The Islamic texts at the core of the tradition evince a sense of ritual cleanliness. Much of it is healthy practise even today, and especially by the standards of the time. Others traditions provide guidance which is divorced from the modern theory of germ-based illness, even in some cases potentially dangerous (particuarly narrations concerning the well of Buda'ad). Certain actions, such as answering the call of nature or interacting with dogs, are ritually unclean and require ritual cleansing, which should be with water (without the necessity of soap) but can also be with dirt if water is unavailable; meanwhile, other actions which from a modern perspective would be dirty, such as interacting with the saliva of the prophet, are seen as clean owing to their ritual purity. Others are harmless but of no obvious benefit such as dipping a house fly in a drink if it lands in it.
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Ablutions (wudu) five times each day with water is instructed before prayers. Washing the relevant body parts with water is also instructed in other circumstances such as following a call of nature or urination. If not available, pebbles, sand or earth may be used. A full body wash (ghusl, ritual bath) is to be performed after sexual intercourse, orgasm or completion of a menstral cycle, as well as less common events such as touching a dead body. It is also recommended before certain ritual events such as Friday prayers, Eid, or entering the state of Ihram before pilgrimage.
O ye who believe! When ye rise up for prayer, wash you faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and lightly rub your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. And if ye are unclean, purify yourselves. And if ye are sick or on a journey, or one of you cometh from the closet, or ye have had contact with women, and ye find not water, then go to clean, high ground and rub your faces and your hands with some of it. Allah would not place a burden on you, but He would purify you and would perfect His grace upon you, that ye may give thanks.
O ye who believe! Approach not prayers with a mind befogged, until ye can understand all that ye say,- nor in a state of ceremonial impurity (Except when travelling on the road), until after washing your whole body. If ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands.
For Allah doth blot out sins and forgive again and again.
The necklace of Asma' was lost, so the Prophet sent some men to look for it. The time for the prayer became due and they had not performed ablution and could not find water, so they offered the prayer without ablution. Then Allah revealed (the Verse of Tayammum).
Humran, the freed slave of 'Uthman, said: Uthman b. 'Affan called for ablution water and this is how he performed the ablution. He washed his hands thrice. He then rinsed his mouth and cleaned his nose with water (three times). He then washed his face three times, then washed his right arm up to the elbow three times, then washed his left arm like that, then wiped his head; then washed his right foot up to the ankle three times, then washed his left foot like that, and then said: I saw the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) perform ablution like this ablution of mine. Then the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: He who performs ablution like this ablution of mine and then stood up (for prayer) and offered two rak'ahs of prayer without allowing his thoughts to be distracted, all his previous sins are expiated. Ibn Shihab said: Our scholars remarked: This is the most complete of the ablutions performed for prayer.
Narrated Abdullah: The Prophet went out to answer the call of nature and asked me to bring three stones. I found two stones and searched for the third but could not find it. So I took a dried piece of dung and brought it to him. He took the two stones and threw away the dung and said, "This is a filthy thing."
Muhammed believed that urine is impure and that being defiled by urine will result in damnation:
Ibn Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) happened to pass by two graves and said: They (their occupants) are being tormented, but they are not tormented for a grievous sin. One of them carried tales and the other did not keep himself safe from being defiled by urine.
He then called for a fresh twig and split it into two parts, and planted them on each grave and then said: Perhaps, their punishment way be mitigated as long as these twigs remain fresh.
However, drinking camel urine for medicinal purposes is fine.
The climate of Medina did not suit some people, so the Prophet ordered them to follow his shepherd, i.e. his camels, and drink their milk and urine (as a medicine). So they followed the shepherd that is the camels and drank their milk and urine till their bodies became healthy.
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: The Prophet said, 'When you eat, do not wipe your hands till you have licked it, or had it licked by somebody else
Allah's Apostle was asked regarding ghee (cooking butter) in which a mouse had fallen. He said, "Take out the mouse and throw away the ghee around it and use the rest."
Abu Huraira reported the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) to have said: When a dog licks a utensil belonging to any one of you, (the thing contained in it) should be thrown away and then (the utensil) should be washed seven times.
Swallowing bits of food that may be left between the teeth is regarded as eating, so it invalidates
Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in al-Mughni, 3/260:
If a person has food between his teeth, one of the following two scenarios must apply:
1 – It is a small amount that he cannot spit out, so he swallows it. This does not invalidate his fast, because it cannot be avoided. It is like saliva. Ibn al-Mundhir said: The scholars are unanimously agreed on that.
2 – It is a large amount and he can spit it out. If he spits it out there is no sin on him, but if he swallows it deliberately, his fast is invalidated according to the majority of scholars, because he has swallowed food that he could have spat out willingly when he is mindful of his fast. So this breaks the fast just as if he deliberately started eating. End quote.
Narrated Anas ibn Malik:
When the Prophet (peace be upon him) was brought some old dates, he began to examine them and remove the worms from them.
Number Narrated Abdullah ibn AbuTalhah:
The Prophet (peace be upon him) was brought some dates which contained worms. He then mentioned the rest of the tradition to the same effect as the previous (No 3823).
Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah:
When the Trench was dug, I saw the Prophet in the state of severe hunger. So I returned to my wife and said, "Have you got anything (to eat), for I have seen Allah's Apostle in a state of severe hunger." She brought out for me, a bag containing one Sa of barley, and we had a domestic she animal (i.e. a kid) which I slaughtered then, and my wife ground the barley and she finished at the time I finished my job (i.e. slaughtering the kid). Then I cut the meat into pieces and put it in an earthenware (cooking) pot, and returned to Allah's Apostle . My wife said, "Do not disgrace me in front of Allah's Apostle and those who are with him." So I went to him and said to him secretly, "O Allah's Apostle! I have slaughtered a she-animal (i.e. kid) of ours, and we have ground a Sa of barley which was with us. So please come, you and another person along with you." The Prophet raised his voice and said, "O people of Trench ! Jabir has prepared a meal so let us go." Allah's Apostle said to me, "Don't put down your earthenware meat pot (from the fireplace) or bake your dough till I come." So I came (to my house) and Allah's Apostle too, came, proceeding before the people. When I came to my wife, she said, "May Allah do so-and-so to you." I said, "I have told the Prophet of what you said." Then she brought out to him (i.e. the Prophet the dough, and he spat in it and invoked for Allah's Blessings in it. Then he proceeded towards our earthenware meat-pot and spat in it and invoked for Allah's Blessings in it.
Then he said (to my wife). Call a lady-baker to bake along with you and keep on taking out scoops from your earthenware meat-pot, and do not put it down from its fireplace." They were one-thousand (who took their meals), and by Allah they all ate, and when they left the food and went away, our earthenware pot was still bubbling (full of meat) as if it had not decreased, and our dough was still being baked as if nothing had been taken from it.
Narrated Anas bin Malik
The Prophet saw some sputum in the direction of the Qibla (on the wall of the mosque) and he disliked that and the sign of disgust was apparent from his face. So he got up and scraped it off with his hand and said, "Whenever anyone of you stands for the prayer, he is speaking in private to his Lord or his Lord is between him and his Qibla. So, none of you should spit in the direction of the Qibla but one can spit to the left or under his foot." The Prophet then took the corner of his sheet and spat in it and folded it and said, "Or you can do like this. "
Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet said, "A faithful believer while in prayer is speaking in private to his Lord, so he should neither spit in front of him nor to his right side but he could spit either on his left or under his foot."
The Prophet once spat in his clothes.
Narrated Abu Qatada: The Prophet said, "A good dream that comes true is from Allah, and a bad dream is from Satan, so if anyone of you sees a bad dream, he should seek refuge with Allah from Satan and should spit on the left, for the bad dream will not harm him."
Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar:
The Prophet (peace be upon him), was asked about water (in desert country) and what is frequented by animals and wild beasts. He replied: When there is enough water to fill two pitchers, it bears no impurity
Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:
One of the wives of the Prophet (peace be upon him) took a bath from a large bowl. The Prophet (peace be upon him) wanted to perform ablution or take from the water left over. She said to him: O Prophet of Allah, verily I was sexually defiled. The Prophet said: Water not defiled.
Narrated Abu Hurairah :
The Prophet ( sal Allaahu alayhi wa sallam ) said : None amongst you should urinate in stagnant water, and then wash in it.
Narrated Al-Bara bin Azib: That they were in the company of Allah's Apostle on the day of Al-Hudaibiya and their number was 1400 or more. They camped at a well and drew its water till it was dried. When they informed Allah's Apostle of that, he came and sat over its edge and said, "Bring me a bucket of its water." When it was brought, he spat and invoked (Allah) and said, "Leave it for a while." Then they quenched their thirst
and watered their riding animals (from that well) till they departed.
Narrated Abu Juhaifa:
I saw Allah's Apostle in a red leather tent and I saw Bilal taking the remaining water with which the Prophet had performed ablution. I saw the people taking the utilized water impatiently and whoever got some of it rubbed it on his body and those who could not get any took the moisture from the others' hands.
Then I saw Bilal carrying an 'Anza (a spear-headed stick) which he planted in the ground. The Prophet came out tucking up his red cloak, and led the people in prayer and offered two Rakat (facing the Ka'ba) taking 'Anza as a Sutra for his prayer. I saw the people and animals passing in front of him beyond the 'Anza.
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said "If a house fly falls in the drink of anyone of you, he should dip it (in the drink), for one of its wings has a disease and the other has the cure for the disease."
Water mixed with dead dogs and menstrual clothes is still considered clean.
Narrated AbuSa'id al-Khudri:
The people asked the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ): Can we perform ablution out of the well of Buda'ah, which is a well into which menstrual clothes, dead dogs and stinking things were thrown? He replied: Water is pure and is not defiled by anything.
However, eating or drinking water while standing is forbidden.
Anas reported that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) forbade that a person should drink while standing. Qatada reported: We said to him: What about eating? Thereupon he (Anas) said: That is even worse and more detestable (abominable).
The Prophet died when we had satisfied our hunger with the two black things, i.e. dates and water.