across the country.[110][111][112]
  • The first ever suicide bombing in Pakistan was carried out by a Muslim inside a church in Islamabad, killing five and injuring 40 others. It was in opposition to the country's "pro-American ruler" (the dead and injured included American and British women and children).[113][114][115]
  • The first ever suicide bombing in Somalia was carried out by a Muslim outside the National Parliament in Baidoa, killing the bomber and five others, but missing Somalia's interim president who was the intended target. It is believed The Union of Islamic Courts (UIC), a group of "Islamist" Shari'ah Courts, were behind the attack.[116][117]
  • The first ever suicide bombing in Sweden was carried out by a Muslim in a central Stockholm district full of Christmas shoppers, killing the bomber and injuring two others. It was in reaction to Swedish troops in Afghanistan and the Swedish artist Lars Vilks' drawings of Muhammad as a roundabout dog.[118][119]
  • The first ever suicide bombing in Tunisia was carried out by a Muslim in the tourist resort of Sousse, killing only the bomber and causing no other injuries or damage to property. He belonged to an Islamist group with ties to al Qaeda.[120][121]
  • The first ever suicide bombings in the United Kingdom were carried out by Muslims aboard 3 London Underground trains and a double-decker bus in Tavistock Square, killing the four bombers, fifty-two civilians and injuring over 700 others. It was in reaction to "perceived injustices by the West against Muslims and a desire for martyrdom".[122][123]

Warfare[edit]

Image Gallery[edit]

See Also[edit]

  • Lists - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Lists
  • Golden Age - A hub page that leads to other articles related to the "Golden Age"

Translations

  • A version of this page is also available in the following languages: Czech. For additional languages, see the sidebar on the left.

External Links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Paul Cruickshank, Tim Lister & Nic Robertson - Al Qaeda's bomb-makers evolve, adapt and continue to plot – CNN News, May 8, 2012
  2. 2.0 2.1 Duncan Gardham - British secret agent was al-Qaeda mole who cracked new 'underpants' bomb plot - The Telegraph, May 10, 2012
  3. Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam, Princeton University Press, June 1, 1987, ISBN 9780691008073, pp. 25-26.
  4. K. Ajram - The Miracle of Islamic Science - Knowledge House; 1st edition (September 1992) p. 200. ISBN 0911119434
  5. Bowles, Edmund A. (2006), "The impact of Turkish military bands on European court festivals in the 17th and 18th centuries", Early Music (Oxford University Press) 34 (4): 533–60
  6. "The Wealth of India"
    Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, 1976, https://books.google.com/books?id=Hm1XAAAAMAAJ&q=hookah+isndia&dq=hookah+india.
     
  7. "Charlemagne's tablecloth: a piquant history of feasting"
    Nichola Fletcher, Macmillan, p. 10, 1 Aug 2005, https://books.google.com/books?id=vMfEyKvR59sC&pg=PA10&dq=Charlemagne's+Tablecloth+hookahs#v=onepage&q&f=false.
     
  8. "Cassell's magazine Vol. 24: The Pipes of All Peoples"
    Robert Machray,, pp. 210-215, 1902, https://books.google.com/books?id=DMvfAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA214.
     
  9. "The Harmsworth monthly pictorial magazine"
    Harmsworth Brothers, Harmsworth Brothers, p. 372, 1899, https://books.google.com/books?id=HvIRAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA372&dq=origin+of+hookah#v=onepage&q=origin%20of%20hookah&f=false.
     
  10. "Control of tobacco-related cancers and other diseases: proceedings of an international symposium, January 15–19, 1990, TIFR, Bombay"
    Prakash C. Gupta, Prakash C. Gupta, p. 33, 1992, https://books.google.com/books?id=-Zqo67BjH7UC&pg=PA33&dq=hookah+origin++India#v=onepage&q=hookah%20origin%20%20India&f=false.
     
  11. Mat Honan - Why Hackers Write Computer Viruses - Gizmodo, August 4, 2011
  12. Mikko Hypponen: Fighting viruses, defending the net - TED, July 2011
  13. Wiktionary definition of genocide
  14. Coined by Raphael Lemkin, 1943; Hyde, Jennifer (2008-12-02). "Polish Jew gave his life defining, fighting genocide". CNN. 
  15. Interview with R. Lemkin in the UN implying that the term "Genocide" was invented to describe the killing of a race or group, including Armenians, "because it happened so many times".
  16. Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly Resolution, April 24, 1998.
  17. Ferguson, Niall (2006), written at New York, The War of the World: Twentieth-Century Conflict and the Descent of the West, Penguin Press, ISBN 1594201005.
  18. (PDF) A Letter from The International Association of Genocide Scholars, Genocide Watch, 2005-06-13, http://www.genocidewatch.org/images/Turkey-_13Jun05ErdoganletterAmericanHistoricalAssociation.pdf .
  19. Mark Tran - The spectre that haunts Turkey - The Guardian, October 11, 2007
  20. John Hall - Iran unveils new finger-amputating machine ahead of announcement of increasingly severe punishment of thieves - The Independent, January 28, 2013
  21. Iran unveils machine for amputating thieves’ fingers - France 24, January 25, 2013
  22. Lee Terrain - Iran Uses Machine to Amputate Criminal’s Finger in Public - ABC News, January 29, 2013
  23. Islamic tie!!! - Mideast Youth, November 16, 2010
  24. Jon Boone - Kandahar mayor killed by suicide bomber with explosives in turban - The Guardian, July 27, 2011
  25. Lianne Gutcher & Dean Nelson - Turban bomber kills former Afghan president - The Telegraph, September 20, 2011
  26. Donkey bomb kills Afghan police chief - The Telegraph, August 7, 2012
  27. Oliver Moore - Who is alleged al-Qaeda underwear bomb-maker? - The Globe and Mail, May, 8 2012
  28. Nick McMaster - Forget Underwear, Fear the Butt Bomb - Newser, January 7, 2010
  29. "1. Denmark 1. New Zealand 3. Finland 3. Sweden 5. Norway 5. Singapore 7. Switzerland 8. Netherlands 9. Australia 9. Canada 11. Luxembourg ... 167. Yemen 168. Syria 168. Turkmenistan 168. Uzbekistan 171. Iraq 172. Libya 173. South Sudan 174. Sudan 175. Afghanistan 175. North Korea 175. Somalia", "Corruption Perceptions Index 2013", Transparency International, 2013 (archived), http://www.transparency.org/cpi2013/results 
  30. Weinberg, Jon, "Sword of Justice? Beheadings Rise in Saudi Arabia", Harvard International Review, Vol. 29, No. 4, Winter 2008 (archived), http://www.questia.com/library/1G1-177028385/sword-of-justice-beheadings-rise-in-saudi-arabia. 
  31. Susan Taylor Martin, "Horror is the point of recent beheadings", St. Petersburg Times, September 23, 2004 (archived), http://www.sptimes.com/2004/09/23/news_pf/Worldandnation/Horror_is_the_point_o.shtml. 
  32. Bruce Pannier, "Iran: Criminals lose hands and feet as Shari'a law imposed", Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, January 7, 2008 (archived), http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/topic,4565c2252,45d0822f2,478b625016062,0.html. 
  33. Emma Batha, "Special report: The punishment was death by stoning. The crime? Having a mobile phone", The Independent, September 29, 2013 (archived), http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/special-report-the-punishment-was-death-by-stoning-the-crime-having-a-mobile-phone-8846585.html. 
  34. "Saudi Arabia: Court Orders Eye to Be Gouged Out", Human Rights Watch, December 10, 2005 (archived), http://www.hrw.org/news/2005/12/08/saudi-arabia-court-orders-eye-be-gouged-out. 
  35. Qaiser Butt, "Illicit drug production: Balochistan madrassa students harvest poppy on holidays", The Express Tribune, August 5, 2011 (archived), http://tribune.com.pk/story/224821/illicit-drug-production-balochistan-madrassa-students-harvest-poppy-on-holidays/. 
  36. Amie Ferris-Rotman, "Insight: Lifting the veil on Afghanistan's female addicts", Reuters, April 1, 2012 (archived), http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/04/01/us-afghanistan-women-drugs-idUSBRE83001H20120401. 
  37. This data is from Hough in his 2008 book Global Security. This does not include industrial or technological accidents and does not include disasters after the year 2008
  38. Peter Hough - Understanding Global Security - Published by Routledge; 2 edition, 21 April 2008, ISBN: 978-0415421423
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 Nobert Bermosa - 10 Deadliest Stampedes in History - Bukisa, January 30, 2009
  40. Top 10 Deadly Accidents & Disasters - The List Blog - Top 10, October 7, 2009
  41. "Iran says tests will show cause of diplomat's death in Saudi", http://www.afp.com/en/news/iran-says-tests-will-show-cause-diplomats-death-saudi. 
  42. Iraq stampede deaths near 1,000 - BBC News, August 31, 2005
  43. "10 largest oil spills in history", The Telegraph, October 7, 2011 (archived), http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/australiaandthepacific/newzealand/8812598/10-largest-oil-spills-in-history.html. 
  44. Robert Evans, "Atheists face death in 13 countries, global discrimination: study", Reuters, December 9, 2013 (archived), http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/12/10/us-religion-atheists-idUSBRE9B900G20131210. 
  45. Christianity at risk of wipe-out in the Middle East, warns new Civitas study - Civitas: The Institute for the Study of Civil Society, December 23, 2012
  46. Islamic States Pledge Tolerance as Report Says They Practice Persecution - UN Watch, January 13, 2012
  47. Although Open Doors is a Christian organization, their findings are generally supported by similar findings by secular non-partisan organizations such as the Pew Research Center and Civitas, the Institute for the Study of Civil Society (see here for further details).
  48. Note that the only non-Muslim country to make it into the second list (based on cultural/tribal/religious danger to women) is India, a country that also happens to have the largest Muslim population of all the world's non-Muslim nations. In fact, it has the third largest Muslim population out of any country, including Muslim majority ones (only beaten by Indonesia and Pakistan).
  49. The world’s five most dangerous countries for women: A Thomson Reuters Foundation global poll of experts - June 15, 2011
  50. Daniel Ottosson, "State-sponsored Homophobia", ILGA, p. 49, May 2009 (archived), http://ilga.org/historic/Statehomophobia/ILGA_State_Sponsored_Homophobia_2009.pdf. 
  51. H. Tavakoli - New Dark Ages - The Iranian, September 20, 1999
  52. Turkey 'world leader' in imprisoned journalists, IPI report says - Hürriyet Daily, April 8, 2011
  53. Dexter Filkins - Turkey’s Jailed Journalists - The New Yorker (Daily Comment), March 9, 2012
  54. Damien McElroy - Iran's use of death penalty criticised by Foreign Office - The Telegraph, June 1, 2012
  55. Manfred Gerstenfeld, "Muslim anti-Semitism in Western Europe", The Jerusalem Post, February 19, 2013 (archived), http://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Op-Ed-Contributors/Muslim-anti-Semitism-in-Western-Europe. 
  56. John Beck, "Turkey’s Violent Homophobia", The Daily Beast, July 1, 2013 (archived), http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/07/01/turkey-s-violent-homophobia.html. 
  57. For a full list of member states of the Council of Europe, see: "Member states", Council of Europe, accessed January 8, 2014 (archived), http://www.coe.int/en/web/portal/country-profiles;jsessionid=02DD102A100CB0C82866F2AF5D23087E. 
  58. Edwin Mora - Sunni Muslim terrorists committed “about 70 percent” of the 12,533 terrorist murders in the world last year - CNS News, August 3, 2012
  59. 2011 Report on Terrorism - National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC), June 2012
  60. Amir Lechner - “Changing Tack” The Ever-Changing Profile of the Suicide Bomber - INTERSEC Magazine, March 2007
  61. 61.0 61.1 "The deadliest terror attacks: In pictures", MSN, September 27, 2013 (archived), http://news.in.msn.com/gallery/the-deadliest-terror-attacks-in-pictures. 
  62. "2013 Global Peace Index Report", Institute for Economics and Peace, pp. 5-6, June 11, 2013, http://www.visionofhumanity.org/pdf/gpi/2013_Global_Peace_Index_Report.pdf. 
  63. "Fear and loathing: Terrorist attacks mapped around the world", The Economist, December 4, 2012 (archived), http://www.economist.com/blogs/graphicdetail/2012/12/daily-chart-0. 
  64. Lukas I. Alpert - Taliban terrorists force 8-year-old girl into suicide bombing at police checkpoint in Afghanistan – NY Daily Times, June 27, 2011
  65. Ben Farmer - Taliban recruiting nine-year-old suicide bombers - The Telegraph, May 15, 2011
  66. September 11 The worst international terrorist attack ever - U.S. Department of State, accessed September 14, 2012
  67. Matthew Harwood - Piracy and Terrorism Up on the High Seas, Says Study - Security Management, June 6, 2008
  68. Matthew Thompson - The other war against terror ... at $8 a day - Sydney Morning Herald, July 20, 2005
  69. Bali death toll set at 202 - BBC News, February 19, 2003
  70. Peter Finn & Susan B. Glasser, "Under a 'Crying' Sky, Beslan's Dead Are Laid to Rest", The Washington Post, September 7, 2004 (archived), http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A463-2004Sep6.html. 
  71. 71.0 71.1 "Terrorist and criminal attacks targeting children", JohnstonsArchive.net, April 20, 2013 (archived), http://www.johnstonsarchive.net/terrorism/wrjp39ch.html. 
  72. Scott Atran, "The Moral Logic and Growth of Suicide Terrorism", The Washington Quarterly, 2006, 29, 127-147
  73. Thugs also included Hindu worshipers of Goddess Kali. All thugs believed in killing as a form of worship. However, many of the thugs captured by the British rulers of India were Muslims. Also, the ranks of thugs had Arabic military names such as mamluk, askar, faris and caliph, which implies that their roots were in Islam.
  74. Richardson, Louise. What Terrorists Want (2007 ed.). Random House. p. 27.
  75. Prem Chowdhry. Colonial India and the Making of Empire Cinema: Image, Ideology and Identity. p. 137.
  76. Phyllis Chesler - Worldwide Trends in Honor Killings - Middle East Quarterly, Spring 2010, pp. 3-11
  77. "Muslim 38.6%, Christian 32.8%, indigenous 11.9%, none 16.7% (2008 est.)", "Côte d'Ivoire", The World Factbook, CIA Directorate of Intelligence, November 12, 2013 (archived), https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/iv.html 
  78. Ricardo Hausmann, Laura D. Tyson, Saadia Zahidi - The Global Gender Gap Report 2012 - World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland, October 2012
  79. The Maldives is the only country after Saudi Arabia that claims to have a 100 percent Muslim population. As per its constitution, only a Muslim can be a citizen of the country. Propagating any faith other than Islam, importing/publicly carrying literature that contradicts Islam or translation into the Dhivehi language of such books and writings, displaying in public any symbols or slogans belonging to any religion other than Islam, or creating interest in such articles are all against the law and are punishable with imprisonment, fines or banishment.
  80. Highest divorce rate - Guinness World Records, accessed January 5, 2013
  81. Somayya Jabarti - Alarming Divorce Rate ‘Must Be Addressed Urgently’ - Arab News, October 24, 2003
  82. Nick Owens, Mike Hamilton - Hunt for the 7/7 White Widow: SAS join search for Samantha Lewthwaite - Mirror, December 8, 2012
  83. Durex 2005 Global Sex Survey results (p. 6)
  84. What’s the average number of sex partners? - DatingBee.org, September 11, 2012
  85. David Whitley - In statistics: love around the world - NineMSN, accessed March 23, 2013
  86. Somali Gangs on Trial in Sex Trafficking Case (video) - Associated Press, April 9, 2012
  87. Made Arya Kencana - Measures to Protect Children From Sex Exploitation ‘Still Weak’ - Jakarta Globe, November 4, 2011
  88. Economist.com rankings for obesity among women
  89. "The High Rape-Scale in Saudi Arabia", WomanStats Project (blog), January 16, 2013 (archived), http://womanstats.wordpress.com/2013/01/16/the-high-rape-scale-in-saudi-arabia/. 
  90. Zein Ja'Far, "Saudi Women Protest Against Driving Ban", Sky News, October 26, 2013 (archived), http://news.sky.com/story/1160010/saudi-women-protest-against-driving-ban. 
  91. Catrina Stewart, "Saudi women gain vote for the first time", The Independant, September 26, 2011 (archived), http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/saudi-women-gain-vote-for-the-first-time-2360883.html. 
  92. Yonca Poyraz Doğan - Women's groups outraged by Cabinet's drastic changes to violence bill draft - Today's Zaman, March 1, 2012
  93. Gender-based violence leading cause of death for women aged 15-44 - Today's Zaman, August 10, 2012
  94. Esther Addley - Muslim men accused of hate crime over anti-gay leaflet – The Guardian, January 10, 2012
  95. Sudan: ICC Warrant for Al-Bashir on Genocide - Human Rights Watch, July 13, 2010
  96. Although the media reports label the attackers as "Asian", the use of "Asian" to describe the perpetrators behind these crimes is inaccurate because their race was irrelevant to their motivations. The only "Asians" who are offended by poppies, which they see as a reference to soldiers in Iraq, Afghanistan, etc., are Muslims. Read this essay for more information.
  97. Yob spat in face of poppies girl Beth - The Sun, November 16, 2011
  98. Sally Clifford - Poppy sellers to get minders after sick abuse last year - Bradford Telegraph and Argus, October 20, 2012
  99. Jaime Uribarri - SEE IT: ‘Bomb’ nearly maims soccer player - New York Daily News, September 20, 2012
  100. Brother beheads younger sister over affair in India - Gulf Today, December 8, 2012
  101. Honour killing in Kolkata: Man beheads sister in public view, takes severed head to police station - The Times of India, December 8, 2012
  102. Rashmee Roshan Lall - Europe's first woman suicide jihadi - The Times of India, December 2, 2005
  103. Craig S. Smith - Raised as Catholic in Belgium, She Died as a Muslim Bomber - The New York Times, December 6, 2005
  104. David Rennie - Face of Europe's first woman suicide bomber - The Telegraph, December 2, 2005
  105. "Fresh bombing in Bangladesh town", BBC News, December 1, 2005 (archived), http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/4487426.stm. 
  106. Nicholas Kulish & Eric Schmitt - Hezbollah Is Blamed for Attack on Israeli Tourists in Bulgaria - The New York Times, July 19, 2012
  107. Kazakhstan’s first-ever suicide bomber attacks security forces - Central Asia Newswire, May 17, 2011
  108. "Mali hit by first suicide bombing", News International, February 9, 2013 (archived), http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-1-158987-Mali-hit-by-first-suicide-bombing. 
  109. 2009 Nouakchott suicide bombing - Wikipedia, accessed September 16, 2012
  110. The Story Of Nigeria's First Suicide Bomber - BluePrint Magazine, June 27, 2011
  111. First suicide attack hits Nigeria - Global Post, June 17, 2011
  112. Boko Haram - NigeriaExchange, accessed September 15, 2012
  113. Amir Mir - Pakistan: The suicide-bomb capital of the world - Asia Times Online, September 16, 2011
  114. Surinder Rana - Emerging Reconciliation Amidst Continuing Military Impasse - Center for Contemporary Conflict (CCC), Strategic Insights, Vol. I, Issue 6, August 10, 2002
  115. Luke Harding - Church raid may have been suicide attack - The Guardian, March 19, 2002
  116. Mustafa Haji Abdinur - Somalia on the brink as suicide attack hits government seat - AFP, November 30, 2006
  117. Somali leader survives bomb blast - BBC News, September 18, 2006
  118. Per Nyberg - Explosions in Stockholm believed to be failed terrorist attack - CNN, December 12, 2010
  119. Laura Roberts - Sweden reacts to first ever suicide bomb attack - The Telegraph, December 13, 2010
  120. Tarek Amara, "Suicide bomber attacks Tunisian resort town", Reuters, October 30, 2013 (archived), http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/10/30/us-tunisia-blast-idUSBRE99T0DV20131030. 
  121. Daniel Ottosson, "Suicide bomber strikes by seaside hotel in Tunisia and is only fatality", Associated Press, October 30, 2013 (archived), http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/30/suicide-bombing-tunisia-seaside-hotel-sousse. 
  122. Solving Britain's first suicide-bombing - The Economist, July 14, 2005
  123. 7 July Bombings: The investigation - BBC News, accessed September 15, 2012
  124. Haghshenass, Fariborz, "Iran's Asymmetric Naval Warfare", Policy Focus (The Washington Institute for Near East Policy) (87): p. 17, September 2008, http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/uploads/Documents/pubs/PolicyFocus87.pdf