Freshwater In Mountains Miracle In The Quran

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The Quran supposedly mentioned that mountains have freshwater. But what actually happened is that it mentioned sweet water, after mentioning mountains.


Out of all the water on Earth, saline water in oceans, seas and saline groundwater make up about 97% of it. Only 2.5-2.75% is fresh water, including 1.75-2% frozen in glaciers, ice and snow, 0.5-0.75% as fresh groundwater and soil moisture, and less than 0.01% of it as surface water in lakes, swamps and rivers.
Wikipedia, Fresh Water, 2019

Salts cannot evaporate hence cannot join the water cycle.

There is no mechanism that transports salts from seas to top of mountains. The snow on top of high mountains is actually frozen freshwater.

However 1400 years ago the Quran said that high mountains have freshwater.

[Quran 77.27] And set on it lofty mountains, and given you freshwater to drink?

How could an illiterate man who lived 1400 years ago have known that all water on top of mountains is freshwater?

The verse

The verse doesn't connect the freshwater to the mountains:

And set on it lofty mountains, and given you freshwater to drink?

Quran 77:28, translated by

First it mentions that Allah set mountains on the Earth, which is a scientific error. We know today that formation of mountains is a completely natural process, it doesn't require any supernatural beings. Mountains don't come from outside, they are formed by collision of plates of the Earth's crust. Then it is succeeded by "and given you freshwater to drink" - without mentioning any connection to the mountains. So Allah set mountains and he also gave people freshwater to drink. It doesn't clearly say that the water is from the mountains.

Ibn Kathir also understood it separately:

﴿وَجَعَلْنَا فِيهَا رَوَاسِىَ شَـمِخَـتٍ﴾ (And have placed therein fixed towers,) meaning, the mountains. The earth is held in place with them so that it does not shake and sway.

﴿وَأَسْقَيْنَـكُم مَّآءً فُرَاتاً﴾ (and have given you Furat water) meaning, cold and delicious water from the clouds or from what He causes to gush forth from the springs of the earth.

Ibn Kathir on 77:27

And it's usually translated as "sweet water", not "freshwater":

Muhsin Khan: And have placed therein firm, and tall mountains; and have given you to drink sweet water?

Pickthall: And placed therein high mountains and given you to drink sweet water therein?

Sahih International: And We placed therein lofty, firmly set mountains and have given you to drink sweet water.

Yusuf Ali: And made therein mountains standing firm, lofty (in stature); and provided for you water sweet (and wholesome)?

First discovery

The fact that water in mountains is not salty was discovered long before the written history by people who tasted mountain water. Even animals can discover this.

See also