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In Islamic territories, Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians who did not convert to Islam were required to pay a tax called the jizya. Many people converted to Islam to avoid this tax or to escape the ban on non-Muslims owning land. As financial problems mounted for the Umayyad rulers, authorities imposed the kharaj as a property tax for recent converts. Popular opposition to the tax led to a revolt in 747 and precipitated the downfall of the Umayyad dynasty.}}
 
In Islamic territories, Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians who did not convert to Islam were required to pay a tax called the jizya. Many people converted to Islam to avoid this tax or to escape the ban on non-Muslims owning land. As financial problems mounted for the Umayyad rulers, authorities imposed the kharaj as a property tax for recent converts. Popular opposition to the tax led to a revolt in 747 and precipitated the downfall of the Umayyad dynasty.}}
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The Umayyad caliph Umar II made non-Arab converts to Islam pay kharaj as a compensation for the  diminished jizya tax base.<ref>Kennedy, Hugh. ''The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates''. Pearson. p. 107. ISBN 0-582-40525-4.</ref>
    
Some western apologists of Islam say that jizya and kharaj were not significantly higher than the taxes collected in the pre-Islamic [[w:Byzantine Empire|Byzantine]] and [[w:Sassanid Empire|Sassanid]] empires. The following quote by orientalist scholars proves otherwise:
 
Some western apologists of Islam say that jizya and kharaj were not significantly higher than the taxes collected in the pre-Islamic [[w:Byzantine Empire|Byzantine]] and [[w:Sassanid Empire|Sassanid]] empires. The following quote by orientalist scholars proves otherwise:
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