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The Qur'an makes constant reference to the stories of the Judeao-Christian tradition. The references are familiar and sometimes in passing, and assume a great deal of familiarity on the part of the listeners. The audience for these chapters was clearly one well-acquainted with the stories themselves and the Qur'an itself says that it is a "reminder" (73:19) of the message which has come before. The stories referenced are not only from the Bible, but come from a wide variety of literary traditions within the Christian and Jewish religions such as the Alexander Romances, saints lives, and the Talmud. The stories (and even the names of the characters) often differ markedly from their original versions, sometimes in content. These storie are also preserved in secondary Islamic literature such as the Israeliyyaat, or the "Israeli" (Jewish) stories, and together these stories (and the Islamic accretions thereto) form the Islamic "Heilsgeschichte" or "holy history" and myth outside of the life of the prophet himself.
    
==Islam and the Hebrew Bible Tradition==
 
==Islam and the Hebrew Bible Tradition==
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The influence of the Hebrew Bible tradition is deep and long in the Islamic tradition; in many ways the sira casts Muhammad in the role of a prophet in the caste of Moses the Lawgiver. The Islamic retains many of the prophets of the Hebrew Bible, but often gives their stories new twists, such as the focus on the homosexuality of the sodomites in the story of Lut.
    
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{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Battle of Badr|summary= The battle of Badr was the prophet's first battle and one of his most successful; Muhammad's success here gave faith, both to himself and the movement, and the tradition sees proof of divine aide both in the Qur'an and the sira account of the battle.|description=}} {{PortalArticle|image=|title=The Massacre of the Banu Qurayza|summary= The massacre of the Jewsih tribe of Banu Qurayzah remains one of the most controversial events of the [[sira]] to this day; a great victory for Muhammad and the Muslims, the mercilessness with which he dealt with his Jewish enemies leaves many questions about the character of the prophet.|description=}}{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Scientific Errors in the Quran|summary= Sunni orthodoxy claims that the Qur'an is infallible when it speaks of matters of science, but a close comparison to the scientific undestanding of the text of the Qur'an to modern science shows many revealing mistakes|description=}}  
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{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Lut|summary= The story of Lot, the one pious man of the twin cities of Sodom and Gomorrah, is transformed from a parable on the virtue of hospitality into a fiery rebuke of homosexuality in the Islamic tradition.|description=}}
 
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{{PortalArticle|image=|title=List of Killings Ordered or Supported by Muhammad|summary= Muhammad ordered many people who oppossed him or the Muslim movement to be killed.|description=}} {{PortalArticle|image=|title=List of expeditions of Muhammad|summary= The original title of the works of the sira were the maghaazi مغازي or raids; the career of the prophet from the earliest times was defined by his military adventures.|description=}}
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{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Mary, Sister of Aaron|summary= Mary, the mother of Jesus, gets her own chapter in the Quran and is an important Islamic figure; this chapter, surat-Maryam, also seems to say that Mary, the mother of Jesus, is also Mary, the sister of the Haarun (Aaron), the brother of Moses. |description=}}  
    
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===Other articles in this section===
 
===Other articles in this section===
 
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*[[The Pact of Umar]]
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*[[Zabur]]
*[[Analysis of the Pact of Umar]]
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*[[Taurah (the Torah According to the Qur'an)]]
*[[Treaty of Hudaybiyyah]]
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*[[Ibrahim (Abraham)]]
*[[Medina]]
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*[[Isma'il]]
*[[The Meaning of Consummate]]
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*[[Sabbath in Islam]]
 
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*[[Mecca]]
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*[[Jibreel (Angel Gabriel)]]
 
*[[Battle of Uhud]]
 
*[[Battle of Uhud]]
 
*[[Farewell Sermon]]
 
*[[Farewell Sermon]]
*[[Muhammad's Death]]
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*[[Muhammad in History Outside of the Islamic Tradition]]
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*[[Historical Attestation of Muhammad]]
   
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==Islam and the Christian Scriptural Tradition==
 
==Islam and the Christian Scriptural Tradition==
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Jesus (called 'Isa in the Qur'an, as opposed to Christian Arabs who call him the more accurate title Yasuu') is a primary figure in the Qur'an, and the Qur'an (from the perspective of a Christian heresy hunter) can even be said to have its own Christology. The virgin birth and mother Mary are also important figures in the Qur'an. The Muslim apocalypse cycle is also heavily indebted to the Christian tradition, and features not only the return of Jesus to judge the world but also al-masih al-dajaal, the imposter Christ or antichrist. The disciples, thogh mentioned in the tradition, make no significant appearance in the tradition which focuses rather on Jesus and Mary.
    
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{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Dihya the Berber Queen (Al-Kaahina)|summary=Dihya was a Berber queen who fiercely resisted the expanding caliphate to her death. |description=}}
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{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Virgin Conception of Jesus in the Qur'an|summary=The virgin birth of Jesus is attested to in the Qur'an in somewhat graphic terms. |description=}}{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Jahannam (Hell)|summary=The vision of Jahannam or hell draws on the original vision of the "lake of fire" in the New Testament but is far more graphic, drawing on the Christian accruements which the myth had accumulated between the writing of the New Testament and the career of Muhammad. |description=}}
 
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{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Khilafah (Caliphate)|summary= The caliphate, or success state to the prophet, in orthodox Sunni Islam is seen as the continuation of the rule of the prophet of Allah by his viceroy on earth, and is a divinely ordained institution.|description=}}
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{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Jannah (Paradise)|summary= Jannah or paradise is described both in the Qur'an and Sunnah, but the form it takes here is wildly difference from the asexual, cebral experience of heaven described by the Christian Scriptures and tradition.|description=}}{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Qur'anic Christology|summary= The Qur'an and the rest of the tradition describe Jesus as "Al-Masih" or Christ, but what this means in the Qur'an is very different than the orthodox Christian understanding of this idea.|description=}}
 
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===Other articles in this section===
 
===Other articles in this section===
 
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*[[Early Conversions to Islam]]
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*[[Isa al-Masih (Jesus Christ)]]
*[[Rashidun Caliphs]]
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*[[Injil (the New Testament According to the Qur'an)]]
*[[Ka'bah]]
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*[[Iblis (Satan)]]
*[[Khilafah (Caliphate)]]
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*[[Jibreel (Angel Gabriel)]]
 
*[[Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Uthman]]
 
*[[Abu Bakr Abdullah ibn Uthman]]
 
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*[[Ali ibn Abi Talib]]
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*[[Uthman ibn Affan]]
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*[[Arab Transmission of the Classics]]
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*[[Umar ibn al-Khattab]]
   
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==Islam and extra-biblical Stories from the Jewish and Christian Traditions==
 
==Islam and extra-biblical Stories from the Jewish and Christian Traditions==
 
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The Qur'an and the Islamic tradition draw stories not only from the bible, but also from the vast array of extra-biblical Christian and Jewish literature which was circulating in the Middle East at that time.
    
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{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Textual History of the Qur'an|summary=The Qur'an was never put down to writing during the prophet's lifetime, according to the Islamic sources the impetus to put the Qur'an to writing came from the death of many of the Muslims who had memorized it.|description=}}
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{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Dhul-Qarnayn and the Alexander Romance|summary=Alexander the Great shows up in the Qur'an, not as the Alexander of history from the Anabasis, but rather the fictional Christian-before-Christ of the Christian Alexander romances.|description=}}
 
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{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Huruf Muqatta'at (Disjointed Letters in the Qur'an)|summary=Many of the chapters of the Qur'an begin with mysterious combinations of letters whose function remains unclear to this day.|description=}}
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{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Parallelism: Introduction|summary=This series of articles illustrates how the Qur'an took stories from a wide variety of extra-biblical literature from the ancient middle east.|description=}}
 
      
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===Other articles in this section===
 
===Other articles in this section===
 
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*[[Arabic]]
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*[[Dhul-Qarnayn and the Sun Setting in a Muddy Spring (Part One)]]
*[[Arabic letters and diacritics]]
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*[[Dhul-Qarnayn and the Sun Setting in a Muddy Spring (Part Two)]]
*[[Diacritical Marks of the Qur'an]]
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*[[Sana'a Manuscript]]
   
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