Houri (Heavenly Virgin)

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An artist impression of the 72 virgins.

Houris (Arabic, various forms: حوري ,حورية ,حور ,أحور ,حوراء‎), or heavenly virgins, are a variety of celestial being that, according to Islamic scriptures, serve as a key attraction of Heaven or Jannah (Arabic: جنّة‎ 'Jannah'; plural: Jannat). Houris are mentioned in Qur'anic text as a reward for believing men in the afterlife. According to the Quran, once in Jannah, believers are wed to virgin houris who have "full grown", "swelling" or "pears-shaped" breasts.[1][2][3] The Quran provides a physical and personal description of the houri and denotes them as awards to believers. A hadith graded Sahih (authentic) details the number of houris that will be awarded to martyrs.[4]

Orthodox Muslim theologians such as al-Ghazali (1058 - 1111 CE) and al-Ash'ari (874 - 935 CE) have discussed the Houris as being rewards and pleasures found in heaven. Al-Ghazali, in particular, refers to a hadith that describes heaven as a slave market where there will be "no buy and sale, but... If any man will wish to have sexual intercourse with a woman, he will do at once."[5][6] The same hadith is quoted by Ibn Kathir, in his Qur'anic Commentary, the Tafsir ibn Kathir[7]. The houris are also described graphically by Qur'anic commentator and polymath, Al-Suyuti (died 1505), who, echoing a Sahih hadith[8] from Ibn Majah,[9] wrote that the perpetual virgins will all "have appetizing vaginas", and that the "penis of the Elected never softens. The erection is eternal."[10]

The sensual nature of the houri awarded to believers are also confirmed by the two Sahih collections of hadith, namely Sahih Bukhari[11] and Sahih Muslim,[12] which state that the houris will be virgins so beautiful and pure that there flesh will, in effect, be transparent: "the marrow of the bones of their legs will be seen through the bones and the flesh"[13]. "The believers", another hadith in Bukhari continues, "will visit and enjoy them [the houris]".[14]

Authenticity

The concept of houri can be found in major Islamic scriptures. The Quran, states believing males will be rewarded with virgins.[15] Although it is frequently alleged that the hadiths regarding the houris are da`if (weak)[4] or few (and even singular) in number, such narrations are in fact found in many hadith collections with varying levels of authenticity, including several that earn a grade of hasan (good) and sahih (authentic).[4]

For example, in the Sunan Ibn Majah, one of the six major hadith collections,[16] a hasan (good)[8] narration states that every male admitted into heaven will be given eternal erections and wed to 72 wives, each having libidinous sexual organs.[9] Similarly, in another hadith attested in several hadith collections with multiple narrators that has been graded hasan (good), it is advanced that the shahid (martyr) will be married to seventy-two of "al-hoor al-‘iyn" ("the beautiful-eyed houris").[17][18]

Another narration in Sunan al-Tirmidhi, another of the six major hadith collections,[16] states that the smallest reward for the people of heaven is an abode housing seventy-two houris.[19] Although it is frequently argued that this hadith is da'if (weak)[20], it has been graded hasan and sahih by renowned scholars of hadith,[8] meaning this hadith is hasan (good), since it has several chains of transmitters, and also sahih (authentic), as the chains are all declared authentic by Imam Tirmidhi.[21]

Also reported in Sunan Al-Kubra and Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and declared sahih (authentic)[8] by Ibn Abi Shayba, Ibn Hibban, and Al-Hakim is a hadith that states that God's servants will be married in heaven with seventy wives and that they'll be given the sexual strength for a hundred.[22]

Orthodox Muslim theologians have related further hadith that give us the exact number of 72, such as al-Ghazali who wrote, "[The Prophet said] the lowest rank of an inmate of heaven will have eighty thousand servants and seventy two wives."[23]

Descriptions

There are several descriptions regarding the houris that are found in various Islamic scriptures. Some include:

Physical Attributes:

In addition to Quranic translations of 78:33 describing the virgins as being voluptuous[24], Sahih International translates the verse as referring to "full-breasted [companions] of equal age". Tafsir al-Jalalayn, the famous Qur'anic exegesis, reads: "and buxom maidens (kawā‘ib is the plural of kā‘ib) of equal age (atrāb is the plural of tirb)". Elsewhere, in Tirmidhi and Tafsir ibn Kathir, it is elaborated that these are "large, round breasts which are not inclined to hang".[25][3]
  • Wide and beautiful/lovely eyes [26][27][28]
  • White skinned [29]
  • Like pearls [30]
  • Hairless except for the eye brows and the head [31]
  • 60 cubits [27.5 meters] tall [32][29]
  • 7 cubits [3.2 meters] in width [29]
  • Transparent to the marrow of their bones [25][13]
  • Eternally young [31]
  • Companions of equal age [24][33]

Sexual Attributes:

  • Untouched [34][35]
  • Virgins [36]
  • Voluptuous/full-breasted [24]
    • The word used is كواعب (kawaa'ib), which is a plural of كاعب (kaa'ib) and the meaning according to the al-Ma'any dictionary is نَاهِدَةُ الثَّدْيِ (naahida thadee), that is "buxom breast" [37].
  • With large, round breasts which are not inclined to hang [25][3]
  • Appetizing vaginas [10]

Personality Attributes:

Other Attributes:

  • Splendid [39]
  • Pure [13]
  • Non-menstruating / non-urinating/ non-defecating and childfree [25][40]
  • Never dissatisfied [40]
  • Will sing praise [6]

Association with Martyrdom

Although suicide is clearly forbidden in Islam[41], the matter of deliberate/pre-meditated martyrdom in battle (e.g. suicide bombing) has, as is typical with legal rulings, left Islamic scholars divided.

Notable scholars and such as Shaykh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, the world's most quoted independent Islamic jurist,[42] and Dr. Zakir Naik, known for his advocacy of "Qur'anic science", have justified the use of suicide bombing in Islam.[43][44][45] Opinion polls following 9/11 found that an extremely large number of persons in Muslim-majority countries supported the practice.[42][46][47][48]

The Quran states that all Muslim males, not only martyrs, will be rewarded with virgins.[36] However, the Quran does also mention that those who fight in the way of Allah (jihad) and get killed will be given a "great reward",[49] and there exist hasan (good) hadith[18] which refer to the 72 virgins as one of the "seven blessings from Allah" to the martyr.[17] This has lead to the 72 virgins concept being widely used as a way to entice martyrdom.

This phenomena can be witnessed in Palestine, where the actions of a mother who sends her son to die as a martyr is sometimes seen as "marrying him off",[50] and where the concept is used in Friday sermons and music videos, both airing on official television.[51][52] It has even been used in the United Kingdom, where, in one event, Muslim teens were told to train with Kalashnikov rifles with the promise that the would receive 72 virgins in heaven if they died as religious martyrs.[53]

Modern views

White Rasins

This claim originated from Christoph Luxenberg, a modern scholar writing under a pseudonym, in his controversial work The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Koran. In his work, Luxenberg suggests that the term houri actually meant to describe "white raisins." His broader thesis, which has been accused of having a "Christian apologetic agenda",[54] is that the Quran was drawn from Christian Syro-Aramaic texts in the early 8th century, in order to evangelize the Arabs,[55] and that the Aramaic word 'hur' (white raisin) had been mistranslated by later Arab commentators into the Arabic word 'houri' (virgin).[56]

The Quran describes the physical characteristics of the houris in many places, such as, large eyes,[28] big breasts,[24] chaste,[34] and restraining their glances.[34] The Quran further states that men will be wed to these houri.[1] These relevant verses suggest that Luxenberg's "white rasins" theory is in error.

Virgins only mentioned in hadith not Quran

Although the Quran does not mention the exact number of virgins, it does state that Muslim men will be awarded with (multiple) virgins in heaven.[36] The Quran describes some of their physical attributes and personality traits[28][24][34].

The number of houris are confirmed in multiple hadiths.[4] Also worth noting is that hadiths are a crucial part of Islam, and that approaching any Orthodox construction of the religion is essentially impossible their absence. Nonetheless, the great majority of hadiths are acknowledged as being of weak authenticity, particularly legal traditions (which form the basis of much of the Shari'ah (Islamic Law) and those detailing the fada'il or "virtues" or various religious figures and theological entities - Indeed, Islamic scholars have, throughout history, accused one another of arbitrarily dismissing and favoring certain sets of weak hadiths to justify their varying doctrinal positions. Indeed, n this context and given their subject matter, the hadiths regarding the houris can fairly be considered to be, on the whole, exceptionally well-attested.

The 72 virgins hadith has been classified as Da'if (weak) or Maudu' (fabricated)

The hadith from Sunan al-Tirmidhi has been graded hasan sahih gharib (a “fair, sound, single-chained hadith”).[8] Additionally there is not only one "72 virgins" hadith. There are many quoted narrations that have been graded both hasan (good) and sahih (authentic)[4]. See the section on "Authenticity" above for more details.

Houris are only servants and not for sexual purposes

The Quran details that houris are chaste virgins that have big breasts, resulting in the clear implication of the houris' sexual purpose.[36] While the Quran does not explicitly state they are for sexual purposes this is mentioned in other Islamic sources. One such hadith states "The believer will be given such and such strength in heaven for sexual intercourse". Other sources state that "the penis of the elected never softens" and that men in heaven will have the sexual strength of 100 men.[57][58]

Houris are for both men and women

The Quran indicates that houris will be "untouched before them by both man and jinni" [59] Implying that they are females that are awarded to men. While Islamic scholars have at times maintained the existence of equivalent or analogous male companions for females in paradise, the word "houris" in particular which features in Islamic scriptures refers specifically to the nymph-like virgins of paradise discussed here.[60]

Relevant Quotations

Qur'an

Lo! those who merit paradise this day are happily employed, They and their wives, in pleasant shade, on thrones reclining; Theirs the fruit (of their good deeds) and theirs (all) that they ask; The word from a Merciful Lord (for them) is: Peace!
And with them are those of modest gaze, with lovely eyes, (Pure) as they were hidden eggs (of the ostrich).
This is a reminder. And lo! for those who ward off (evil) is a happy journey's end, Gardens of Eden, whereof the gates are opened for them, Wherein, reclining, they call for plenteous fruit and cool drink (that is) therein. And with them are those of modest gaze, companions. This it is that ye are promised for the Day of Reckoning. Lo! this in truth is Our provision, which will never waste away.
Lo! those who kept their duty will be in a place secured. Amid gardens and watersprings, Attired in silk and silk embroidery, facing one another. Even so (it will be). And We shall wed them unto fair ones with wide, lovely eyes. They call therein for every fruit in safety. They taste not death therein, save the first death. And He hath saved them from the doom of hell, A bounty from thy Lord. That is the supreme triumph.
Lo! those who kept their duty dwell in gardens and delight, Happy because of what their Lord hath given them, and (because) their Lord hath warded off from them the torment of hell-fire. (And it is said unto them): Eat and drink in health (as a reward) for what ye used to do, Reclining on ranged couches. And we wed them unto fair ones with wide, lovely eyes. . . .
But for him who feareth the standing before his Lord there are two gardens. Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? Of spreading branches. Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? Wherein are two fountains flowing. Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? Wherein is every kind of fruit in pairs. Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? Reclining upon couches lined with silk brocade, the fruit of both the gardens near to hand. Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? Therein are those of modest gaze, whom neither man nor jinni will have touched before them. Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? (In beauty) like the jacynth and the coral-stone. Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? Is the reward of goodness aught save goodness? Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? And beside them are two other gardens, Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? Dark green with foliage. Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? Wherein are two abundant springs. Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? Wherein is fruit, the date-palm and pomegranate. Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? Wherein (are found) the good and beautiful - Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? - Fair ones, close-guarded in pavilions - Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? - Whom neither man nor jinni will have touched before them - Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny? Reclining on green cushions and fair carpets.
And ye will be three kinds: (First) those on the right hand; what of those on the right hand? And (then) those on the left hand; what of those on the left hand? And the foremost in the race, the foremost in the race: Those are they who will be brought nigh In gardens of delight; A multitude of those of old And a few of those of later time. On lined couches, Reclining therein face to face. There wait on them immortal youths With bowls and ewers and a cup from a pure spring Wherefrom they get no aching of the head nor any madness, And fruit that they prefer And flesh of fowls that they desire. And (there are) fair ones with wide, lovely eyes, Like unto hidden pearls, Reward for what they used to do. There hear they no vain speaking nor recrimination (Naught) but the saying: Peace, (and again) Peace. And those on the right hand; what of those on the right hand? Among thornless lote-trees And clustered plantains, And spreading shade, And water gushing, And fruit in plenty Neither out of reach nor yet forbidden, And raised couches; Lo! We have created them a (new) creation And made them virgins, Lovers, friends, For those on the right hand; A multitude of those of old And a multitude of those of later time.
Lo! for the duteous is achievement - Gardens enclosed and vineyards, And voluptuous women of equal age; And a full cup. There hear they never vain discourse, nor lying - Requital from thy Lord - a gift in payment - Lord of the heavens and the earth, and (all) that is between them, the Beneficent; with Whom none can converse.

Hadith

It was narrated from Abu Umamah that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “There is no one whom Allah will admit to Paradise but Allah will marry him to seventy-two wives, two from houris and seventy from his inheritance from the people of Hell, all of whom will have desirable [شَهِيٌّ, translated here as "desirable", is used to refer to "food" that is "delicious, or sweet" [61]] front passages [قُبُلٌ, translated here as "front passages", refers to "the anterior pudendum" or "vulva, and vagina"[62]] and he will have a male member [ذَكَرٌ, translated here as "male member", refers to "the male organ of generation; the penis" and a an adjectival form of the word is used to describe "herbs, or leguminous plants, that are hard and thick"[63]] that never becomes flaccid (i.e., soft and limp).’”
Narrated Al-Miqdam bin Ma'diykarib: That the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "There are six things with Allah for the martyr. He is forgiven with the first flow of blood (he suffers), he is shown his place in Paradise, he is protected from punishment in the grave, secured from the greatest terror, the crown of dignity is placed upon his head - and its gems are better than the world and what is in it - he is married to seventy two wives along Al-Huril-'Ayn of Paradise, and he may intercede for seventy of his close relatives." [Abu 'Eisa said:] This Hadith is Hasan Sahih.
Jami` at-Tirmidhi 3:20:1663; see more hadiths to this effect here
Anas narrated that the Prophet (s.a.w) said: "The believer shall be given in paradise such and such strength in intercourse." it was said: "O Messenger of Allah! And will he able to do that?" He said: "He will be given the strength of a hundred."
[Zayd ibn Arqam narrated] "The messenger of Allah said, 'Indeed a man from the people of Paradise will be given the strength of a hundred men in his eating, drinking, pleasure, and coitus.'
Musnad Imam Ahmad vol. 4, chapter 37, hadith 18509; see also: Sifat al-Janna, al-`Uqayli in the Du`afa’, and Musnad of Abu Bakr al-Bazzar

Scholars

This [Qur'an 78:33] means round breasts. They meant by this that the breasts of these girls will be fully rounded and not sagging, because they will be virgins, equal in age.

The following hadith is cited by Ghazali in the Ihya and has been identified as sahih (authentic) in a critical commentary on the Ihya.[64]

[Mujahid said] "The Huris of Paradise will be pure women—free of menstruation, stool, urine, saliva, cough, female-ejaculation and children"
al-Ghazali, Ihya Ulum al-Din, 9, Dar al-Minhaj, p. 619 

The following hadiths are cited by Ghazali in the Ihya and have been identified as hasan (good) in a critical commentary on the Ihya.[65]

[Muhammad is narrated to have said] "An inmate of Paradise will be given in a single day the sexual strength of more than 70 men from amongst you"
al-Ghazali, Ihya Ulum al-Din, 9, Dar al-Minhaj, p. 619 
[Muhammad is narrated to have said] "The Huris will sing in Paradise: we are most beautiful Huris and we are concealed for the honoured husbands"
al-Ghazali, Ihya Ulum al-Din, 9, Dar al-Minhaj, p. 620 

The following hadiths is cited by Ghazali in the Ihya and has been identified as da'if (weak) in a critical commentary on the Ihya.[66]

[Muhammad is narrated to have said] "An inmate of Paradise will have 500 Hurs, 4,000 virgins and 8,000 widowed women. He will keep embracing each of them for the duration of his whole worldly life"
al-Ghazali, Ihya Ulum al-Din, 9, Dar al-Minhaj, p. 620 

The following hadiths is cited by Ghazali in the Ihya and has been identified as mawdu (fabricated) in a critical commentary on the Ihya.[67]

The Prophet was asked regarding the statement of Allah, “The fine buildings in Eden Paradise.” The Prophet replied, “[These] palaces [are built] of pearls and in each building there will be 70 rooms of red rubies and in each room 70 sub-rooms of green emeralds and in each sub-room there will be one throne and over each throne 70 beds of varied colours and on each bed a hur al-ayn. There will be 70 table spreads in each room and 70 kinds of food in each table spread. There will be 70 maids in each room. Each believer will be given such strength in the morning as he can cohabit with each of them.
al-Ghazali, Ihya Ulum al-Din, 9, Dar al-Minhaj, p. 608 
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See Also

  • Virgins - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Virgins

Translations

External Links

Articles
Videos

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Even so (it will be). And We shall wed them unto fair ones with wide, lovely eyes." - Quran 44:54
  2. Several translators like Hilali-Khan (Noble Quran, translated by Hilali-Khan), Arthur John Arberry, Abdul Daryabadi, Umm Muhammad, Edward Henry Palmer, Ahmed Ali, John Medows Rodwell, Ali Ünal, George Sale, Muhammad Sarwar, and Tahir-ul-Qadri (Quran browser, Qur'an Text/Transliteration 78:33) have translated Quran 78:33 as referring to "full grown", "swelling" or "pears-shaped" breasts.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "This [Qur'an 78:33] means round breasts. They meant by this that the breasts of these girls will be fully rounded and not sagging, because they will be virgins, equal in age." - Ibn Kathir. Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Abridged, Volume 10 Surat At-Tagabun to the end of the Qur'an. pp. 333-334. http://www.tafsir.com/default.asp?sid=78&tid=56825. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Authenticity of 72 Virgins Hadith
  5. "Ali reported that the Apostle of Allah said, "There is in Paradise a market wherein there will be no buying or selling, but will consist of men and women. When a man desires a beauty, he will have intercourse with them." - Mishkat al-Masabih (edited by Maulana Fazlul Karim), Vol. 4, p. 172, No. 34
  6. 6.0 6.1 "A man asked the Prophet : 0 Prophet of God, will the inmates of Paradise have sexual intercourse ? He said: Anybody among them will be given sexual strength of seven, persons among you. The Prophet said : An inmate of Paradise will have five hundred hurs, four thousand unmarried women and eight thousand widowed women. Each of them will keep embracing him for the duration of his whole worldly life time. He also said: There will be markets in Paradise in which there will be no buy and sale, but there will be men and women. If any man will wish to have sexual intercourse with a woman, he will do at once. The Hurs will sing in Paradise on divine purity and praise-we are most beautiful Hurs and we are for the honoured husbands.", Al Ghazzali, "Ihya Uloom Ed-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) Vol. 4", Death and Subsequent Events 430 (archived), http://www.nderf.org/islamic_views_death.htm 
  7. These two gardens are lower, in virtue and in status than the two before them, as supported in the Qur'an
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Shaykh Gibril Haddad - How Many Wives Will The Believers Have In Paradise? - SunniPath, Question ID:4828, July 3, 2005
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Abu Umama narrated: "The Messenger of God said, 'Everyone that God admits into paradise will be married to 72 wives; two of them are houris and seventy of his inheritance of the [female] dwellers of hell. All of them will have libidinous sex organs and he will have an ever-erect penis.' " - Sunan Ibn Majah, Zuhd (Book of Abstinence) 39
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Each time we sleep with a Houri we find her virgin. Besides, the penis of the Elected never softens. The erection is eternal; the sensation that you feel each time you make love is utterly delicious and out of this world and were you to experience it in this world you would faint. Each chosen one [i.e. Muslim] will marry seventy [sic] houris, besides the women he married on earth, and all will have appetizing vaginas." - Al-Suyuti, Al-Itqan fi Ulum al-Qur'an, p. 351
  11. "Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "The first group of people who will enter Paradise, will be glittering like the full moon... Their wives will be houris ..." - Sahih Bukhari 4:55:544
  12. Citation and new article needed
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 "Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "The first batch (of people) who will enter Paradise will be (glittering) like the full moon, and the batch next to them will be (glittering) like the most brilliant star in the sky. Their hearts will be as if the heart of a single man, for they will have neither enmity nor jealousy amongst themselves; everyone will have two wives from the houris, (who will be so beautiful, pure and transparent that) the marrow of the bones of their legs will be seen through the bones and the flesh." - Sahih Bukhari 4:54:476
  14. "Allah’s Apostle (The blessing and peace of Allah be upon him) said: "In Paradise there is a pavilion made of a single hollow pearl sixty miles wide, in each corner of which there are wives who will not see those in the other corners; and the believers will visit and enjoy them." - Sahih Bukhari 6:60:402
  15. "Verily for the Righteous there will be a fulfilment of (the heart's) desires; Gardens enclosed, and grapevines; And voluptuous women of equal age" Qur'an 78:31-33
  16. 16.0 16.1 Shaykh Gibril Haddad, "Various Issues About Hadiths", Living Islam, April 4, 2003 (archived), http://www.abc.se/~m9783/n/vih_e.html. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 It was reported in the hadeeth of al-Miqdaam ibn Ma’di Karb that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The martyr (shaheed) has seven blessings from Allaah: he is forgiven from the moment his blood is first shed; he will be shown his place in Paradise; he will be spared the trial of the grave; and he will be secure on the Day of the Greatest Terror (the Day of Judgement); there will be placed on his head a crown of dignity, one ruby of which is better than this world and all that is in it; he will be married to seventy-two of al-hoor al-‘iyn; and he will be permitted to intercede for seventy of his relatives.” According to another report, the martyr has six blessings from Allaah. According to other reports (the number is) six, or nine, or ten - Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, who said it is a hasan hadeeth. Also narrated by Ibn Maajah in al-Sunan, by Ahmad, by ‘Abd al-Razzaaq in al-Musannaf, by al-Tabaraani in al-Kabeer, and by Sa’eed ibn Mansoor in al-Sunan
  18. 18.0 18.1 Shaykh Waleed al-Firyaan, "The six blessings of the martyrs", Islam Q&A, Fatwa No. 8511 (archived), http://www.islam-qa.com/en/ref/islamqa/8511. 
  19. "It was mentioned by Daraj Ibn Abi Hatim, that Abu al-Haytham 'Adullah Ibn Wahb narrated from Abu Sa'id al-Khudhri, who heard the Prophet Muhammad PBUH saying, 'The smallest reward for the people of Heaven is an abode where there are eighty thousand servants and seventy-two houri, over which stands a dome decorated with pearls, aquamarine and ruby, as wide as the distance from al-Jabiyyah to San'a." - Al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 4, Ch. 21, No. 2687
  20. Nashid Abdul-Khalliq, "Debunking the ‘Suicide for 72 Virgins’ Myth", TheUglyTruth, March 4, 2007 (archived), http://theuglytruth.wordpress.com/2007/03/04/debunking-the-suicide-for-72-virgins-myth/. 
  21. "Imam Tirmidhi (209 - 279 H)", As-Sunnah Foundation of America, February 20, 2012 (archived), http://www.sunnah.org/history/Scholars/imam_tirmidhi.htm. 
  22. "Anas said, Allah be well-pleased with him: The Messenger of Allah said, upon him blessings and peace: “The servant in Paradise shall be married with seventy wives.” Someone said, “Messenger of Allah, can he bear it?” He said: “He will be given strength for a hundred.” From Zayd ibn Arqam, Allah be well-pleased with him, when an incredulous Jew or Christian asked the Prophet, upon him blessings and peace, “Are you claiming that a man will eat and drink in Paradise??” He replied: “Yes, by the One in Whose hand is my soul, and each of them will be given the strength of a hundred men in his eating, drinking, coitus, and pleasure.”" - Sifat al-Janna, al-`Uqayli in the Du`afa’, and Musnad of Abu Bakr al-Bazzar
  23. "The Prophet said to a man: 0 servant of God, if you enter Paradise, you will get what you will desire, what your eyes will be pleased with. The Prophet said : If an inmate of Paradise will wish to have a son born to him, he will get it. Its stay in womb, its weaning away from milk and its youth will come to pass at the same time. He also said : The inmantes of Paradise will be beardless and hairless. Their colour will be white and their eyes painted with collyrium. They will be youths of 33 years of age. They will be sixty cubits long and seven cubits broad. He also said : The lowest rank of an inmate of Paradise will have eighty thousand servants and seventy two wives. In short there will be such bliss in Paradise which no eye has seen, no ear has heard and no heart has conceived.", Al Ghazzali, "Ihya Uloom Ed-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) Vol. 4", The Book of Constructive Virtues 431 (archived), http://www.nderf.org/islamic_views_death.htm 
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 24.4 "And voluptuous women of equal age;" - Quran 78:33
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 2.
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 "And besides them will be chaste women, restraining their glances, with big eyes (of wonder and beauty)." - Quran 37:48
  27. "They will recline (with ease) on Thrones (of dignity) arranged in ranks; and We shall join them to Companions, with beautiful big and lustrous eyes." - Quran 52:20
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 "And (there are) fair ones with wide, lovely eyes,-" - Quran 56:22
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 Al Ghazzali, "Ihya Uloom Ed-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) Vol. 4" (archived), http://www.nderf.org/islamic_views_death.htm. 
  30. "Like unto Pearls well-guarded." - Quran 56:23
  31. 31.0 31.1 Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan al-Tirmidhi, hadith: 5638
  32. Ibn Kathir: The Reward of Those on the Right After
  33. Muhammad Asad, The Message of the Qur'an,Publisher: The Book Foundation; Bilingual edition (December 2003), Language: English, ISBN 1904510000,Chapter (Surah) Al-Waqiah (That which must come to pass)(56):38, note 15
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 34.4 "In them will be (Maidens), chaste, restraining their glances, whom no man or Jinn before them has touched;-" - Quran 55:56
  35. "Companions restrained (as to their glances), in (goodly) pavilions;- Then which of the favours of your Lord will ye deny?- Whom no man or Jinn before them has touched;-" - Quran 55:72-74
  36. 36.0 36.1 36.2 36.3 "Then We have made them virgins" - Quran 56:36
  37. https://www.almaany.com/ar/dict/ar-ar/%D9%83%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%B9%D8%A8/
  38. Muhammad Asad, The Message of the Qur'an,Publisher: The Book Foundation; Bilingual edition (December 2003), Language: English, ISBN 1904510000,Chapter (Surah) Sad (38):52
  39. Muhammad Asad, The Message of the Qur'an, Publisher: The Book Foundation; Bilingual edition (December 2003) Language: English, ISBN 1904510000,Chapter (Surah) An-Naba (The Tiding)(78):33, note 16
  40. 40.0 40.1 "The Prophet said: If a woman of Paradise would have peeped up into this world everything therein would have been illuminated and filled up with fragrance. Every hair of her head is better than than the earth and its treasures. God says : They are like Eakut and Marjan. If their faces are seen within screen, they will be more clear than mirrors and the smallest jewel therein will illuminate what is in the heaven and earth. The Prophet said : In the night in which I was taken to heaven, I entered a place in Paradise named Baidakh whose camps are of emeralds and green pearls and red Eakut. They asked : 0 Prophet of God, Salam to you. I asked : 0 Gebrail, whose sound is there ? He said : of the beautiful women in camps. They seek your permission to salute you. So give them permission. They will be saying : We are pleased therewith. We will never be dissatisfied. We will remain here forever, we will never travel. Then he recited the verse : The beautiful damsels detained in camps. In another verse : Pure women. Muzaher explained this by saying that they will be free menstruation, urine, stool, cough and children.", Al Ghazzali, "Ihya Uloom Ed-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) Vol. 4", Death and Subsequent Events 430 (archived), http://www.nderf.org/islamic_views_death.htm 
  41. "Do not kill yourselves. Verily, Allah is merciful to you. And, whoever does that, out of animosity and , We shall burn him in a Fire. And that is easy for Allah." Qur'an, 4:29-30
  42. 42.0 42.1 Faisal Bodi, "Bombing for God (Special report: Israel and the Middle East)", The Guardian, August 28, 2001 (archived), http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2001/aug/28/comment.israelandthepalestinians. 
  43. Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi - Palestinian Women Carrying Out Martyr Operations - Islam Online, November 6, 2006
  44. Is Suicide Bombing allowed in Islam? By Dr. Zakir Naik (a YouTube video posted by PeaceTVUK on September 20, 2008
  45. Abdul Haq Omari, "Pakistan Ulema Permits Suicide Attacks", TOLOnews, March 2, 2013 (archived), http://www.tolonews.com/en/afghanistan/9627-pakistan-ulema-permits-suicide-attacks. 
  46. Michael Freund - Right On: The straightforward arithmetic of jihad - The Jerusalem Post, January 31, 2007
  47. Khalid A-H Ansari, "65% Pakistanis support Osama, says report", Mid Day, March 27, 2004 (archived), http://web.archive.org/web/20040412010339/http://web.mid-day.com/news/world/2004/march/79639.htm. 
  48. "One in eight UK Muslims 'support terrorist attacks'", Scotsman.com, March 15, 2004 (archived), http://www.scotsman.com/news/international/one_in_eight_uk_muslims_support_terrorist_attacks_1_517610. 
  49. "Let those (believers) Who sell the life of this world for the hereafter fight in the cause of Allah and whoso fights in the cause of Allah, - and is slain or gets victory, We shall bestow on him a great reward." - Quran 4:74
  50. "The model Palestinian mother sends her son to die as Martyr, thereby marrying him off", Al-Hayat Al-Jadida, January 8, 2012 (archived), http://palwatch.org/main.aspx?fi=565. 
  51. "72 wives await the Martyrs for Allah: Six rewards quoted in Hamas TV sermon", Al-Aqsa TV (Hamas), January 1, 2010 (archived), http://palwatch.org/main.aspx?fi=565. 
  52. "Beautiful virgins await Muslim Martyrs in Paradise" (archived), http://palwatch.org/main.aspx?fi=565.  - Palestinian TV (Fatah), February 7, 2010 (1 min)
  53. British martyrs 'promised 72 virgins' - BBC News, January 23, 2003
  54. Richard Kroes, "Missionary, dilettante or visionary? A review of Ch. Luxenberg, Die Syro-Aramäische Lesart des Qur'an", Livius, February 19, 2012 (archived), http://www.livius.org/opinion/Luxenberg.htm. 
  55. Sandro Magister, "The Virgins and the Grapes: the Christian Origins of the Koran", Chiesa press, March 17, 2004 (archived), http://chiesa.espresso.repubblica.it/articolo/7025?eng=y. 
  56. Alexander Stille, "Revisionist historians argue Koran has been mistranslated", New York Times, March 2, 2002 (archived), http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2002/03/02/MN128985.DTL. 
  57. "The Holy Prophet said: 'The believer will be given such and such strength in Paradise for sexual intercourse. It was questioned: O prophet of Allah! can he do that? He said: "He will be given the strength of one hundred persons." - Mishkat al-Masabih Book IV, Chapter XLII, Paradise and Hell, Hadith Number 24
  58. "Once a Jewish learned man came to the Prophet and asked him : Who will first cross the Bridge? He said : The poor refugees : The Jew asked again : When they will enter paradise, what food will be served to them first? He said : Roasts of the livers of fish. He asked again : What will be their morning lunch? He said : Cows of paradise will be slaughtered for them. He said : What drink will be given to them? He said They will be given drink of Salsabil. The Jew said : You have spoken the truth. Once a Jew asked the Prophet : Do you think that the inmates of paradise will eat and drink? The Prophet said Yes, by One in whose hand there is my life, each one of them will be given food, drink and strength of one hundred man to have sexual intercourse. The Jew asked : Will he have any necessity of passing urine and stools? The Prophet said : In place of urine and stool, perspiration will come out of them like camphor and as a result their stomach will be cleared therefor.", Al Ghazzali, "Ihya Uloom Ed-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences) Vol. 4" (archived), http://www.nderf.org/islamic_views_death.htm , The Book of Constructive Virtues 429
  59. Untouched before them by man or jinni Quran - 55:74
  60. Salih al-Munajjid, Sh. Muhammad, Fatwa 25843: Objection to the fact that a man will have hoor ‘iyn who will share her husband with her, Islam Question & Answer, 16-04-2003, https://islamqa.info/en/answers/25843/objection-to-the-fact-that-a-man-will-have-hoor-iyn-who-will-share-her-husband-with-her 
  61. Lane's Lexicon شَهِيٌّ
  62. Lane's Lexicon Supplement قُبُلٌ
  63. Lane's Lexicon ذَكَرٌ
  64. Muhammad al Husaini Murthada al Zabidi, Ithaf al-Sadah al-Muttaqin bi Sharh Ihya Uloom al-Din, 10, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, p. 545 
  65. Muhammad al Husaini Murthada al Zabidi, Ithaf al-Sadah al-Muttaqin bi Sharh Ihya Uloom al-Din, 10, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, pp. 545-547 
  66. Muhammad al Husaini Murthada al Zabidi, Ithaf al-Sadah al-Muttaqin bi Sharh Ihya Uloom al-Din, 10, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, p. 546 
  67. Muhammad al Husaini Murthada al Zabidi, Ithaf al-Sadah al-Muttaqin bi Sharh Ihya Uloom al-Din, 10, Lebanon: Dar al-Fikr, p. 530