Difference between revisions of "Prophecies in the Hadith"

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He replied: It will be flight and plunder. Then will come a test which is pleasant. Its murkiness is due to the fact that it is produced by a man from the people of my house, who will assert that he belongs to me, whereas he does not, for my friends are only the God-fearing. Then the people will unite under a man who will be like a hip-bone on a rib. Then there will be the little black trial which will leave none of this community without giving him a slap, and when people say that it is finished, it will be extended. During it a man will be a believer in the morning and an infidel in the evening, so that the people will be in two camps: the camp of faith which will contain no hypocrisy, and the camp of hypocrisy which will contain no faith. When that happens, expect the Antichrist (Dajjal) that day or the next.
 
He replied: It will be flight and plunder. Then will come a test which is pleasant. Its murkiness is due to the fact that it is produced by a man from the people of my house, who will assert that he belongs to me, whereas he does not, for my friends are only the God-fearing. Then the people will unite under a man who will be like a hip-bone on a rib. Then there will be the little black trial which will leave none of this community without giving him a slap, and when people say that it is finished, it will be extended. During it a man will be a believer in the morning and an infidel in the evening, so that the people will be in two camps: the camp of faith which will contain no hypocrisy, and the camp of hypocrisy which will contain no faith. When that happens, expect the Antichrist (Dajjal) that day or the next.
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====Inheritance is not distributed====
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{{Quote|Sahih Muslim Book 41, Hadith 6927|
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لاَ تَقُومُ حَتَّى لاَ يُقْسَمَ مِيرَاثٌ وَلاَ يُفْرَحَ بِغَنِيمَةٍ
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..The Last Hour would not come until shares of '''inheritance are not distributed''' and there is no rejoicing over spoils of war...
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}}
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====People don't rejoice over spoils of war====
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{{Quote|Sahih Muslim Book 41, Hadith 6927|
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لاَ تَقُومُ حَتَّى لاَ يُقْسَمَ مِيرَاثٌ وَلاَ يُفْرَحَ بِغَنِيمَةٍ
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..The Last Hour would not come until shares of inheritance are not distributed and '''there is no rejoicing over spoils of war'''...
 
}}
 
}}
  

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Muhammad's prophecies are predictions attributed to him and written hundreds of years after his death. Many prophecies are considered "signs of the Hour" (Islamic eschatology). Some prophecies are general statements that may apply to times even before Islam, other prophecies predict early Islamic history (which happened before the predictions were written) and some prophecies make predictions about the the future to come after the hadiths were written.

Prophecies in this article are from the hadiths. Quranic prophecies have a separate article.

Signs of the Hour

"The Hour" (الساعة) refers to a period of time on the Day of Judgement.

And the Day the Hour appears the criminals will swear they had remained but an hour. Thus they were deluded."


Signs of the Hour indicate that the Hour (and the end of the world) is coming. They were divided by scholars into minor and major. The major signs are contained in this hadith:

Hudhaifa b. Usaid al-Ghifari reported:

Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) came to us all of a sudden as we were (busy in a discussion). He said: What do you discuss about? They (the Companions) said. We are discussing about the Last Hour. Thereupon he said: It will not come until you see ten signs before and (in this connection) he made a mention of the smoke, Dajjal, the beast, the rising of the sun from the west, the descent of Jesus son of Mary (Allah be pleased with him), the Gog and Magog, and land-slides in three places, one in the east, one in the west and one in Arabia at the end of which fire would burn forth from the Yemen, and would drive people to the place of their assembly.


The minor signs indicate that the Hour is "getting closer", while the major signs indicate that the Hour will happen immediately after them. The first major sign is coming of the Dajjal and Muhammad thought that it might happen during his life.[1]

  • 7th century Arabs didn't have the concept of "an hour" meaning 60 minutes. An hour (ساعة) just meant a period of time [shorter than a day]. [2]
  • Most prophecies are linked to the Hour

Characteristics

  • Predictions don't have the time when they are supposed to happen. So even if it doesn't happen, Muslim can still believe it will happen in the future. For example the conquest of Constantinople was predicted to happen without fighting. But it was conquered by fighting, so some Muslims think that this wasn't what was predicted and there will be another conquest of Constantinople that will get it right.
  • Scarcely any predictions were fulfilled once the predictions had been written down in the form of hadiths.

Retrodictions and Reiterating Biblical Prophecy

The hadith collections were written, often by Persian authors, hundreds of years after the death of Muhammad. So when the hadiths contain a prophecy about early Islamic history, they are likely only being attributed to Muhammad after the fact. This category also includes things that always happened, even before Islam (earthquakes, wars, people being dishonest...) and prophecies copied from the Bible.

Fabrication of hadiths

يَكُونُ فِي آخِرِ الزَّمَانِ دَجَّالُونَ كَذَّابُونَ يَأْتُونَكُمْ مِنَ الأَحَادِيثِ بِمَا لَمْ تَسْمَعُوا أَنْتُمْ وَلاَ آبَاؤُكُمْ فَإِيَّاكُمْ وَإِيَّاهُمْ لاَ يُضِلُّونَكُمْ وَلاَ يَفْتِنُونَكُمْ

The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah upon him, said: ‘There will be in the end of time charlatan liars coming to you with narrations (hadiths) that you nor your fathers heard, so beware of them lest they misguide you and cause you tribulations’.


Sahih Muslim, Introduction, Narration 15

There were a lot of fabricators of hadiths before the hadiths were written (mostly in the 9th century). Muslim scholars thus invented a "science of hadiths" which determines which oral traditions are fabricated and which are from people who supposedly "never lie".

The caliphate will last 30 years

Sa'eed bin Jumhan narrated: "Safinah narrated to me, he said: 'The Messenger of Allah(s.a.w) said: "Al-Khilafah will be in my Ummah for thirty years, then there will be monarchy after that."' Then Safinah said to me: 'Count the Khilafah of Abu Bakr,' then he said: 'Count the Khilafah of 'Umar and the Khilafah of 'Uthman.' Then he said to me: 'Count the Khilafah of 'Ali."' He said: "So we found that they add up to thirty years." Sa'eed said: "I said to him: 'Banu Umaiyyah claim that the Khilafah is among them.' He said: 'Banu Az-Zarqa' lie, rather they are a monarchy, among the worst of monarchies."'


  • The first caliphate lasted from 632-661, 29 years time.
  • Tirmidhi, author of this hadith collection, was born in 824, more than 100 years after the end of the caliphate
  • The hadith in it's text is in the context of discussion about previous caliphates
  • The political system after the first caliphate, was still called a caliphate. There was some form of caliphate until the 20th century

Rulership of the foolish after Muhammad

Ka'b b. ‘Ujra told that God's Messenger said to him, “I commend you to God to protect you from the rulership of the foolish (إمارةِ السُّفهاءِ).” He asked what that was, and God’s Messenger replied, “After my time governors will arise whose falsehood will be believed and who will be assisted in their oppression by those who enter their presence. They have nothing to do with me and I have nothing to do with them, and they will never come down to me at the Pond. But they who do not enter their presence, believe their falsehood and help them in their oppression, those belong to me and I belong to them, and those ones will come down to me at the Pond.”
Mishkat al-Masabih 3700

Vile men control affairs of the people

..and the Ruwaibidah will decide matters.’ It was said: ‘Who are the Ruwaibidah?’ He said: ‘Vile and base men who control the affairs of the people.’”


Sunan Ibn Majah 4036 (hasan)

Return of the caliphate

The hadith was sent to a new caliph Umar II:

حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبي ثنا سليمان بن داود الطيالسي حدثني داود بن إبراهيم الواسطي حدثني حبيب بن سالم عن النعمان بن بشير قال : كنا قعودا في المسجد مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم وكان بشير رجلا يكف حديثه فجاء أبو ثعلبة الخشني فقال يا بشير بن سعد أتحفظ حديث رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم في الأمراء فقال حذيفة أنا أحفظ خطبته فجلس أبو ثعلبة فقال حذيفة قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم تكون النبوة فيكم ما شاء الله ان تكون ثم يرفعها إذا شاء ان يرفعها ثم تكون خلافة على منهاج النبوة فتكون ما شاء الله ان تكون ثم يرفعها إذا شاء الله أن يرفعها ثم تكون ملكا عاضا فيكون ما شاء الله ان يكون ثم يرفعها إذا شاء أن يرفعها ثم تكون ملكا جبرية فتكون ما شاء الله ان تكون ثم يرفعها إذا شاء ان يرفعها ثم تكون خلافة على منهاج النبوة ثم سكت قال حبيب فلما قام عمر بن عبد العزيز وكان يزيد بن النعمان بن بشير في صحابته فكتبت إليه بهذا الحديث أذكره إياه فقلت له انى أرجو ان يكون أمير المؤمنين يعنى عمر بعد الملك العاض والجبرية فادخل كتابي على عمر بن عبد العزيز فسر به وأعجبه تعليق شعيب الأرنؤوط : إسناده حسن

It was narrated by Ahmed in his Musnad, from Al-Nu’man b.Bashir, who said: “We were sitting in the mosque of the Messenger of Allah(saw), and Bashir was a man who did not speak much, so Abu Tha’labah Al-Khashnee came and said: ‘Oh, Bashir bin Sa’ad, have you memorized the words of the Messenger of Allah (saw) regarding the rulers?’ Huthayfah replied, ‘I have memorized his words’. So Abu Tha’labah sat down and Huthayfah said, ‘The Messenger of Allah (saw) said ‘Prophet-hood will be among you as long as Allah wishes, then He will lift it up when He wishes to lift it up. Then there will be a Khilafah on the way of the Prophet, and it will be as long as Allah wishes it to be, then Allah will lift it up when He wishes to lift it up. Then there will be an inheritance rule, and it will last as long as Allah wishes it to, then Allah will lift it up when He wishes to lift it up. Then there will be a coercive rule, and it will last as long as Allah wishes it to be, then Allah will lift it up when He wishes to lift it up. Then there will be a Khilafah on the way of Prophet-hood.’ Then he (saw) was silent.” Habib said: “When Umar ibn AbdulAziz became caliph I wrote to him, mentioning this tradition to him and saying, “I hope you will be the commander of the faithful after the biting and the oppressive kingdoms. ”It pleased and charmed him, i.e. Umar ibn AbdulAziz.”


Musnad Ahmad 4/273, 18430 (hasan)

Umar II died in 720 and he was expected to bring back the good old caliphate. Musnad Ahmad was written in the 9th century.

"Prophet, siddiq and two martyrs"

Notice that the future caliphs are usually mentioned in the order in which they will be caliphs (strongly suggesting these were written later by someone who already knew the order):

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

The Prophet (ﷺ) ascended the mountain of Uhud and he was accompanied by Abu Bakr, `Umar and `Uthman. The mountain shook beneath them. The Prophet (ﷺ) hit it with his foot and said, "O Uhud ! Be firm, for on you there is none but a Prophet, a Siddiq and a martyr (i.e. and two martyrs).


The hadith was interpreted as a vague prediction that Abu Bakr will die naturally and Umar and Uthman will be killed. The 3 caliphs were in the 7th century. Sahih Bukhari was written in the 9th century.

Khawarij

According to Islamic scholars, this hadith is about the coming of the Khawarij:

It was narrated that 'Ali said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah [SAW] say: 'At the end of time there will appear young people with foolish minds. Their faith will not pass through their throats, and they will go out of Islam as an arrow goes through the target. If you meet them, then kill them, for killing them will bring reward to the one who killed them on the Day of Resurrection.'"


Sunan An-Nasa'i Vol. 5, Book 37, Hadith 4107

Khawarij ("The Leavers") left the army of the caliph Ali in the middle of the 7th century. The prediction was written in the middle of the 9th century, two hundred years later.

The prophecy says "at the end of time". The Khawarij appeared more than a thousand years ago.

Places of killed people at the battle of Badr

..Then the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: This is the place where so and so would be killed. He placed his hand on the earth (saying) here and here; (and) none of them fell away from the place which the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) had indicated by placing his hand on the earth.


Sahih Muslim Book 19, Hadith 4394

Battle of Badr was in the 7th century. This hadith collection was authored in the 9th century.

Earthquakes will increase

It's a part of a longer hadith as one of the signs of the end of the world:

.. and earthquakes will increase in number..


There were always earthquakes, increasing and decreasing. There is a report that earthquakes happened also during the life of Muhammad:

He [the Prophet (ﷺ)] prayed during an earthquake six bowings and four prostrations, and said, "This is the way the Prayer of the Signs (of Allah) is offered.


Earthquakes were also predicted in the Bible:

When you hear of wars and uprisings, do not be frightened. These things must happen first, but the end will not come right away.”

Then he said to them: “Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be great earthquakes, famines and pestilences in various places, and fearful events and great signs from heaven.


Luke 21:9-11

Rain is hot

This hadith is classified as mawdu (fabricated). [3] It's part of a long hadith about coming of the Hour:

..وَأَنْ يَكُونَ الْمَطَرُ قَيْظًا .. ..and that rain will be hot (قيظا)..


al-Tabarani, Mu'jam al-Kabir 10/228 (mawdu')

It was also mentioned in Lane's lexicon:

لَا تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ حَتَّى يَكُونَ الوَلَدُ غَيْظًا والمَطَرُ قَيْظًا, a saying of Moḥammad, meaning [The resurrection, or the time thereof, will not come to pass until the birth of a child be an occasion of wrath, or rage, and] rain be accompanied by air like the قيظ [or most vehement heat of summer]. (TA.)


Lane's lexicon on قَيْظٌ [4]

The word قيظ (qayz) was also mentioned in a different hadith meaning "hot weather":

Rifa'ah bin Rafi' said: I heard Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq say on the minbar of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) : I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say, and Abu Bakr wept when he remembered the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) , then he recovered and said. I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say, in this hot weather (القيظ) last year: `Ask Allah for forgiveness, well-being and certainty of faith in the Hereafter and in this world.”


Musnad Ahmad Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 6 (Hasan)

Some insist that the word قيظ means "acidic".

Strong wind

Muhammad predicted a strong wind on the same day it happened, so there was probably already a wind getting stronger:

..When we reached Tabuk, the Prophet (ﷺ) said, "There will be a strong wind tonight and so no one should stand and whoever has a camel, should fasten it." So we fastened our camels. A strong wind blew at night and a man stood up and he was blown away to a mountain called Taiy..


The prophecy was written in the 9th century.

Child is filled with rage

This is a part of a fabricated (mawdu') hadith.

وإن من أعلام الساعة وأشراطها: أن يكون الولد غيظاً، وأن يكون المطر قيظاً

And from the signs of the Hour is that a boy will be enraged and that water will be hot


al-Tabarani, Mu'jam al-Kabir 10/228 (mawdu')

Angry children have been around since time immemorial.

Muhammad's death

Muhammad predicted that he will die. The prediction doesn't contain any specific information about his death:

I went to the Prophet (ﷺ) during the Ghazwa of Tabuk while he was sitting in a leather tent. He said, "Count six signs that indicate the approach of the Hour: my death, the conquest of Jerusalem, a plague that will afflict you (and kill you in great numbers) as the plague that afflicts sheep, the increase of wealth to such an extent that even if one is given one hundred Dinars, he will not be satisfied; then an affliction which no Arab house will escape, and then a truce between you and Bani Al-Asfar (i.e. the Byzantines) who will betray you and attack you under eighty flags. Under each flag will be twelve thousand soldiers.


The context is that it will be a sign that the Hour is coming. But Muhammad died more than a thousand years ago and the Hour didn't come.

A plague kills many Muslims

I went to the Prophet (ﷺ) during the Ghazwa of Tabuk while he was sitting in a leather tent. He said, "Count six signs that indicate the approach of the Hour: my death, the conquest of Jerusalem, a plague that will afflict you (and kill you in great numbers) as the plague that afflicts sheep, the increase of wealth to such an extent that even if one is given one hundred Dinars, he will not be satisfied; then an affliction which no Arab house will escape, and then a truce between you and Bani Al-Asfar (i.e. the Byzantines) who will betray you and attack you under eighty flags. Under each flag will be twelve thousand soldiers.


It was interpreted as a prophecy about the Plague of Amwas (638-639), which is considered a re-emergence of the Plague of Justinian (541-549), so there was a precedent.

The prediction was written in the 9th century.

Sexual immorality (abominations)

It was narrated that ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar said: “The Messenger of Allah ﷺ turned to us and said: ‘O Muhajirun, there are five things with which you will be tested, and I seek refuge with Allah lest you live to see them: Immorality never appears among a people to such an extent that they commit it openly, but plagues and diseases that were never known among the predecessors will spread among them. They do not cheat in weights and measures but they will be stricken with famine, severe calamity and the oppression of their rulers. They do not withhold the Zakah of their wealth, but rain will be withheld from the sky, and were it not for the animals, no rain would fall on them. They do not break their covenant with Allah and His Messenger, but Allah will enable their enemies to overpower them and take some of what is in their hands. Unless their leaders rule according to the Book of Allah and seek all good from that which Allah has revealed, Allah will cause them to fight one another.’”


Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 5, Book of Tribulations, Hadith 4019

Sexual immorality (or "abomination") was nothing new in the 7th century. The Old Testament mentions such a story:

He prepared a meal for them, baking bread without yeast, and they ate. Before they had gone to bed, all the men from every part of the city of Sodom—both young and old—surrounded the house. They called to Lot, “Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us so that we can have sex with them.” Lot went outside to meet them and shut the door behind him and said, “No, my friends. Don’t do this wicked thing. Look, I have two daughters who have never slept with a man. Let me bring them out to you, and you can do what you like with them.


The Bible, Genesis 19:3-8

In the New Testament Jesus spoke to a woman who had many sexual partners:

“Go and get your husband,” Jesus told her.

“I don’t have a husband,” the woman replied.

Jesus said, “You’re right! You don’t have a husband— for you have had five husbands, and you aren’t even married to the man you’re living with now. You certainly spoke the truth!”


The Bible, John 4:16-18

There were also abominations happening in Muhammad's time:

Narrated `Aisha:

that the Prophet (ﷺ) married her when she was six years old and he consummated his marriage when she was nine years old. Hisham said: I have been informed that `Aisha remained with the Prophet (ﷺ) for nine years (i.e. till his death).


Plagues and diseases also happened throughout whole history. Plagues (pestilences) were also predicted in the Bible, hundreds of years before Muhammad:

When you hear of wars and uprisings, do not be frightened. These things must happen first, but the end will not come right away.”

Then he said to them: “Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be great earthquakes, famines and pestilences in various places, and fearful events and great signs from heaven.


Luke 21:9-11

Homosexuality

This is a fabricated (mawdu') hadith:

يا ابن مسعود إن من أعلام الساعة وأشراطها أن يكتفي الرجال بالرجال والنساء بالنساء

..O Ibn Mas'ud, indeed from the signs of the Hour is that men are content with men and women with women..


Tabarani, al-Mu'jim al-kabeer 10/228 (mawdu')

Homosexuals existed before Islam.

People flogging people

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) having said this:

Two are the types of the denizens of Hell whom I did not see: people having flogs like the tails of the ox with them and they would be beating people, and the women who would be dressed but appear to be naked, who would be inclined (to evil) and make their husbands incline towards it. Their heads would be like the humps of the bukht camel inclined to one side. They will not enter Paradise and they would not smell its odour whereas its odour would be smelt from such and such distance.


Tafsir:

Al-Sakhaawi said: They are now the helpers of the oppressors, and usually it refers to the worst group around the ruler. It may also apply to unjust rulers.


Al-Ishaa’ah li Ashraat il-Saa’ah, p. 119

Muhammad commanded flogging (and killing) people:

Narrated Mu'awiyah ibn AbuSufyan:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: If they (the people) drink wine, flog them, again if they drink it, flog them. Again if they drink it, kill them.


Sunan Abi Dawud 4482 (hasan sahih)

Women naked, but dressed (wearing revealing clothes)

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) having said this:

Two are the types of the denizens of Hell whom I did not see: people having flogs like the tails of the ox with them and they would be beating people, and the women who would be dressed but appear to be naked, who would be inclined (to evil) and make their husbands incline towards it. Their heads would be like the humps of the bukht camel inclined to one side. They will not enter Paradise and they would not smell its odour whereas its odour would be smelt from such and such distance.


Some apologists present it as something new that happens in the 21st century and Muhammad couldn't have guessed it.

This hadeeth is one of the miracles of Prophethood, for these two types of people have appeared, and they exist now, as al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him) said.


islamqa.info: Commentary on the hadeeth; “two types of the people of Hell whom I have not seen…” [5]

Al-Nawawi lived in the 13th century.

Islamic sources say that there were women naked circumambulating around the Kaba in Muhammad's time:

It was narrated from Saeed bin Jubair that Ibn Abbas said: "Women used to circumambulate the Kabah naked, saying: 'Today some, or all of it will appear And whatever appers I don't make is permissible.' Then the following was revealed: 'O Children of Adam! Take your adornment to every Masjid.'"


There is also a hadith with the same terminology of dressed (كاسيات) and undressed (عاريات) but in a different context:

Narrated Um Salama:

One night the Prophet (ﷺ) got up and said, "Subhan Allah! How many afflictions Allah has revealed tonight and how many treasures have been sent down (disclosed). Go and wake the sleeping lady occupants of these dwellings up (for prayers), perhaps a well dressed (كاسية) in this world may be naked (عارية) in the Hereafter."


Naked thighs in markets

This hadith is classified mawdoo' (fabricated). [6] Albani included it in his book سلسلة الأحاديث الضعيفة والموضوعة وأثرها السيئ في الأمة ("Series of weak hadiths which have negative effects in the Ummah"):

عشر من أخلاق قوم اللوط:..والمشي في الأسواق والأفخاذ بادية

Ten behaviors of Lot's people:.. and walking in markets and thighs are naked..


Series of weak hadiths which have negative effects in the Ummah, Al-Albani

There were uncovered thighs in Muhammad's time:

Narrated Jarhad:

The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) sat with us and my thigh was uncovered. He said: Do you not know that thigh is a private part ?


Abu Dawud Book 32, Hadith 4003

Muhammad exposed his thighs at some point:

Narrated `Abdul `Aziz:

Anas said, 'When Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) invaded Khaibar, we offered the Fajr prayer there (early in the morning) when it was still dark. The Prophet (ﷺ) rode and Abu Talha rode too and I was riding behind Abu Talha. The Prophet (ﷺ) passed through the lane of Khaibar quickly and my knee was touching the thigh of the Prophet (ﷺ) . He uncovered his thigh and I saw the whiteness of the thigh of the Prophet.


Widespread adultery

Anas b. Malik reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:

It is from the conditions of the Last Hour that knowledge would be taken away and ignorance would prevail (upon the world), the liquor would be drunk, and adultery would become rampant.


Muhammad's companions used to give women a handful of flour and then perform what they called "a temporary marriage" (زواج المتعة, zawaj al-mut'a). Seeing as polygamy was allowed, these companions may have been married at the time, and their behavior would today be classified as adultery:

Jabir b. 'Abdullah reported:

We contracted temporary marriage giving a handful of (tales or flour as a dower during the lifetime of Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) and during the time of Abu Bakr until 'Umar forbade it in the case of 'Amr b. Huraith.


There is also a fabricated (mawdu') prophecy about illegitimate children:

يَا ابْنَ مَسْعُودٍ ، إِنَّ مِنْ أَعْلَامِ السَّاعَةِ وَأَشْرَاطِهَا أَنْ يَكْثُرَ أَوْلَادُ الزِّنَا

O Ibn Mas'ud, indeed from the signs of the Hour is that there are many children from adultery


Tabarani, al-Mu'jim al-kabeer 10/228 (mawdu')

Abundant wealth

It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “The Hour will not begin until wealth becomes abundant and tribulations appear, and Harj increases.” They said: “What is Harj, O Messenger of Allah?” He said: “Killing, killing, killing,” three times.


Muslims became wealthy in the 7th century by the early Islamic conquests (the hadith itself mentions it together with "killing, killing, killing"). Sunan Ibn Majah was written two centuries after these conquests.

Men obey their wives

The hadith is daif:

Ali bin Abi Talib narrated that the Messenger of Allah(s.a.w) said: "When my Ummah does fifteen things, the afflictions will occur in it." It was said: "What are they O Messenger of Allah?" He said: "When Al-Maghnam (the spoils of war) are distributed (preferentially), trust is usurped, Zakah is a fine, a man obeys his wife and disobeys his mother, he is kind to his friend and abandons his father, voices are raised in the Masajid, the leader of the people is the most despicable among them, the most honored man is the one whose evil the people are afraid of, intoxicants are drunk, silk is worn (by males), there is a fascination for singing slave-girls and music, and the end of this Ummah curses its beginning. When that occurs, anticipate a red wind, collapsing of the earth, and transformation."


Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2210 (daif)

It was mentioned among negative things, that indicates that a woman being dominant in marriage is an evil thing. But it appears that the patriarchy was not universal even in Muhammad's time:

Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas: ...We, the people of Quraish, used to have authority over women, but when we came to live with the Ansar, we noticed that the Ansari women had the upper hand over their men, so our women started acquiring the habits of the Ansari women. Once I shouted at my wife and she paid me back in my coin and I disliked that she should answer me back....

Muhammad's wife with the longest arm will die first

Narrated 'Aisha:

Some of the wives of the Prophet asked him, "Who amongst us will be the first to follow you (i.e. die after you)?" He said, "Whoever has the longest hand." So they started measuring their hands with a stick and Sauda's hand turned out to be the longest. (When Zainab bint Jahsh died first of all in the caliphate of 'Umar), we came to know that the long hand was a symbol of practicing charity, so she was the first to follow the Prophet and she used to love to practice charity. (Sauda died later in the caliphate of Muawiya).


Sahih Bukhari: Vol. 2, Book of Tax (Zakat), Hadith 501

It's questionable whether the prophecy was metaphorical and fulfilled or whether it was literal and hence re-interpreted. Sahih Bukhari was written in the 9th century.

Mosques full of hypocrites

عن عبد اللهِ بنِ عَمرو قال : يأتي على الناس زمانٌ ، يجتمِعون ويُصلُّون في المساجدِ ، وليس فيهم مؤمنٌ

A time will come on people when they get together and pray in mosques and isn't among them a single believer


Ibn Abi Shaybah: Kitab al-Iman 101 (sahih)

Praying hypocrites were also mentioned in the Bible:

“And when you pray, do not be like the hypocrites, for they love to pray standing in the synagogues and on the street corners to be seen by others.


The Bible (NIV), Matthew 6:5

The military nature of Islam's spread may have encouraged this type of hypocrisy:

It is reported on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah said:

I have been commanded to fight against people so long as they do not declare that there is no god but Allah, and he who professed it was guaranteed the protection of his property and life on my behalf except for the right affairs rest with Allah.


Narrated `Ikrima:

`Ali burnt some people and this news reached Ibn `Abbas, who said, "Had I been in his place I would not have burnt them, as the Prophet (ﷺ) said, 'Don't punish (anybody) with Allah's Punishment.' No doubt, I would have killed them, for the Prophet (ﷺ) said, 'If somebody (a Muslim) discards his religion, kill him.' "


Fire in Hijaz illuminates necks of camels in Busra

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "The Hour will not be established till a fire will come out of the land of Hijaz, and it will throw light on the necks of the camels at Busra."


There was a lava eruption in Hijaz in the year 1256 (Harrat Rahat) which is considered by Muslims as fulfillment. That's the last eruption, but the eruption before that was in 640 - 641 A.D. during the reign of Umar.[7] So there was a precedent. The unspecified date of occurrence makes this prediction one that might be referenced perennially

Making halal what was haram

Narrated Abu 'Amir or Abu Malik Al-Ash'ari:

that he heard the Prophet (ﷺ) saying, "From among my followers there will be some people who will consider illegal sexual intercourse, the wearing of silk, the drinking of alcoholic drinks and the use of musical instruments, as lawful. And there will be some people who will stay near the side of a mountain and in the evening their shepherd will come to them with their sheep and ask them for something, but they will say to him, 'Return to us tomorrow.' Allah will destroy them during the night and will let the mountain fall on them, and He will transform the rest of them into monkeys and pigs and they will remain so till the Day of Resurrection."


According to Islam, Jews and Christians took their rabbis and monks as lords, because the rabbis and monks made lawful for them what Allah forbade. [8]

Slave woman gives birth to her master/mistress

When a slave (lady) gives birth to her master.


When the slave woman gives birth to her mistress' (Waki' said: This means when non-Arabs will give birth to Arabs")


Ibn Majah Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 63 (sahih)

According to Nawawi, the opinion of the majority of scholars is that Muslims will enslave non-Muslim women and have kids with them and the kids will be masters of their mothers because the kids are Muslims. [9] Ibn Hajar (who lived later) didn't like this interpretation, because the enslavement was already happening during the time of Muhammad, so it wasn't really a prophecy of the future.

Ibn Hajar and others, as a result, like to interpret it as kids treating their mothers like slaves. This is not compatible with Waki's comment, and it would appear that children disrespecting their parents has been and will remain a universal phenomenon.

Woman helps her husband in business

'Abdullah said, 'From the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who said, "Before the Final Hour people will single out one individual for the greeting, commerce will increase until a woman helps her husband in business, people will sever their links with their relatives, knowledge will spread, false testimony will appear and true testimony will be concealed."


Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 1049 (sahih)

Some people control trade

"The Messenger of Allah said: 'One of the portents of the Hour will be that wealth becomes widespread and abundant, and trade will become widespread, but knowledge will disappear. A man will try to sell something and will say: "No, not until I consult the merchant of banu so and so and People will look throughout a vast area for a scribe and will not find one."


an-Nasa'i Vol. 5, Book 44, Hadith 4461 (sahih)

Meccans boycotted Muslims in the Meccan period. It was a form of trade control.

Injustice

Ibn 'Umar reported that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Injustice will appear as darkness on the Day of Rising."


Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 485 (sahih)

False testimony

وَظُهُورُ الشَّهَادَةِ بِالزُّورِ، وَكِتْمَانُ شَهَادَةِ الْحَقِّ

..false testimony will appear and true testimony will be concealed.


Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 1049 (sahih)

Unfulfilled vows

..then the Prophet (ﷺ) added, 'There will come after you, people who will bear witness without being asked to do so, and will be treacherous and untrustworthy, and they will vow and never fulfill their vows, and fatness will appear among them."


Cheating in weights (scales)

It was narrated that ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar said: “The Messenger of Allah ﷺ turned to us and said: ‘O Muhajirun, there are five things with which you will be tested, and I seek refuge with Allah lest you live to see them: Immorality never appears among a people to such an extent that they commit it openly, but plagues and diseases that were never known among the predecessors will spread among them. They do not cheat in weights and measures but they will be stricken with famine, severe calamity and the oppression of their rulers. They do not withhold the Zakah of their wealth, but rain will be withheld from the sky, and were it not for the animals, no rain would fall on them. They do not break their covenant with Allah and His Messenger, but Allah will enable their enemies to overpower them and take some of what is in their hands. Unless their leaders rule according to the Book of Allah and seek all good from that which Allah has revealed, Allah will cause them to fight one another.’”


Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 5, Book of Tribulations, Hadith 4019

This is also mentioned in the Old Testament:

Then the Lord said to me, “The end has come for My people Israel. I will spare them no longer. The songs of the palace will turn to wailing in that day,” declares the Lord God. “Many will be the corpses; in every place they will cast them forth in silence.” Hear this, you who trample the needy, to do away with the humble of the land, saying: “When will the new moon be over, So that we may sell grain, And the sabbath, that we may open the wheat market, To make the bushel smaller and the shekel bigger, And to cheat with dishonest scales


The Bible (NASB), Amos 8:2-6

Famines, like cheating, are universal phenomenon.

Making money unlawfully

Narrated Abu Hurairah (ra): The Prophet (ﷺ) said "Certainly a time will come when people will not bother to know from where they earned the money, by lawful means or unlawful means."


Muhammad himself engaged in dubious practices to acquire money:

Then the apostle heard that Abu Sufyan b. Harb was coming from Syria with a large caravan of Quraysh, containing their money and merchandise, accompanied by some thirty or forty men." Mohammad said, "This is the Quraysh caravan containing their property, Go out to attack it, perhaps God will give it as prey,


Sirat Rasul Allah 428, Tabari VII:29

Usury (riba)

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ أَنّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ يَأْتِي عَلَى النَّاسِ زَمَانٌ يَأْكُلُونَ فِيهِ الرِّبَا قِيلَ النَّاسُ كُلُّهُمْ قَالَ مَنْ لَمْ يَأْكُلْهُ مِنْهُمْ نَالَهُ مِنْ غُبَارِهِ

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “A time will come upon people in which they will consume usury.” It was said, “All of the people?” The Prophet said, “Whoever does not consume it will be affected by its dust.”


Musnad Aḥmad 10191

Usury (riba) was already widespread in the period before Islam, which Muslims call "jahilya":

Riba al-Jahiliyah means “the riba used during the age of ignorance and paganism.” It is also called riba al-nassee'aa (the riba that is constrained by a time limit and is time dependent). This type of riba was widely practiced by the pagan Arabs at the advent of Islam.


In any interest-based economy, all goods will inevitably be "tainted" directly or indirectly with interest-based practices.

Sudden deaths

حدثنا الهيثم بن خالد المصيصي نا عبدالكبير بن المعافى بن عمران نا شريك عن العباس بن ذريح عن الشعبي عن أنس بن مالك رفعه إلى النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم قال من اقتراب الساعة أن يرى الهلال قبلا فيقال لليلتين وأن تتخذ المساجد طرقا وأن يظهر الموت الفجاء لم يرو هذا الحديث عن العباس بن زريح إلا شريك تفرد به عبد الكبير بن المعافى

Anas bin Malik (RA) narrated that the Prophet (SAW) said: “Among the signs that the Last Hour is near, is that the crescent would appear larger than its actual size and people would say: ‘It appears as if it is only two days old.’ and the masajid will be taken as streets, and sudden death will spread.”


Al-Mu'jam al-Awsat al-Tabarani (9/147) No. 9376 (sahih)

In other hadiths Muhammad and Ubayd speak about sudden death as something already known:

Narrated Ubayd ibn Khalid as-Sulami,:

A man from the Companions of the Prophet (ﷺ), said: The narrator Sa'd ibn Ubaydah narrated sometimes from the Prophet (ﷺ) and sometimes as a statement of Ubayd (ibn Khalid): The Prophet (ﷺ) said: Sudden death is a wrathful catching.


Sunan Abi Dawud 3110 / Book 21, Hadith 22 / Book 20, Hadith 3104 (sahih)

Islam will be unpleasant for Muslims (like burning ember/coal in hand)

Anas bin Malik narrated that the Messenger of Allah(s.a.w) said: "There shall come upon the people a time in which the one who is patient upon his religion will be like the one holding onto a burning ember."


Tirmidhi Vol. 4, Book 7, Hadith 2260 (hasan)

Adhering to Islam was already unpleasant for many Muslims during the time of Muhammad and it escalated in 632-633 during the Wars of Apostasy when some Arabs tried to leave Islam, but had it imposed on them once again by the caliph.

Following Jews and Christians

Narrated Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "You will follow the ways of those nations who were before you, span by span and cubit by cubit (i.e., inch by inch) so much so that even if they entered a hole of a mastigure, you would follow them." We said, "O Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)! (Do you mean) the Jews and the Christians?" He said, "Whom else?"


Muhammad himself incorporated portions of the Talmud and the gospels in the Quran and his teachings.

Killing [pointless killing]

Narrated `Abdullah and Abu Musa:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "Near the establishment of the Hour there will be days during which Religious ignorance will spread, knowledge will be taken away (vanish) and there will be much Al-Harj, and Al- Harj means killing."


The Old Testament hosts many texts about mass killing. For example:

Now go and smite Amalek and utterly destroy all they have; do not spare them, but kill both man and woman, infant and suckling, ox and sheep, camel and donkey.


The Bible (AMPC), 1 Samuel 15:3

Muhammad himself engaged in what most would describe as "pointless killing":

Then they surrendered, and the apostle confined them in Medina in the quarter of d. al-Harith, a woman of B. al-Najjar. Then the apostle went out to the market of Medina (which is still its market today) and dug trenches in it. Then he sent for them and struck off their heads in those trenches as they were brought out to him in batches. Among them was the enemy of Allah Huyayy b. Akhtab and Ka`b b. Asad their chief. There were 600 or 700 in all, though some put the figure as high as 800 or 900.


Ibn Ishaq: Sirat Rasul Allah, p. 464

Two parties with the same message will fight

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) many ahadith and one of them was this:

The last Hour will not come until the two parties (of Muslims) confront each other and there is a large-scale massacre amongst them and the claim of both of them is the same.


This prediction was interpreted by Islamic scholars as referring to the Battle of Siffin (year 657). Sahih Muslim was written in the 9th century.

Issue between Ali and Aisha

إنَّهُ سيكونُ بينَكَ وبين عائشةَ أمرٌ قال فأنا أشقاهُم يا رسولَ اللهِ قال لا ولكنْ إذا كان ذلك فاردُدْها إلى مأمنِها

There will be an issue between you and ‘Aisha.” He said, “Me, O Messenger of Allah?!” He said, “Yes.” He said, “Me?!” He said, “Yes.” He said, “Then [in that case] I would be the worst of them (all people).” He said, “No, but when this occurs, return her to her safe quarters.”
Fath al Bari 13/59 (sahih) and others

The Battle of the Camel happened in 656. The hadith (in Musnad Ahmad) was written in the 9th century.

Ammar will be killed

Narrated Abu Hurairah: that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "Rejoice, 'Ammar, the transgressing party shall kill you."


Tirmidhi Vol. 1, Book 46, Hadith 3800 (sahih)

He was killed in the 7th century. The collection of Tirmidhi was written in the 9th century.

"I have been given Persia"

أنبأ محمد بن عبد الأعلى قال حدثنا معتمر قال سمعت عوفا قال سمعت ميمونا يحدث عن البراء بن عازب قال : لما أمرنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم أن يحفر الخندق عرض لنا فيه حجر لا يأخذ فيه المعول فاشتكينا ذلك إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فجاء رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم فألقى ثوبه وأخذ المعول وقال بسم الله فضرب ضربة فكسر ثلث الصخرة قال الله أكبر أعطيت مفاتيح الشام والله إني لأبصر قصورها الحمر الآن من مكاني هذا قال ثم ضرب أخرى وقال بسم الله وكسر ثلثا آخر وقال الله أكبر أعطيت مفاتيح فارس والله إني لأبصر قصر المدائن الأبيض الآن ثم ضرب ثالثة وقال بسم الله فقطع الحجر قال الله أكبر أعطيت مفاتيح اليمن والله إني لأبصر باب صنعاء

Al-Bara said: On the Day of Al-Khandaq (the trench) there stood out a rock too immune for our spades to break up. We therefore went to see God’s Messenger for advice. He took the spade, and said: “In the Name of God” Then he struck it saying: “God is Most Great, I have been given the keys of Ash-Sham (Greater Syria). By God, I can see its red palaces at the moment;” on the second strike he said: “God is Most Great, I have been given Persia. By God, I can now see the white palace of Madain;” and for the third time he struck the rock saying: “In the Name of God,” shattering the rest of the rock, and he said: “God is Most Great, I have been given the keys of Yemen. By God, I can see the gates of San’a while I am in my place.”


Al-Nasa'i, Sunan al Kubra 8858

The bloody conquest happened around the year 650. Earliest hadith collection Muwatta Imam Malik (which doesn't contain this hadith) was written around the year 750 and the hadith collection sunan al-Kubra which contains the hadith was written around the year 850. This hadith was written hundreds of years after the event it describes.

Furthermore, Persia was already conquered a thousand years before by Alexander the Great. And at the time of Muhammad Persia was exhausted by wars with Romans which lasted from 54 BC to 628 AD (681 years).

Conquest of Jerusalem

Narrated `Auf bin Mali:

I went to the Prophet (ﷺ) during the Ghazwa of Tabuk while he was sitting in a leather tent. He said, "Count six signs that indicate the approach of the Hour: my death, the conquest of Jerusalem, a plague that will afflict you (and kill you in great numbers) as the plague that afflicts sheep, the increase of wealth to such an extent that even if one is given one hundred Dinars, he will not be satisfied; then an affliction which no Arab house will escape, and then a truce between you and Bani Al-Asfar (i.e. the Byzantines) who will betray you and attack you under eighty flags. Under each flag will be twelve thousand soldiers.


Some suggest that Muhammad predicted "The Muslim conquest of Jerusalem in 1187 AD." [10]:

However, this was the second Islamic conquest of Jerusalem. Muslims first conquered Jerusalem in 636:

Furthermore, after the conquest, the Hour was expected to come. Both events occurred nearly a thousand years in the past.

This was written by Bukhari two hundred years after the first conquest.

Conquest of Egypt

Abu Dharr reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:

You would soon conquer Egypt and that is a land which is known (as the land of al-qirat). So when you conquer it, treat its inhabitants well. For there lies upon you the responsibility because of blood-tie or relationship of marriage (with them). And when you see two persons falling into dispute amongst themselves for the space of a brick, than get out of that. He (Abu Dharr) said: I saw Abd al-Rahman b. Shurahbil b. Hasana and his brother Rabi'a disputing with one another for the space of a brick. So I left that (land).


Muslim conquest of Egypt happened in the 7th century. The hadith collection Sahih Muslim was written in the 9th century.

Conquest of Yemen, Syria and Iraq

Sufyan b. Abu Zuhair heard Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) say:

Yemen will be conquered and some people will go away (to that country) driving their camels and carrying their families on them and those who are under their authority, while Medina is better for them if they were to know it. Then Syria will be conquered and some people will go away driving their camels along with them and carrying their families with them and those who are under their authority, while Medina is better for them if they were to know it. Then lraq will be conquered and some people will go away (to that country) driving their camels and carrying their families with them and those who are under their authority. while Medina is better for them if they were to know it.


All conquests happened in the 7th century. Sahih Muslim was written in the 9th century.

Fighting Turks

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "The Hour will not be established till you fight a nation wearing hairy shoes, and till you fight the Turks, who will have small eyes, red faces and flat noses; and their faces will be like flat shields. And you will find that the best people are those who hate responsibility of ruling most of all till they are chosen to be the rulers. And the people are of different natures: The best in the pre-lslamic period are the best in Islam. A time will come when any of you will love to see me rather than to have his family and property doubled."


Some suggest that "Turks" here means "Mongols" and that this thus predicts Gengis Khan. However, The Battle of Kharistan (737) which happened between the Umayyad caliphate and Turkic Türgesh, could equally fit the description provided here. This seems more plausible, especially as Sahih Bukhari was written in the 9th century.

One might also note that if Muhammad did in fact make these predictions, Islam's global imperial aspirations (proven as they were by the end of Muhammad's life) would make the conquest of any number of neighboring or nearby peoples a likelihood.

Leave the Turks as long as they leave you

This hadith is often referenced as evidence that Muhammad predicted the Ottoman empire, often ignoring the clause about the Abyssinians

Narrated from Abi Sukainah One of the Companions:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: Let the Abyssinians alone as long as they let you alone, and let the Turks alone as long as they leave you alone.


It is said that the Turks should be left alone because they were strong, and they were strong therefore they would eventually become dominant. This is an evidently generous reading of the hadith.

In other hadith, Muhammad is reported to have predicted that after a few wars, Muslims would exterminate the Turks:

يقاتِلُكم قومٌ صغارُ الأعينِ يعني التُّركَ قالَ تسوقونَهم ثلاثَ مرات حتَّى تُلحِقوهم بجزيرةِ العربِ فأمَّا في السِّاقةِ الأولى فينجو من هربَ منهم فأمَّا في الثَّانيةِ فينجو بعضٌ ويَهلِكُ بعضٌ وأمَّا في الثَّالثةِ فيصطَلِمونَ

People with small eyes, i.e. the Turks, will fight against you, the prophet (ﷺ) said: You will drive them off three times till you catch up with them in Arabia. On the first occasion when you drive them off those who fly will be safe, on the second occasion some will be safe and some will perish, but on the third occasion they will be extirpated.


Ibn Hajar, Takhreej Mishkaat al-Masabih 5/110 (hasan) and others [11]

Spoils of war distributed preferentially

Hadith daif:

إِذَا اتُّخِذَ الْفَىْءُ دُوَلاً

When Al-Fai' is distributed(preferentially)


Tirmidhi 2211 (daif)

Al-Fai mean spoils of war.

Fearless traveler (security)

Probably refers to time after the conquest of Iraq in the 7th century:

لا تقومُ الساعَةُ حتى تعودَ أرْضُ العربِ مروجًا وأَنْهَارًا وحتى يسيرَ الراكِبُ بينَ العِرَاقِ ومَكَّةَ لَا يَخَافُ إلَّا ضَلَالَ الطريقِ [ وحتَّى يَكْثُرَ الْهَرْجُ قالوا وما الهَرْجُ يا رسولَ اللهِ قال القتلُ ]

The Hour will not come until the land of Arabs becomes meadows and rivers and until a rider goes between Iraq and Makka and doesn't fear anything except getting lost and until al-harj is widespread. They said: And what is al-Harj O messenger of God? He said: Killing.


al-Haythami 7/334 (sahih)

Fat people

Narrated `Imran bin Husain:

"Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, 'The best of my followers are those living in my generation (i.e. my contemporaries). and then those who will follow the latter" `Imran added, "I do not remember whether he mentioned two or three generations after his generation, then the Prophet (ﷺ) added, 'There will come after you, people who will bear witness without being asked to do so, and will be treacherous and untrustworthy, and they will vow and never fulfill their vows, and fatness will appear among them."


After the 7th century Islamic conquests, Muslims became rich and could buy a lot of food. Sahih Bukhari was written in the 9th century.

Special greeting

It was interpreted as "greeting only people you know":

بَيْنَ يَدَيِ السَّاعَةِ‏:‏ تَسْلِيمُ الْخَاصَّةِ

Before the Hour there is special greeting


Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 1049 (sahih)

It would mean Muslims would disobey Muhammad's command to greet everyone:

Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Amr:

A man asked the Prophet (ﷺ) , "What sort of deeds or (what qualities of) Islam are good?" The Prophet (ﷺ) replied, 'To feed (the poor) and greet those whom you know and those whom you do not know.


In other hadiths however Muhammad was preventing Muslims from greeting certain people based on their religion:

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:

Do not greet the Jews and the Christians before they greet you and when you meet any one of them on the roads force him to go to the narrowest part of it.


Rejection of hadiths

Narrated Al-Miqdam ibn Ma'dikarib:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: Beware! I have been given the Qur'an and something like it, yet the time is coming when a man replete on his couch will say: Keep to the Qur'an; what you find in it to be permissible treat as permissible, and what you find in it to be prohibited treat as prohibited. Beware! The domestic ass, beasts of prey with fangs, a find belonging to confederate, unless its owner does not want it, are not permissible to you If anyone comes to some people, they must entertain him, but if they do not, he has a right to mulct them to an amount equivalent to his entertainment.


Sunan Abi Dawud 4604 / Book 41, Hadith 4587 / Book 42, Hadith 9

The idea that only the Quran is the word of god and Muhamamad is just a man and therefore he might be wrong existed during Muhammad's life:

Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As:

I used to write everything which I heard from the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). I intended (by it) to memorise it. The Quraysh prohibited me saying: Do you write everything that you hear from him while the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) is a human being: he speaks in anger and pleasure? So I stopped writing, and mentioned it to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). He signalled with his finger to him mouth and said: Write, by Him in Whose hand my soul lies, only right comes out from it.


Reference: Sunan Abi Dawud 3646, In-book reference: Book 26, Hadith 6, English translation: Book 25, Hadith 3639

Liars will be trusted and honest people will be regarded as liars

It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “There will come to the people years of treachery, when the liar will be regarded as honest, and the honest man will be regarded as a liar; the traitor will be regarded as faithful, and the faithful man will be regarded as a traitor; and the Ruwaibidah will decide matters.’ It was said: ‘Who are the Ruwaibidah?’ He said: ‘Vile and base men who control the affairs of the people.’”


Sunan Ibn Majah Vol. 5, Book 36, Hadith 4036 (hasan)

This was already happening according to Islamic sources. Some people trusted Musaylimah.

"The pen will spread"

عَنْ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ بَيْنَ يَدَيِ السَّاعَةِ تَسْلِيمُ الْخَاصَّةِ وَفُشُوُّ التِّجَارَةِ حَتَّى تُعِينَ الْمَرْأَةُ زَوْجَهَا عَلَى التِّجَارَةِ وَقَطْعُ الأَرْحَامِ وَفُشُوُّ الْقَلَمِ وَظُهُورُ الشَّهَادَةِ بِالزُّورِ وَكِتْمَانُ شَهَادَةِ الْحَقِّ

Ibn Mas’ud reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Just before the Hour, the greeting of peace will only be given to specific people, trade will proliferate to the point that a woman will help her husband in his business, family ties will be severed, the pen will spread, false testimony will prevail and truthful testimony will be concealed.”


al-Adab al-Mufrad 1035 (sahih)

There is the Pen that Allah created first and which writes the future:

“I arrived in Makkah and met Ata bin Abi Rabah. I said: ‘O Abu Muhammad! Some people with us speak about Al-Qadar.’ Ata said: ‘I met Al-Walid bin Ubadah bin As-Samit and he said: “My father narrated to me, he said: ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah saying: “Verily the first of what Allah created was the Pen (القلم). He said to it: “Write.” So it wrote what will be forever.’”


Tirmidhi: Vol. 5, Book 44, Hadith 3319 (sahih)

There is also the Pen that writes deeds:

Narrated 'Aishah (RA): The Prophet (ﷺ) said: "There are three people whose actions are not recorded ( رُفِعَ اَلْقَلَمُ عَنْ ثَلَاثَةٍ, literally "is lifted the pen from three"), a sleeping person till he awakes, a child till he is a grown up, and an insane person till he is restored to reason or recovers his sense." [Reported by Ahmad and al-Arba'a, except at-Tirmidhi. al-Hakim graded it Sahih (authentic)].


Bulugh al Maram: Book 8, Hadith 1096

Narrated Abu Salamah: It was narrated from Abu Salamah that Abu Hurairah said: "I said: 'O Messenger of Allah, I am a young man and I fear hardship for myself, but I cannot afford to marry; should I castrate myself?'" The Prophet turned away from him until he said it three times. Then the Prophet said: "O Abu Hurairah, the pen is dried concerning what you are going to face, so (it is up to you whether) you castrate yourself or not." Abu Abdur-Rahman (An-Nasai) said: Al-Awzai did not hear this narration from Az-Zuhri, and this hadith is sahih, Yunus reported it from Az-Zuhri.


al-nasa'i: Vol. 4, Book 26, Hadith 3217 (sahih)

Literacy was increasing before Muhammad was born. Jews and Christians first used oral traditions, but then switched to writing. There was also the ongoing global transitions from oral cultures to written cultures more generally.

Notice also that the prophecy was written by people who were writing hadiths from oral traditions.

Family ties will be severed

Ibn Mas’ud reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Just before the Hour, the greeting of peace will only be given to specific people, trade will proliferate to the point that a woman will help her husband in his business, family ties will be severed (وَقَطْعُ الأَرْحَامِ), the pen will spread, false testimony will prevail and truthful testimony will be concealed.”


al-Adab al-Mufrad 1035 (sahih)

Islam teaches that among the first people were brothers Cain and Abel and Cain killed Abel.

There is also hadith where Muhammad encourages people to keep the ties of kinship, which indicates they weren't doing it enough in his time:

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allah said: "Learn enough about your lineage to facilitate keeping your ties of kinship (تَصِلُونَ بِهِ أَرْحَامَكُمْ). For indeed keeping the ties of kinship encourages affection among the relatives, increases the wealth, and increases the lifespan."


Tirmidhi: Vol. 4, Book 1, Hadith 1979 (hasan)

Killing of family members for the sake of Islam was also approved by Muhammad:

Narrated Abdullah Ibn Abbas: A blind man had a slave-mother who used to abuse the Prophet (peace be upon him) and disparage him. He forbade her but she did not stop. He rebuked her but she did not give up her habit. One night she began to slander the Prophet (peace be upon him) and abuse him. So he took a dagger, placed it on her belly, pressed it, and killed her. A child who came between her legs was smeared with the blood that was there. When the morning came, the Prophet (peace be upon him) was informed about it.

He assembled the people and said: I adjure by Allah the man who has done this action and I adjure him by my right to him that he should stand up. Jumping over the necks of the people and trembling the man stood up.

He sat before the Prophet (peace be upon him) and said: Apostle of Allah! I am her master; she used to abuse you and disparage you. I forbade her, but she did not stop, and I rebuked her, but she did not abandon her habit. I have two sons like pearls from her, and she was my companion. Last night she began to abuse and disparage you. So I took a dagger, put it on her belly and pressed it till I killed her.

Thereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Oh be witness, no retaliation is payable for her blood.

Satellite Communications

It's a similar prophecy to "family ties will be severed", this hadith is often mistranslated (also the hadith is weak):

“From among the signs of Qiyamah is that people will maintain ties with distant relatives and strangers (الأطباق) but sever ties with close family.”


Tabrani, al-Muʿjam al-Kabīr 10/228 and Mu'jan al-Awsat 4861 (da'eef)

The word الأطباق (al-atbaaq) is today sometimes translated as "dishes" (although the classical translation (understanding) fits better into the context) and then they interpret the "dishes" as "satellites".

Automobiles (actually camels with lofty saddles)

Muhammad forbade riding on mayathir (مياثر), so mayathir were something already known:

..He forbade us to drink from silver utensils, to wear gold rings, to ride on silken saddles (ركوب المياثر), to wear silk clothes..


There is a prophecy about people riding on mayathir at the end of times:

سَيَكُونُ فِي آخِرِ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ رِجَالٌ يَرْكَبُونَ عَلَى الْمَيَاثِرِ حَتَّى يَأْتُوا أَبْوَابَ مَسَاجِدِهِمْ

They will mount their mayaathir until they come to the doors of their mosques


al-Mustadrak 4 / 436 (hasan)

Albani explained:

the word mayaathir is the plural of meetharah and Ibn al-Athir described it as, “… smooth and soft, made out of silk or a silk brocade [heavy silk] which the rider places beneath him on the saddle on top of the camel.


Tafsir by Albani

And a re-iteration of the same prophecy:

يكون في آخر أمتي رجال يركبون على سرج كأشباه الرحال ينزلون على أبواب المساجد نساؤهم كاسيات عاريات

In the last [part] of my nation there will be men who ride on saddles that resemble packsaddles (سرج كأشباه الرحال). They will alight at the doors of the mosques. Their women are clothed but naked. On their heads are [what appears to be] like the humps of [lean] camels. Curse them for they are cursed. If there were a nation from the nations to come after you, your women would serve them, just as the women of the nations that were before you served you.


Musnad Ahmad 654/11 (hasan)
  • سَرْج means "saddlebag; packsaddle; saddle; pigskin; pillion" [12]
  • رَحْل means "Either of a pair of a bags laid over the back of a horse - saddlebag; packsaddle; saddle". [13]

Ignorance [of Islamic teachings]

Narrated `Abdullah and Abu Musa:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "Near the establishment of the Hour there will be days during which Religious ignorance will spread, knowledge will be taken away (vanish) and there will be much Al-Harj, and Al- Harj means killing."
  • In Islam, the period before Muhammad's career is called jahilya (ignorance).
  • in context of Islam, when Muhammad says "knowledge" it means "knowledge of Muhamamd's claims and commands" and when Islam says "ignorance" it means "ignorance of Muhammad's claims and commands"
  • Muhammad noticed that Jews don't fully follow the law of Moses, so he predicted similar outcomes for Muslims in many instances.

Learning for something other than Islam

إذا اتُّخِذَ الفَيْءُ دُوَلًا والأمانةُ مَغْنَمًا والزكاةُ مَغْرَمًا وتُعُلِّمَ لغيرِ الدِّينِ وأطاع الرجلُ امرأتَه وعَقَّ أُمَّه وأَدْنَى صديقَه وأَقْصَى أباه وظَهَرَتِ الأصواتُ في المساجدِ وساد القبيلةَ فاسِقُهُم وكان زعيمُ القومِ أَرْذَلَهم وأُكْرِمَ الرجلُ مَخَافةَ شرِّه وظَهَرَتِ القِيَانُ والمعازفُ وشُرِبَتِ الخُمورُ ولَعَن آخِرُ هذه الأمةِ أولَها فلْيَرْتَقِبُوا عند ذلك رِيحًا حمراءَ وزَلْزَلَةً وخَسْفًا ومَسْخًا وقَذْفًا وآياتٍ تُتَابَعُ كنِظامٍ بالٍ قُطِعَ سِلْكُه فتتابع بعضُه بعضًا

When spoiles of war are distributed; and property given in trust will be considered as booty for oneself; Zakat will be looked upon as a fine; learning for other than the religion; a man will obey his wife and disobey his mother; a man will bring his friends nearer and drive his father far off; noises will be raised in the masjids; the most wicked of a tribe will become its ruler; the most worthless member of a people will become its leader; a man will be honoured for fear of the evil he may do; singing girls and musical instruments will come into vogue; drinking of wine will become common; and the later generations will begin to curse the previous generations; then wait, for red violent winds, earthquakes, swallowing up by the earth, defacement (of human faces), pelting of stones from the skies as rain, and a continuing chain of disasters followed one by another, like beads of a necklace falling one after the other rapidly when its string is cut.


Al-Shawkani, Nayl al-Awtar 8/262 (hasan li-ghayrihi)

Secular knowledge for secular purposes was studied before Islam.

Tall buildings

وَأَنْ تَرَى الْحُفَاةَ الْعُرَاةَ الْعَالَةَ رِعَاءَ الشَّاءِ يَتَطَاوَلُونَ فِي الْبِنَاءِ

..and when you see barefoot, naked, destitute shepherds competing in constructing tall buildings


The Bible contained a story of the Tower of Babel, Egyptians built pyramids. The desire and ability to construct tall buildings appears to has been common in history.

There were people in the 7th century building buildings that could be considered tall in that time. Ibn Hajar wrote in his famous commentary on Sahih Bukhari:

يتطاول الناس في البنيان وهي من العلامات التي وقعت عن قرب في زمن النبوة

"The people are [competing in] building tall buildings" - and that's from the signs which happened close at the time of the prophethood


Ibn Hajar: Fatḥ al-Bārī fī Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī

Muslims could afford building tall buildings after they got rich from early Islamic conquests. And Muhammad was already condemning excessive building during his life, which suggests that this was taking place.

Narrated Qais bin Abi Hazim:

We went to pay a visit to Khabbab (who was sick) and he had been branded (cauterized) at seven places in his body. He said, "Our companions who died (during the lifetime of the Prophet) left (this world) without having their rewards reduced through enjoying the pleasures of this life, but we have got (so much) wealth that we find no way to spend It except on the construction of buildings .Had the Prophet not forbidden us to wish for death, I would have wished for it.' We visited him for the second time while he was building a wall. He said: A Muslim is rewarded (in the Hereafter) for whatever he spends except for something that he spends on building."


Some add that theses buildings were described as being "as high as mountains", but that hadith is mawqoof (not from Muhammad). It was a saying of ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr and it was after Muslims became rich from early Islamic conquests, so they could likely imagine themselves building tall in Mecca. Also the hadith is da'eef:

Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Amr (radiyallahu ‘anhuma) is reported to have said: “……When you see tunnels/canals being dug in Makkah Mukarramah and the buildings (of Makkah Mukarramah) higher than the peak of the mountains then know that Qiyamah is close.”


Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah, Hadith: 14306 (da'eef or hasan)
  • Fatwa (Arabic) says that since it's not from Muhammad, it shouldn't even be called a hadith.

Voices raised in mosques

The hadith is daif:

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allah(s.a.w) said: "When Al-Fai' is distributed(preferentially), trust is a spoil of war, Zakat is a fine, knowledge is sought for other than the(sake of the) religion, a man obeys his wife and disobeys his mother, he is close to his friend and far from his father, voices are raised in the Masajid, tribes are led by their wicked, the leader of the people is the most despicable among them, the most honored man is the one whose evil the people are afraid of, singing slave-girls and music spread, intoxicants are drunk, and the end of this Ummah curses its beginning- then anticipate a red wind, earthquake, collapsing of the earth, transformation, Qadhf, and the signs follow in succession like gems of a necklace whose string is cut and so they fall in succession."


Tirmidhi: Vol. 4, Book 7, Hadith 2211 (daif)

People were raising voices even in the time of Muhammad in front of him. Muhammad rebuked them in the Quran:

O you who have believed, do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet or be loud to him in speech like the loudness of some of you to others, lest your deeds become worthless while you perceive not.


Quran 49:2 (Sahih International)

Decoration of mosques

It was narrated from Anas that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: "One of the portents of the Hour will be that people will show off in building Masjids."


There was a precedent. Christians and Jews were adorning their places of worship:

Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:

I was not commanded to build high mosques. Ibn Abbas said: You will certainly adorn them as the Jews and Christians did.


Markets will approach (taqaarub al-aswaaq)

لا تقومُ الساعةُ حتى تَظْهَرَ الفِتَنُ ويكثرَ الكذِبُ وتتقارَبَ الأسواقُ ويتقارَبَ الزمانُ ويكثُرَ الهرجُ قلْتُ وما الهرْجُ قال القتْلُ

The Hour won't come till tribulations show up, lies are widespread and taqaarub of markets and taqaarub of time and harj is widespread. I said: What is al-harj? He said: Killing.


al-Haythami 7/330 (sahih) and others [15]

The hadith is vague in its entirety, but the situation on markets expectedly changed after Muslims got rich by the 7th century conquests.

Breaking the convenant with god makes enemies overpower them

... They do not break their covenant with Allah and His Messenger, but Allah will enable their enemies to overpower them and take some of what is in their hands. Unless their leaders rule according to the Book of Allah and seek all good from that which Allah has revealed, Allah will cause them to fight one another.’”


Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 5, Book of Tribulations, Hadith 4019

This is mentioned in the Old Testament:

Punishment for Disobedience

“‘But if you will not listen to me and carry out all these commands, and if you reject my decrees and abhor my laws and fail to carry out all my commands and so violate my covenant, then I will do this to you: I will bring on you sudden terror, wasting diseases and fever that will destroy your sight and sap your strength. You will plant seed in vain, because your enemies will eat it. I will set my face against you so that you will be defeated by your enemies; those who hate you will rule over you, and you will flee even when no one is pursuing you.


The Bible (NIV), Leviticus 26:14-17

A man passes by a grave and wants to be dead too

وَحَتَّى يَمُرَّ الرَّجُلُ بِقَبْرِ الرَّجُلِ فَيَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي مَكَانَهُ

... till a man when passing by a grave of someone will say, 'Would that I were in his place...


The Old Testament mentions this:

"Therefore now, O LORD, please take my life from me, for death is better to me than life."


The Bible (NASB), Jonah 4:3

People will treat a man with respect because they fear the evil he could do

The hadith is daif (weak).

Ali bin Abi Talib narrated that the Messenger of Allah(s.a.w) said: "When my Ummah does fifteen things, the afflictions will occur in it." It was said: "What are they O Messenger of Allah?" He said: "When Al-Maghnam (the spoils of war) are distributed (preferentially), trust is usurped, Zakah is a fine, a man obeys his wife and disobeys his mother, he is kind to his friend and abandons his father, voices are raised in the Masajid, the leader of the people is the most despicable among them, the most honored man is the one whose evil the people are afraid of, intoxicants are drunk, silk is worn (by males), there is a fascination for singing slave-girls and music, and the end of this Ummah curses its beginning. When that occurs, anticipate a red wind, collapsing of the earth, and transformation."


Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2210 (daif)

Intimidation with violence was already used before Islam. It was also used by Muhammad.

The leader of a people will be the worst of them

This hadith is daif (weak).

Ali bin Abi Talib narrated that the Messenger of Allah(s.a.w) said: "When my Ummah does fifteen things, the afflictions will occur in it." It was said: "What are they O Messenger of Allah?" He said: "When Al-Maghnam (the spoils of war) are distributed (preferentially), trust is usurped, Zakah is a fine, a man obeys his wife and disobeys his mother, he is kind to his friend and abandons his father, voices are raised in the Masajid, the leader of the people is the most despicable among them, the most honored man is the one whose evil the people are afraid of, intoxicants are drunk, silk is worn (by males), there is a fascination for singing slave-girls and music, and the end of this Ummah curses its beginning. When that occurs, anticipate a red wind, collapsing of the earth, and transformation."


Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2210 (daif)

This happened during the time of Muhammad:

Abu Said al-Khudri said: "The apostle of Allah sent a military expedition to Awtas on the occasion of the battle of Hunain. They met their enemy and fought with them. They defeated them and took them captives. Some of the Companions of the apostle of Allah were reluctant to have intercourse with the female captives because of their pagan husbands. So Allah, the Exalted, sent down the Quranic verse, "And all married women (are forbidden) unto you save those (captives) whom your right hands possess". That is to say, they are lawful for them when they complete their waiting period." [The Quran verse is 4:24]

The men were morally reluctant to rape married women, but their leader (Muhammad) permitted them to go ahead.

Predictions of the future (after the hadiths)

In this category are hadiths that don't talk about what already happened before the prophecies were written.

"Opposites"

These don't seem to be predictions, but rather statements that the opposite of what was considered granted at that time will happen. For example mountains were considered solid (not moving), so a prophecy says that mountains will be moving. Rather then explaining the fulfillment of these prophecies, this common denominator suggests how the predictions were generated.

Mountains will move

This hadith is da'eef (Ufayr bin Ma'daan is in the chain):

لا تقومُ الساعةُ حتى تزولَ الجبالُ عن أماكِنِها وتَرَوْنَ الأمورَ العظامَ التي لم تَكُونوا تَرَوْنَها

The Hour will not begin until the mountains are moved from their places and you see great calamities which you have never seen before.


Mu'jam at-Tabaraani vol 7, n. 6857

Non-speaking objects will start speaking

Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri narrated that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) said: "By the One in Whose Hand is my soul! The Hour will not be established until predators speak to people and until the tip of a man's whip and the straps on his sandal speak to him, and his thigh informs him of what occurred with his family after him."


Jami' al-Tirmidhi Vol. 4, Book 7, Hadith 2181 (sahih)

Though this hadith is often metaphorisized to refer to modern technology (mobile phones), the original wording of the hadith appears to be rather literal in its intention.

The Old Testament already has a story about a talking serpent:

Now the serpent was more crafty than any of the wild animals the Lord God had made. He said to the woman, “Did God really say, ‘You must not eat from any tree in the garden’?”


The Bible, Genesis 3:1

And for Muhammad (unlike for most people), talking objects wouldn't even be much miraculous, since he was hearing voices regularly. For example he heard a stone saluting him:

Jabir b. Samura reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: I recognise the stone in Mecca which used to pay me salutations before my advent as a Prophet and I recognise that even now.

The land of Arabia reverts to meadows and rivers

وَحَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا يَعْقُوبُ، - وَهُوَ ابْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الْقَارِيُّ - عَنْ سُهَيْلٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ لاَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ حَتَّى يَكْثُرَ الْمَالُ وَيَفِيضَ حَتَّى يَخْرُجَ الرَّجُلُ بِزَكَاةِ مَالِهِ فَلاَ يَجِدُ أَحَدًا يَقْبَلُهَا مِنْهُ وَحَتَّى تَعُودَ أَرْضُ الْعَرَبِ مُرُوجًا وَأَنْهَارًا ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (way peace be upon him) as saying:

The Last Hour will not come before wealth becomes abundant and overflowing, so much so that a man takes Zakat out of his property and cannot find anyone to accept it from him and till the land of Arabia reverts (تعود) to meadows and rivers.


The word تعود (ta'ooda) can mean both "become" and "revert".

وحتى تعود أرض العرب أي: تصير أو ترجع

"And until ta'ooda the land of Arabs" - meaning "becomes" or "reverts"


مرقاة المفاتيح شرح مشكاة المصابيح

Much rain, but little vegetation

لا تَقومُ السَّاعةُ حتى يُمطَرَ النَّاسُ مَطرًا عامًّا، ولا تُنبِتَ الأرضُ شيئًا.

The Hour would not come until there is too much rain, but the earth does not produce crops


Shuaib Al Arna'ut, Takhreej al-Musnad 12429 (sahih) and others [16]

Other Predictions About the Future

Coming of Muhammad and the Hour are close like the forefinger and middle finger joined together

Anas reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:

I and the Last Hour have been sent like this and (he while doing it) joined the forefinger with the middle finger.


A 7th century boy won't grow very old before the Hour comes

وَحَدَّثَنِي حَجَّاجُ بْنُ الشَّاعِرِ، حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ حَرْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادٌ، - يَعْنِي ابْنَ زَيْدٍ - حَدَّثَنَا مَعْبَدُ بْنُ هِلاَلٍ الْعَنَزِيُّ، عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، سَأَلَ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ مَتَى تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ قَالَ فَسَكَتَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم هُنَيْهَةً ثُمَّ نَظَرَ إِلَى غُلاَمٍ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ مِنْ أَزْدِ شَنُوءَةَ فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ إِنْ عُمِّرَ هَذَا لَمْ يُدْرِكْهُ الْهَرَمُ حَتَّى تَقُومَ السَّاعَةُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ قَالَ أَنَسٌ ذَاكَ الْغُلاَمُ مِنْ أَتْرَابِي يَوْمَئِذٍ ‏.‏

Anas b. Malik reported that a person asked Allah's Apostle (ﷺ):

When would the Last Hour come? Thereupon Allah's Messenger (way peace be upon him) kept quiet for a while. Then looked at a young boy in his presence belonging to the tribe of Azd Shanu'a and he said: If this boy lives he would not grow very old till the Last Hour would come to you. Anas said that this young boy was of our age during those days.


The "to you" was added by the translators to indicate that it is the last hour (death) of the people who asked, however this qualification is entirely absent in the Arabic text.

Nothing will live one hundred years from now

Narrated `Abdullah bin `Umar:

Once the Prophet (ﷺ) led us in the `Isha' prayer during the last days of his life and after finishing it (the prayer) (with Taslim) he said: "Do you realize (the importance of) this night?" Nobody present on the surface of the earth tonight will be living after the completion of one hundred years from this night."


If 10 scholars of the Jews would follow me, no Jew would be left upon the surface of the earth

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:

If ten scholars of the Jews would follow me, no Jew would be left upon the surface of the earth who would not embrace Islam.


30 false prophets before the Hour

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:

The Last Hour would not come until there would arise about thirty impostors, liars, and each one of them would claim that he is a messenger of Allah.


In his time there were other prophets like Saf ibn Sayyad and Maslamah bin Ḥabīb (called by Muslims "Musaylimah al-Kadhdhāb" (Musaylama the Liar)), Al-Aswad Al-Ansi and Tulayha.

False prophets were also already predicted in the Bible:

At that time many will turn away from the faith and will betray and hate each other, and many false prophets will appear and deceive many people.


The Bible (NIV), Matthew 24:10-11

Rising of the Sun from its setting place

We were sitting in the shade of the chamber of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) discussing (something) and when we mentioned the last hour, our voices rose high. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: The last hour will not come or happen until there appear ten signs before it : the rising of the sun in its place of setting, the coming forth of the beast, the coming forth of Gog and Magog, the Dajjal (Antichrist), (the descent of) Jesus son of Mary, the smoke, and three collapses of the earth: one in the west, one in the east, and one in the Arabian Peninsula. The last of that will be the emergence of a fire from Yemen, from the lowest part of Aden, and drive mankind to their place of assembly.


This seems to suggest that the sun revolves about the Earth and can reverse direction

There is also a related verse in the Quran:

Do they [then] wait for anything except that the angels should come to them or your Lord should come or that there come some of the signs of your Lord? The Day that some of the signs of your Lord will come no soul will benefit from its faith as long as it had not believed before or had earned through its faith some good. Say, "Wait. Indeed, we [also] are waiting."


Tafsir:

"On the day that one of your Lord’s signs comes" — and this is the rising of the sun from the west as reported in the hadīth of the two Sahīhs of Bukhārī and Muslim — it shall not benefit a soul to believe if it had not believed theretofore


Tafsir Al-Jalalayn on 6:158

The hadith:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "The Hour will not be established until the sun rises from the West: and when the people see it, then whoever will be living on the surface of the earth will have faith, and that is (the time) when no good will it do to a soul to believe then, if it believed not before." (6.158)


Another hadith says that right after the rising, a beast will appear in the forenoon:

Abu zur’ah said: A group of people came to Marwan in Medina, and they heard him say that the first of the signs to appear would be the coming forth of the Dajjal (Antichirst). He said: I then went to Abd Allah b. ‘Amr and mentioned it to him. He did not say anything(reliable). I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say: The first of the signs to appear will be the rising of the sun in its place of setting and the coming forth of the beast against mankind in the forenoon. Whichever of them comes first will soon be followed by the other. ’Abd Allah who used to read the scriptures (Torah, Gospel) said: I think the first of them will be the rising of the sun in its place of setting.


Abu Dawud 4310 (sahih)

It was narrated from ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “The first signs to appear will be at the rising of the sun from the west and the emergence of the Beast to the people, at forenoon.’” 'Abdullah said: "Whichever of them appears first, the other will come soon after." 'Abdullah said: "I do not think it will be anything other than the sun rising from the west."


Ibn Majah 4069 (sahih)

Some today proffer metaphorical interpretation that the "rising of the Sun from the west" refers to the rise of the Western civilization, though this would leave the segment regarding the beast unexplained.

The Quran seems to affirm the possibility that God could make the Sun "rise from the West":

Have you not considered the one who argued with Abraham about his Lord [merely] because Allah had given him kingship? When Abraham said, "My Lord is the one who gives life and causes death," he said, "I give life and cause death." Abraham said, "Indeed, Allah brings up the sun from the east, so bring it up from the west." So the disbeliever was overwhelmed [by astonishment], and Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.


See also Dhul-Qarnayn's story in the Quran, where this possibility is further confirmed, as the Sun is described to set in a muddy spring at the "farthest part" of the world":

Stones and trees say to Muslims: "here is a Jew behind me; come and kill him"

The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will fight against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim, or the servant of Allah, there is a Jew behind me; come and kill him; but the tree Gharqad would not say, for it is the tree of the Jews.


Book 41, Hadith 6985 aka Book 54, Hadith 105 or Sahih Muslim 2922

Muhammad used to hear other voices as well:

Jabir b. Samura reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: I recognise the stone in Mecca which used to pay me salutations before my advent as a Prophet and I recognise that even now.

Time will pass more quickly (taqaarub az-zamaan)

لا تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ حَتَّى يَتَقَارَبَ الزَّمَانُ ، فَتَكُونَ السَّنَةُ كَالشَّهْرِ ، وَيَكُونَ الشَّهْرُ كَالْجُمُعَةِ ، وَتَكُونَ الْجُمُعَةُ كَالْيَوْمِ ، وَيَكُونَ الْيَوْمُ كَالسَّاعَةِ ، وَتَكُونَ السَّاعَةُ كَاحْتِرَاقِ السَّعَفَةِ

The Hour will not begin until time passes quickly, so a year will be like a month, and a month will be like a week, and a week will be like a day, and a day will be like an hour, and an hour will be like the burning of a braid of palm leaves.


Musnad Ahmad 10560

Islamic scholars have interpreted this variously, without any agreement as to the possible meaning:

The scholars differed concerning the meaning of the phrase taqaarub al-zamaan (time passing more quickly). There are many views, the strongest of which is:

That the phrase taqaarub al-zamaan (time passing quickly) may be interpreted literally or metaphorically.


A man from Qahtan appears, driving the people with his stick

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "The Hour will not be established till a man from Qahtan appears, driving the people with his stick."


Qahtan still exists.

A man called Jahjah will occupy the throne

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:

The day and the night would not come to an end before a man called al-Jahjah would occupy the throne.


Sahih Muslim, Book 41, Hadith 6955
  • Fatwa (AR) puts this prophecy among non-fulfilled prophecies

Conquest of Constantinopole without fighting and the Hour come together

This hadith is considered da'eef by Albani (but sahih by Dhahabi):

لتفتحن القسطنطينية، فلنعم الأمير أميرها، ولنعم الجيش ذلك الجيش

Verily you shall conquer Constantinople. What a wonderful leader will her leader be, and what a wonderful army will that army be!


Musnad Ahmad 14:331

One should note that if Muhammad did in fact make these predictions, Islam's global imperial aspirations (proven as they were by the end of Muhammad's life) would make the conquest of any number of neighboring or nearby peoples a likelihood.

Another hadith adds that the Hour was expected to come with this conquest:

Anas bin Malik said: "Constantinople will be conquered with the coming of the Hour."


Tirmidhi Vol. 4, Book 7, Hadith 2239

The coming of the Dajjal was expected right after the conquest:

Narrated Mu'adh ibn Jabal:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: The flourishing state of Jerusalem will be when Yathrib is in ruins, the ruined state of Yathrib will be when the great war comes, the outbreak of the great war will be at the conquest of Constantinople and the conquest of Constantinople when the Dajjal (Antichrist) comes forth. He (the Prophet) struck his thigh or his shoulder with his hand and said: This is as true as you are here or as you are sitting (meaning Mu'adh ibn Jabal).


Abu Dawud 4294 (hasan)

Another hadith mentions Romans attacking Dabiq before the conquest of Constantinople. The mention of swords makes it hard to re-interpret as a prophecy about another conquest of Constantinople in the future:

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:

The Last Hour would not come until the Romans would land at al-A'maq or in Dabiq. An army consisting of the best (soldiers) of the people of the earth at that time will come from Medina (to counteract them). When they will arrange themselves in ranks, the Romans would say: Do not stand between us and those (Muslims) who took prisoners from amongst us. Let us fight with them; and the Muslims would say: Nay, by Allah, we would never get aside from you and from our brethren that you may fight them. They will then fight and a third (part) of the army would run away, whom Allah will never forgive. A third (part of the army) which would be constituted of excellent martyrs in Allah's eye, would be killed and the third who would never be put to trial would win and they would be conquerors of Constantinople. And as they would be busy in distributing the spoils of war (amongst themselves) after hanging their swords by the olive trees, the Satan would cry: The Dajjal has taken your place among your family. They would then come out, but it would be of no avail. And when they would come to Syria, he would come out while they would be still preparing themselves for battle drawing up the ranks. Certainly, the time of prayer shall come and then Jesus (peace be upon him) son of Mary would descend and would lead them. When the enemy of Allah would see him, it would (disappear) just as the salt dissolves itself in water and if he (Jesus) were not to confront them at all, even then it would dissolve completely, but Allah would kill them by his hand and he would show them their blood on his lance (the lance of Jesus Christ).


Also:

Narrated Mu'adh ibn Jabal:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: The flourishing state of Jerusalem will be when Yathrib is in ruins, the ruined state of Yathrib will be when the great war comes, the outbreak of the great war will be at the conquest of Constantinople and the conquest of Constantinople when the Dajjal (Antichrist) comes forth. He (the Prophet) struck his thigh or his shoulder with his hand and said: This is as true as you are here or as you are sitting (meaning Mu'adh ibn Jabal).


Sunan Abi Dawud 4294 (hasan)

The conquest of Constantinople was predicted to happen without fighting:

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Apostle (may peace he upon him) saying:

You have heard about a city, one side of which is on land and the other is in the sea (Constantinople). They said: Allah's Messenger, yes. Thereupon he said: The Last Hour would not come unless seventy thousand persons from Bani lshaq would attack it. When they would land there, they will neither fight with weapons nor would shower arrows but would only say: "There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest," and one side of it would fall. Thaur (one of the narrators) said: I think that he said: The part by the side of the ocean. Then they would say for the second time: "There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest" and the second side would also fall, and they would say: "There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest," and the gates would be opened for them and they would enter therein and, they would be collecting spoils of war and distributing them amongst themselves when a noise would be heard saying: Verily, Dajjal has come. And thus they would leave everything there and go back.


Conquest of Rome

Nafi' b. Utba reported:

We were with Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) in an expedition that there came a people to Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) from the direction of the west. They were dressed in woollen clothes and they stood near a hillock and they met him as Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) was sitting. I said to myself: Better go to them and stand between him and them that they may not attack him. Then I thought that perhaps there had been going on secret negotiation amongst them. I however, went to them and stood between them and him and I remember four of the words (on that occasion) which I repeat (on the fingers of my hand) that he (Allah's Messenger) said: You will attack Arabia and Allah will enable you to conquer it, then you would attack Persia and He would make you to conquer it. Then you would attack Rome and Allah will enable you to conquer it, then you would attack the Dajjal and Allah will enable you to conquer him. Nafi' said: Jabir, we thought that the Dajjal would appear after Rome (Syrian territory) would be conquered.


The Roman empire seized to exist before it could be altogether conquered, though if one counts here the partial conquest of some of Rome's (Byzantine's) territories, then the question remains as to why the Dajjal failed to appear.

Byzantines will make truce with Muslims, betray them and attack them

Narrated `Auf bin Mali:

I went to the Prophet (ﷺ) during the Ghazwa of Tabuk while he was sitting in a leather tent. He said, "Count six signs that indicate the approach of the Hour: my death, the conquest of Jerusalem, a plague that will afflict you (and kill you in great numbers) as the plague that afflicts sheep, the increase of wealth to such an extent that even if one is given one hundred Dinars, he will not be satisfied; then an affliction which no Arab house will escape, and then a truce between you and Bani Al-Asfar (i.e. the Byzantines) who will betray you and attack you under eighty flags. Under each flag will be twelve thousand soldiers.


The prophecy is considered unfulfilled:

Imam Ibn al-Muneer said: 'Till this time the incident of gathering and attacking Rome in this huge number of soldiers has not happened yet. This matter has not taken place yet.


Conquest of India and the second coming of Jesus come together

Also known as ghazwa-e-hind.

It was narrated that Thawban, the freed slave of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), said: "The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: 'There are two groups of my Ummah whom Allah will free from the Fire: The group that invades India (تَغْزُو الْهِنْدَ, taghzoo al-hind), and the group that will be with Isa bin Maryam, peace be upon him.'"


Sunan an-Nasa'i 1:25:3177 (hasan) from The Book of Jihad, chapter "Invading India"

Early conquests of India happened in the 7th century (for example Battle of Rasil), while author of the hadith collection al-Nasa'i lived in the 9th century.

The conquest of India is linked to the second coming of Jesus (Isa). In other (although weak) hadiths it's even more explicit:

The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said – and he mentioned India – then he said: “An army of yours will invade India and Allah will grant its conquest to them, until they bring their kings in chains, and Allah will forgive them their sins. Then they will return and when they return, they will find the son of Maryam in ash-Shaam (Syria).” Abu Hurayrah said: If I live to see that campaign, I will sell everything I possess and join the campaign. Then if Allah grants us victory and we return, then I will be Abu Hurayrah the freed (protected from Hellfire). And when we return to Syria we will find there ‘Eesa ibn Maryam. Then I shall make sure that I draw close to him and tell him that I accompanied you, O Messenger of Allah. The Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) smiled and said: “Unlikely, unlikely.” [very difficult?]


Na‘eem ibn Hammaad, al-Fitan, p. 409 (daeef)

However, the second coming did not follow either these events:

What is mentioned in the hadith of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah have mercy on him), which was narrated by Na‘eem ibn Hammaad, about the conquest of India has not happened up till now, but it will happen when ‘Eesaa ibn Maryam (peace be upon him) descends, if the hadith that says that is saheeh.


Nations will soon call each other to attack Muslims

The Prophet (ﷺ) said: The people will soon summon one another to attack you as people when eating invite others to share their dish. Someone asked: Will that be because of our small numbers at that time? He replied: No, you will be numerous at that time: but you will be scum and rubbish like that carried down by a torrent, and Allah will take fear of you from the breasts of your enemy and last enervation into your hearts. Someone asked: What is wahn (enervation). Messenger of Allah (ﷺ): He replied: Love of the world and dislike of death.


Reference: Sunan Abi Dawud 4297, In-book reference: Book 39, Hadith 7, English translation: Book 38, Hadith 4284

One might note that soon after this statement is alleged to have been stated by the prophet, the Muslims would conquer vast lands - the Muslim empire would only come to a grinding halt some 1300 years later.

Romans would form a majority amongst people

Mustaurid Qurashi reported:

I heard Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying: The Last Hour would come when the Romans would form a majority amongst people. This reached 'Amr b. al-'As and he said: What are these ahadith which are being transmitted from you and which you claim to have heard from Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)? Mustaurid said to him: I stated only that which I heard from Allah's Messenger (ﷺ). Thereupon 'Amr said: If you state this (it is true), for they have the power of tolerance amongst people at the time of turmoil and restore themselves to sanity after trouble, and are good amongst people so far as the destitute and the weak are concerned.


The Roman empire dissolved without the realization of this prophecy.

Twelve caliphs

Shi'ite Imamology rests heavily upon this hadith, though has been continuously troubled by it (as have been Sunni scholars), as there appears to be no clear group of "twelve Caliphs" to have appeared in history:

It has been narrated on the authority of Jabir b. Samura who said:

I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say: Islam will continue to be triumphant until there have been twelve Caliphs. Then the Prophet (ﷺ) said something which I could not understand. I asked my father: What did he say? He said: He has said that all of them (twelve Caliphs) will be from the Quraish.


It has been narrated on the authority of Amir b. Sa'd b. Abu Waqqas who said:

I wrote (a letter) to Jabir b. Samura and sent it to him through my servant Nafi', asking him to inform me of something he had heard from the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). He wrote to me (in reply): I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say on Friday evening, the day on which al-Aslami was stoned to death (for committing adultery): The Islamic religion will continue until the Hour has been established, or you have been ruled over by twelve Caliphs, all of them being from the Quraish. also heard him say: A small force of the Muslims will capture the white palace, the police of the Persian Emperor or his descendants. I also heard him say: Before the Day of Judgment there will appear (a number of) impostors. You are to guard against them. I also heard him say: When God grants wealth to any one of you, he should first spend it on himself and his family (and then give it in charity to the poor). I heard him (also) say: I will be your forerunner at the Cistern (expecting your arrival).


Commentaries by (Sunni) Islamic scholars:

لم ألق أحدا يقطع في هذا الحديث يعني بشيء معين

I have not met anyone who could be certain about the meaning of this hadith!


Ibn Hajar, Fathul-Bari, vol. 13, p.211

هذا الحديث قد أطلت البحث عنه، وتطلّبت مظانّه، وسألت عنه، فما رأيت أحدا وقع على المقصود به

I have researched for long to understand this hadith and referred to many references and made much enquiries about it, yet I did not meet anyone who could understand it.


Ibn Jouzi, Kashful-Majhool, vol.1 p.449

Rain which will destroy all dwellings except tents

This hadith is sahih:

حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبي ثنا أبو كامل وعفان قالا ثنا حماد عن سهيل قال عفان في حديثه قال أنا سهيل بن أبي صالح عن أبيه عن أبي هريرة قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : لا تقوم الساعة حتى يمطر الناس مطرا لا تكن منه بيوت المدر ولا تكن منه الا بيوت الشعر تعليق شعيب الأرنؤوط : إسناده صحيح على شرط مسلم

The Hour will not come until there has been rain which will destroy all dwellings except tents


Musnad Ahmad 7554 (sahih)

Not living according to the sharia causes infighting between Muslims

It was narrated that ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar said: “The Messenger of Allah ﷺ turned to us and said: ‘O Muhajirun, there are five things with which you will be tested, and I seek refuge with Allah lest you live to see them: Immorality never appears among a people to such an extent that they commit it openly, but plagues and diseases that were never known among the predecessors will spread among them. They do not cheat in weights and measures but they will be stricken with famine, severe calamity and the oppression of their rulers. They do not withhold the Zakah of their wealth, but rain will be withheld from the sky, and were it not for the animals, no rain would fall on them. They do not break their covenant with Allah and His Messenger, but Allah will enable their enemies to overpower them and take some of what is in their hands. Unless their leaders rule according to the Book of Allah and seek all good from that which Allah has revealed, Allah will cause them to fight one another.’”


Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 5, Book of Tribulations, Hadith 4019

In fact, it is rather Muslim's disagreement as to what constitutes the Sharia (as a result of their trying to implement it) that results in inter-Muslim conflict. One can imagine that had Islam separated church and state, many such conflicts would have been avoided.

12 thousand from Aden Abyan will make Islam victorious

يخرجُ من عدنِ أَبْيَنَ اثنا عشرَ ألفًا ينصرونَ اللهَ ورسولَهُ هم خيرُ مَن بيني وبينهم

Out of Aden-Abyan will come 12000, giving victory to the (religion of) Allah and His Messenger. They are the best between me and them.


Musnad Ahmad 5/33 (sahih)

Periods of fitnah

Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar:

When we were sitting with the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), he talked about periods of trial (fitnahs), mentioning many of them.

When he mentioned the one when people should stay in their houses, some asked him: Messenger of Allah, what is the trial (fitnah) of staying at home?

He replied: It will be flight and plunder. Then will come a test which is pleasant. Its murkiness is due to the fact that it is produced by a man from the people of my house, who will assert that he belongs to me, whereas he does not, for my friends are only the God-fearing. Then the people will unite under a man who will be like a hip-bone on a rib. Then there will be the little black trial which will leave none of this community without giving him a slap, and when people say that it is finished, it will be extended. During it a man will be a believer in the morning and an infidel in the evening, so that the people will be in two camps: the camp of faith which will contain no hypocrisy, and the camp of hypocrisy which will contain no faith. When that happens, expect the Antichrist (Dajjal) that day or the next.


Sunan Abi Dawud 4242 (sahih)

Inheritance is not distributed

لاَ تَقُومُ حَتَّى لاَ يُقْسَمَ مِيرَاثٌ وَلاَ يُفْرَحَ بِغَنِيمَةٍ

..The Last Hour would not come until shares of inheritance are not distributed and there is no rejoicing over spoils of war...


Sahih Muslim Book 41, Hadith 6927

People don't rejoice over spoils of war

لاَ تَقُومُ حَتَّى لاَ يُقْسَمَ مِيرَاثٌ وَلاَ يُفْرَحَ بِغَنِيمَةٍ

..The Last Hour would not come until shares of inheritance are not distributed and there is no rejoicing over spoils of war...


Sahih Muslim Book 41, Hadith 6927

Muslims will soon flee to mountains from persecution

عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ أَنَّهُ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يُوشِكُ أَنْ يَكُونَ خَيْرَ مَالِ الْمُسْلِمِ غَنَمٌ يَتْبَعُ بِهَا شَعَفَ الْجِبَالِ وَمَوَاقِعَ الْقَطْرِ يَفِرُّ بِدِينِهِ مِنْ الْفِتَنِ

“Soon the best property of a Muslim will be a flock of sheep he takes to the top of a mountain, or in the valleys of rainfall, fleeing with his religion from tribulations.”


All believers will go to Syria

يأتي على الناس زمان لا يبقى فيه مؤمن إلا لحق بالشام

A time will come to people when no believer remains except that he came over to As-Sham


Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain 8461 (sahih)

Extinction of the Quraysh tribe

أسرعُ قبائلِ العربِ فناءً قريشٌ ويوشكُ أن تمرَّ المرأةُ بالنعلِ فتقول إن هذا نعلُ قرشيُّ

The fastest Arab tribe in extinction is Quraysh. Soon a woman will pass by a sandal, then she will say that this is a sandal of a Qurashi.


Musnad Ahmad 16/186 (sahih)

Arabs will be exterminated and go to hell

Hadith da'eef:

It was narrated from ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “There will be a tribulation which will utterly destroy the Arabs, and those who are slain will be in Hell. At that time the tongue will be worse than a blow of the sword.”


Sunan Ibn Majah Vol. 5, Book 36, Hadith 3967 (da'eef) and others

Last of the ummah will curse the first

Fabricated (mawdu') hadith:

It was narrated that Jabir said: "The Messenger of Allah said: 'When the last people of this Ummah curse the first, (at that time) whoever conceals a Hadith will be concealing what Allah has revealed.'" (Maudu')


Ibn Majah Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 263 (mawdu)

Pilgrimage to Makka will be abandoned

Narrated Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri:

The Prophet (ﷺ) said "The people will continue performing the Hajj and `Umra to the Ka`ba even after the appearance of Gog and Magog." Narrated Shu`ba extra: The Hour (Day of Judgment) will not be established till the Hajj (to the Ka`ba) is abandoned.


Disappearance of faith

It is narrated on the authority of Anas that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:

"The Hour (Resurrection) will not occur as long as anyone says: 'Allah, Allah.'"


Sahih Muslim 1:274, chapter The Disappearance of Faith at the End of Time

This one appears to be increasingly likely.

Islam will be widespread

Although Muhammad predicted that Islam will disappear, he also predicted that Islam will succeed:

Tamim al-Dari reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “This matter will certainly reach every place touched by the night and day. Allah will not leave a house or residence but that Allah will cause this religion to enter it, by which the honorable will be honored and the disgraceful will be disgraced. Allah will honor the honorable with Islam and he will disgrace the disgraceful with unbelief.”


Musnad Aḥmad 16509 (sahih)

"Indeed Allah gathered the earth for me so that I saw its east and its west. And surely my Ummah's authority shall reach over all that was shown to me of it.


Tirmidhi Vol. 4, Book 7, Hadith 2176 (sahih)

Muhammad's predictions about the future of the Muslim ummah appear to have ranged non-existence and annihilation to complete domination, perhaps based on his feelings at various times. Given this full spectrum of possibility, however, it is difficult to maintain that there is any substance to these predictions.

The Quran will disappear overnight

عَنْ زِرٍّ عَنْ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ رضي الله عنه قَالَ لَيُسْرَيَنَّ عَلَى الْقُرْآنِ ذَاتَ لَيْلَةٍ فَلَا يُتْرَكُ آيَةٌ فِي مُصْحَفٍ وَلَا فِي قَلْبِ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا رُفِعَتْ

The Quran will vanish in one night. No verse in the scripture or in the heart of anyone will be left behind.


Sunan al-Dārimī 3343 (hasan)

Islam will wear out

يدرُسُ الإسلامُ كما يدرُسُ وَشيُ الثَّوبِ حتَّى لا يُدرَى ما صيامٌ، ولا صلاةٌ، ولا نسُكٌ، ولا صدَقةٌ، ولَيُسرى على كتابِ اللَّهِ عزَّ وجلَّ في ليلَةٍ، فلا يبقى في الأرضِ منهُ آيةٌ، وتبقَى طوائفُ منَ النَّاسِ الشَّيخُ الكبيرُ والعجوزُ، يقولونَ: أدرَكْنا آباءَنا على هذِهِ الكلمةِ، لا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ، فنحنُ نقولُها فقالَ لَهُ صِلةُ: ما تُغني عنهم: لا إلَهَ إلَّا اللَّهُ، وَهُم لا يَدرونَ ما صلاةٌ، ولا صيامٌ، ولا نسُكٌ، ولا صدقةٌ؟ فأعرضَ عنهُ حُذَيْفةُ، ثمَّ ردَّها علَيهِ ثلاثًا، كلَّ ذلِكَ يعرضُ عنهُ حُذَيْفةُ، ثمَّ أقبلَ علَيهِ في الثَّالثةِ، فقالَ: يا صِلةُ، تُنجيهِم منَ النَّار ثلاثًا


“Islam will wear out as embroidery on a garment wears out, until no one will know what fasting, prayer, (pilgrimage) rites and charity are. The Book of Allah will be taken away at night, and not one Verse of it will be left on earth. And there will be some people left, old men and old women, who will say: “We saw our fathers saying these words: ‘La ilaha illallah’ so we say them too.” Silah said to him: “What good will (saying): La ilaha illallah do them, when they do not know what fasting, prayer, (pilgrimage) rites and charity are?” Hudhaifah turned away from his. He repeated his question three times, and Hudhaifah turned away from him each time. Then he turned to him on the third time and said: “O Silah! It will save them from Hell,” three times.


Sahih Ibn Majah 3289 (sahih) and others [17]

Islam will end up like a snake crawling back into its hole

It is narrated on the authority of Ibn 'Umar ('Abdullah b. 'Umar) that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) observed:

Verily Islam started as something strange and it would again revert (to its old position) of being strange just as it started, and it would recede between the two mosques just as the serpent crawls back into its hole.


In other hadith, Muhammad described belief in Islam as a snake:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "Verily, Belief returns and goes back to Medina as a snake returns and goes back to its hole (when in danger).


Countries colonized by Muslims will stop paying them and Muslims will be poor again

The hadith is in the chapter called "Making Endowments Of The Lands Of As-Sawad, And The Lands That Were Conquered By Force":

Abu Hurairah reported the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) as saying “Iraq will prevent its measure (qafiz) and dirham. Syria will prevent its measure (mudi) and dinar. Egypt will prevent its measure (irdabb) and dinar. Then you will return to the position where you started. Zuhair said this three times. The flesh and blood of Abu Hurairah witnessed it.


Buttocks of women of Daus are moving around the Yemenite Kaba

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "The Hour will not be established till the buttocks of the women of the tribe of Daus move while going round Dhi-al-Khalasa." Dhi-al-Khalasa was the idol of the Daus tribe which they used to worship in the Pre Islamic Period of ignorance.


It was interpreted metaphorically as a rise of polytheism because the idol was destroyed and the people were killed before it came true :

Jabir reported that there was in pre-Islamic days a temple called Dhu'l- Khalasah and it was called the Yamanite Ka'ba or the northern Ka'ba. Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said unto me:

Will you rid me of Dhu'l-Khalasah and so I went forth at the head of 350 horsemen of the tribe of Ahmas and we destroyed it and killed whomsoever we found there. Then we came back to him (to the Holy Prophet) and informed him and he blessed us and the tribe of Ahmas.


People commonly have sex in the streets, like donkeys

لا تقومُ السَّاعةُ حتَّى يتسافدَ النَّاسُ في الطُّرقِ تسافُدَ الحميرِ

The Hour shall not commence until the people engage in sexual intercourse in the streets just like donkeys.


Sahih Ibn Hibban 6/345 (sahih) and others [18]

Public sex was already happening among ancient civilizations.[19]

Rise of polytheism

..the Last Hour will not come before the tribes of my people attach themselves to the polytheists and tribes of my people worship idols..


Sunan Abi Dawud 4252

Polytheism has become less popular with time.

Killing neighbors and family members

عَنْ أَبِي مُوسَى‏ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم‏ لاَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ حَتَّى يَقْتُلَ الرَّجُلُ جَارَهُ وَأَخَاهُ وَأَبَاهُ

The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “The Hour will not be established until a man kills his neighbor, his brother, and his father.”


al-Adab al-Mufrad 118 (classified as "very good" by Albani)

Abundance of deaths by lightning

تَكثُرُ الصَّواعِقُ عِندَ اقْتِرابِ السَّاعةِ، حتَّى يَأتيَ الرَّجُلُ القَومَ، فيقولَ: مَن صَعِقَ قِبَلَكمُ الغَداةَ؟ فيَقولون: صَعِقَ فُلانٌ وفُلانٌ.

There will be an abundance of lightning with the coming of the Hour, until a man comes to a tribe asking: Who was struck today? Then they say: So and so


Musnad Ahmad, vol. 3 pg. 64/65 (sahih)

John Jensenius (a lightning specialist) said that the number of injuries and deaths caused by lightning is actually going down. [20]

Luka bin Luka will be the happiest person

Hudhaifah bin Al-Yaman narrated that the Messenger of Allah(s.a.w) said: "The Hour will not be established until the happiest of people in the world is Luka' bin Luka'."


Tirmidhi Vol. 4, Book 7, Hadith 2209 (sahih)

Scholars interpreted the name "Luka bin Luka" (لكع بن لكع) to mean "the most despicable/wicked/evil"[21] and "wickedness", rather than a specific person

Wine, musical instruments and singing girls will turn Muslims into monkeys and pigs

لَيَشْرَبَنَّ نَاسٌ مِنْ أُمَّتِي الْخَمْرَ يُسَمُّونَهَا بِغَيْرِ اسْمِهَا يُعْزَفُ عَلَى رُءُوسِهِمْ بِالْمَعَازِفِ وَالْمُغَنِّيَاتِ يَخْسِفُ اللَّهُ بِهِمُ الأَرْضَ وَيَجْعَلُ مِنْهُمُ الْقِرَدَةَ وَالْخَنَازِيرَ

It was narrated from Abu Malik Ash’ari that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “People among my nation will drink wine, calling it by another name, and musical instruments will be played for them and singing girls (will sing for them). Allah will cause the earth to swallow them up, and will turn them into monkeys and pigs.”


Reference: Sunan Ibn Majah 4020, In-book reference: Book 36, Hadith 95, English translation: Vol. 5, Book 36, Hadith 4020

Since the hadith literally says "is played upon their heads with musical instruments" (يُعْزَفُ عَلَى رُءُوسِهِمْ بِالْمَعَازِفِ) some claim that it is a prediction of headphones. But it says "played", not "placed" upon their heads, the word "instruments" is in the plural form and the singing girls are obviously real singing girls, while with head phones the singing would be included in the headphones. The interpretation that the word "musical instruments" (معازف) refers to musical instruments fits much better into the context.

Muhammad himself listened to singing girls, perhaps he was in a better mood since it was the day of Eid:

Narrated Aisha:

Abu Bakr came to my house while two small Ansari girls were singing beside me the stories of the Ansar concerning the Day of Buath. And they were not singers. Abu Bakr said protestingly, "Musical instruments of Satan in the house of Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) !" It happened on the `Id day and Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "O Abu Bakr! There is an `Id for every nation and this is our `Id."


Wine and singing was already mentioned in pre-Islamic Arab poetry:

Peace, confound you! You can't turn me from my purpose

Thy scolding dries my spittle!

To the music of singers in times past 'twas fine

When we drank our fill of purest noblest wine.

Drinking freely of wine brings me no shame

If my behaviour no boon-companion would blame.

For death no man can hold back Though he drink the perfumed potions of the quack.


Dhu Jadan al-Himyari, Sirat Rasul Allah p. 19

Allah will put pieces of the world on his fingers

Muhammad agreed with this prophecy presented by a Jewish Scholar

Abdullah b. Mas'ud reported that a Jewish scholar came to Allah's Apostle (may peace he upon him) and said:

Muhammad, or Abu al-Qasim, verily, Allah, the Exalted and Glorious would carry the Heavens on the Day of Judgment upon one finger and earths upon one finger and the mountains and trees upon one finger and the ocean and moist earth upon one finger, and in fact the whole of the creation upon one finger, and then He would stir them and say: I am your Lord, I am your Lord. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) smiled testifying what that scholar had said. He then recited this verse:" And they honour not Allah with the honour due to Him; and the whole earth will be in His grip on the Day of Resurrection and the heaven rolled up in His right hand. Glory be to Him I and highly Exalted is He above what they associate (with Him)" (Az-Zumar:67).


Sahih Muslim Book 39, Hadith 6699

Medina banishes its evils

Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:

A time will come for the people (of Medina) when a man will invite his cousin and any other near relation: Come (and settle) at (a place) where living is cheap, come to where there is plenty, but Medina will be better for them; would they know it! By Him in Whose Hand is my life, none amongst them would go out (of the city) with a dislike for it, but Allah would make his successor in it someone better than be. Behold. Medina is like furnace which eliminates from it the impurities. And the Last Hour will not come until Medina banishes its evils just as a furnace eliminates the impurities of iron.


Nobody will accept charity

Narrated Haritha bin Wahab:

I heard the Prophet (ﷺ) saying, "O people! Give in charity as a time will come upon you when a person will wander about with his object of charity and will not find anybody to accept it, and one (who will be requested to take it) will say, "If you had brought it yesterday, would have taken it, but today I am not in need of it."


Not paying zakat causes a lack of rain

It was narrated that ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar said: “The Messenger of Allah ﷺ turned to us and said: ‘O Muhajirun, there are five things with which you will be tested, and I seek refuge with Allah lest you live to see them: Immorality never appears among a people to such an extent that they commit it openly, but plagues and diseases that were never known among the predecessors will spread among them. They do not cheat in weights and measures but they will be stricken with famine, severe calamity and the oppression of their rulers. They do not withhold the Zakah of their wealth, but rain will be withheld from the sky, and were it not for the animals, no rain would fall on them. They do not break their covenant with Allah and His Messenger, but Allah will enable their enemies to overpower them and take some of what is in their hands. Unless their leaders rule according to the Book of Allah and seek all good from that which Allah has revealed, Allah will cause them to fight one another.’”


Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol. 5, Book of Tribulations, Hadith 4019

Swelling of crescents [The Moon]

مِنَ اقترابِ الساعَةِ انتفاخُ الأهِلَّةِ

From approaching of the Hour is the swelling of crescents


Sahih Al-Jami' 5898 (sahih) and others [22]

An Abyssinian will destroy the Kaba

Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying: It would be an Abyssinian having two small shanks who would destroy the House ol Allah, the Exalted and Glorious.


Sahih Muslim 7:6953/2909c

Collapse, transformation and stoning from the sky

'Aishah narrated "The Messenger of Allah(s.a.w) said: 'In the end of this Ummah there will be a collapse, transformation, and Qadhf."' She said :"I said: 'O Messenger of Allah! Will they be destroyed while they are righteous among them?' He said: 'Yes, when evil is dominant."'


Tirmidhi Vol. 4, Book 7, Hadith 2185 (sahih)

It's just three vague words خَسْفٌ وَمَسْخٌ وَقَذْفٌ (khasf and maskh and qadhf). Tafsir:

3176 - (بين يدي الساعة مسخ) قلب الخلقة من شيء إلى شيء أو تحويل الصورة إلى أقبح منها أو مسخ القلوب (وخسف) أي غور في الأرض (وقذف) أي رمي بالحجارة من جهة السماء

maskh - transformation of creation from its shape to an uglier one

khasf - a depression in the Earth

qadhf - pelting with stones from the sky


Al-Munawi - Fayd al-Qadir

Euphrates will uncover a mountain of gold soon

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "Soon the river "Euphrates" will disclose the treasure (the mountain) of gold, so whoever will be present at that time should not take anything of it." Al-A'raj narrated from Abii Huraira that the Prophet (ﷺ) said the same but he said, "It (Euphrates) will uncover a mountain of gold (under it).


Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger ﷺ as saying: The Last Hour would not come before the Euphrates uncovers a mountain of gold, for which people would fight. Ninety-nine out of each one hundred would die but every man amongst them would say that perhaps he would be the one who would be saved (and thus possess this gold).


Sahih Muslim 2894a

No such event followed soon thereafter.

Gender ratio will be 50 women to 1 men

I will narrate to you a Hadith and none other than I will tell you about after it. I heard Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) saying: From among the portents of the Hour are (the following): -1. Religious knowledge will decrease (by the death of religious learned men). -2. Religious ignorance will prevail. -3. There will be prevalence of open illegal sexual intercourse. -4. Women will increase in number and men will decrease in number so much so that fifty women will be looked after by one man.


Knowledge will be sought from young people

عَنْ أَبِي أُمَيَّةَ اللَّخْمِيِّ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ إِنَّ مِنْ أَشْرَاطِ السَّاعَةِ ثَ أَنْ يُلْتَمَسَ الْعِلْمَ عِنْدَ الْأَصَاغِرِ

The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Verily, among the signs of the Hour is that knowledge will be sought from the young.”


al-Mu’jam al-Kabīr 908 (sahih)

Seventy-three sects

Narrated Abu Hurairah: that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "The Jews split into seventy-one sects, or seventy-two sects, and the Christians similarly, and my Ummah will split into seventy-three sects."


Tirmidhi Vol. 5, Book 38, Hadith 2640 (hasan)

Emergence of Sufyani

This hadith is daeef:

يخرج رجل يقال له السفياني في عمق دمشق ، وعامة من يتبعه من كلب ، فيقتل حتى يبقر بطون النساء ويقتل الصبيان ، فتجمع لهم قيس فيقتلها حتى لا يمنع ذنب تلعة ، ويخرج رجل من أهل بيتي في الحرة فيبلغ السفياني فيبعث إليه جنداً من جنده فيهزمهم ، فيسير إليه السفياني بمن معه ، حتى إذا صار ببيداء من الأرض خسف بهم ، فلا ينجو منهم إلا المخبر عنهم

There will emerge a man called as-Sufyaani from the depths of Damascus, and most of those who follow him will be from (the tribe of) Kalb. He will kill many people until he rips open the bellies of women and kill children. (The tribe of) Qays will gather against him and he will kill them. A man from my family will emerge in the harrah, and news of that will reach as-Sufyaani. He will send troops against him and he will defeat them. Then as-Sufyaani will march towards him accompanied by those who are with him, then when he is in a plain, they will be swallowed up by the earth and none of them will be saved except the one who will tell others about them.


al-Mustadrak 4/520 (da'eef)

Muslims in mosque won't find an imam to lead them in prayer

This hadith is da'eef:

Narrated Sulamah daughter of al-Hurr:

I heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say: One of the signs of the Last Hour will be that people in a mosque will refuse to act as imam and will not find an imam to lead them in prayer.


Sunan Abu Dawud Book 2, Hadith 581, chapter It Is Disliked To Refuse The Position Of Imam


It was narrated from Abu Sa'eed that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: "when there are three people let one of them lead the prayer, and the one who is most entitled to lead the prayer is the one who has most knowledge of the Qur'an."


Sunan An-nasa'i Vol. 1, Book 10, Hadith 783, chapter "When people are together and are all of the same status"

This prophecy was included in a chapter called "It Is Disliked To Refuse The Position Of Imam", and is perhaps best understood as a sort of moral exhortation to lead prayer when a prayer needs to be led.

Dajjal nor plague will be able to enter Medina

Anas narrated that the Messenger of Allah(s.a.w) said: "The Dajjal will come to Al-Madinah to find the angels have surrounded it. Neither the plague nor the Dajjal will enter it, if Allah wills."


Tirmidhi Vol. 4, Book 7, Hadith 2242 (sahih)

Medina, historically, has not proven to be especially or at all plague-proof. Moreover, during plagues, the Saudi government (and the caliphates, historically) had to close off access to Mecca and Medina to prevent the spread of disease. The prophet also stated that there was no such thing as a contagious disease.

Jesus will break the cross, kill the pigs and abolish Jizyah

It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: "The Hour will not begin until 'Eisa bin Maryam comes down as a just judge and a just ruler. He will break the cross, kill the pigs and abolish the Jizyah, and wealth will become so abundant that no one will accept it."


Sunan ibn Majah Vol. 5, Book 36, Hadith 4078 (sahih)

Gog and Magog will drink out the lake of Tiberias

And then Allah would send Gog and Magog and they would swarm down from every slope. The first of them would pass the lake of Tiberias and drink out of it. And when the last of them would pass, he would say: There was once water there.


Gog and Magog are described in the hadith and Quran as tribes on Earth blocked by a big iron wall, erected by Dhul-Qarnayn, that will be unlocked at the end of times. There are supposed to be so many of them that they will drink the entire lake of Tiberias (Sea of Galilee) dry.

Gog and Magog will successfully dig through the wall

It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "Gog and Magog people dig every day until, when they can almost see the rays of the sun, the one in charge of them says: "Go back and we will dig it tomorrow." Then Allah puts it back, stronger than it was before. (This will continue) until, when their time has come, and Allah wants to send them against the people, they will dig until they can almost see the rays of the sun, then the one who is in charge of them will say: "Go back, and we will dig it tomorrow if Allah wills.' So they will say: "If Allah wills." Then they will come back to it and it will be as they left it. So they will dig and will come out to the people, and they will drink all the water. The people will fortify themselves against them in their fortresses. They will shoot their arrows towards the sky and they will come back with blood on them, and they will say: "We have defeated the people of earth and dominated the people of heaven." Then Allah will send a worm in the napes of their necks and will kill them thereby.'" The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, the beasts of the earth will grow fat on their flesh."


Sunan Ibn Majah Vol. 5, Book 36, Hadith 4080

Muslims will use bows, arrows and shields of Gog and Magog as firewood for 7 years

It was narrated from Nawwas bin Sam'an that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "The Muslims will use the bows, arrows and shields of Gog and Magog as firewood, for seven years.'"


Sunan Ibn Majah: Vol. 5, Book 36, Hadith 4076 (sahih)

See also

External:

References

  1. "Al-nawwas b. Sim’an al-Kilabi said: The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) mentioned the Dajjal (Antichrist) saying: If he comes forth while I am among you I shall be the one who will dispute with him on your behalf, but if he comes forth when I am not among you, a man must dispute on his own behalf, and Allah will take my place in looking after every Muslim. Those of you who live up to his time should recite over him the opening verses of Surat al – Kahf, for they are your protection from his trial. We asked: How long will he remain on the earth ? He replied : Forty days, one like a year, one like a month, one like a week, and rest of his days like yours. We asked : Messenger of Allah, will one day’s prayer suffice us in this day which will be like a year ? He replied : No, you must make an estimate of its extent. Then Jesus son of Marry will descend at the white minaret to the east of Damascus. He will then catch him up at the date of Ludd and kill him." - Sunan Abu Dawud 38:4307
  2. AR: https://islamqa.info/ar/answers/140286/%D9%85%D8%A7-%D9%87%D9%88-%D9%85%D9%82%D8%AF%D8%A7%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%B9%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%AF%D8%A9-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%AD%D8%A7%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%AB-%D9%88%D9%87%D9%84-%D9%87%D9%88-%D8%B3%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%86-%D8%AF%D9%82%D9%8A%D9%82%D8%A9
  3. https://islamqa.info/ar/answers/265083/%D8%AD%D9%88%D9%84-%D8%B5%D8%AD%D8%A9-%D8%AD%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%AB-%D8%A7%D8%A8%D9%86-%D9%85%D8%B3%D8%B9%D9%88%D8%AF-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A7%D8%B4%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%B7-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%B9%D8%A9
  4. http://lexicon.quranic-research.net/data/21_q/239_qyZ.html
  5. https://islamqa.info/en/answers/47017/commentary-on-the-hadeeth-two-types-of-the-people-of-hell-whom-i-have-not-seen
  6. https://www.islamweb.net/ar/fatwa/321649/%D8%AF%D8%B1%D8%AC%D8%A9-%D8%AD%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%AB-%D8%B9%D8%B4%D8%B1-%D8%AE%D8%B5%D8%A7%D9%84-%D9%85%D9%86-%D8%A3%D8%B9%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%84-%D9%82%D9%88%D9%85-%D9%84%D9%88%D8%B7-
  7. Volcanic history of the northernmost part of the Harrat Rahat volcanic field, Saudi Arabia https://pubs.geoscienceworld.org/gsa/geosphere/article/14/3/1253/529993/Volcanic-history-of-the-northernmost-part-of-the
  8. Quran 9:31, tafsir Ibn Kathir
  9. https://quranacademy.io/blog/an-nawawis-hadith-2-hadith-of-jibreel-3/
  10. https://www.islamweb.net/en/article/135817/the-signs-of-the-hour
  11. http://hdith.com/?s=%D9%8A%D9%82%D8%A7%D8%AA%D9%90%D9%84%D9%8F%D9%83%D9%85+%D9%82%D9%88%D9%85%D9%8C+%D8%B5%D8%BA%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8F+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D8%B9%D9%8A%D9%86%D9%90+%D9%8A%D8%B9%D9%86%D9%8A+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%8F%D9%91%D8%B1%D9%83%D9%8E
  12. https://www.almaany.com/en/dict/ar-en/%D8%B3%D8%B1%D8%AC/
  13. https://www.almaany.com/en/dict/ar-en/%D8%B1%D8%AD%D9%84/
  14. https://sunnah.com/urn/1250630
  15. http://hdith.com/?s=%D9%84%D8%A7+%D8%AA%D9%82%D9%88%D9%85+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%B9%D8%A9+%D8%AD%D8%AA%D9%89+%D8%AA%D8%B8%D9%87%D8%B1+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%81%D8%AA%D9%86+%D9%88%D9%8A%D9%83%D8%AB%D8%B1+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%83%D8%B0%D8%A8+%D9%88%D8%AA%D8%AA%D9%82%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%A8+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D8%B3%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%82+%D9%88%D9%8A%D8%AA%D9%82%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%A8+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B2%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%86
  16. http://hdith.com/?s=%D9%84%D8%A7+%D8%AA%D9%82%D9%88%D9%85+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%B9%D8%A9+%D8%AD%D8%AA%D9%89+%D9%8A%D9%85%D8%B7%D8%B1+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%B3+%D9%85%D8%B7%D8%B1%D8%A7+%D8%B9%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%A7+%D8%8C+%D9%88+%D9%84%D8%A7+%D8%AA%D9%86%D8%A8%D8%AA+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D8%B1%D8%B6+%D8%B4%D9%8A%D8%A6%D8%A7
  17. http://hdith.com/?s=%D9%8A%D8%AF%D8%B1%D8%B3+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D8%B3%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%8C+%D9%83%D9%85%D8%A7+%D9%8A%D8%AF%D8%B1%D8%B3+%D9%88%D8%B4%D9%8A+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AB%D9%88%D8%A8
  18. http://hdith.com/?s=%D9%84%D9%8E%D8%A7+%D8%AA%D9%8E%D9%82%D9%8F%D9%88%D9%85%D9%8F+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%91%D9%8E%D8%A7%D8%B9%D9%8E%D8%A9%D9%8F+%D8%AD%D9%8E%D8%AA%D9%91%D9%8E%D9%89+%D9%8A%D9%8E%D8%AA%D9%8E%D8%B3%D9%8E%D8%A7%D9%81%D9%8E%D8%AF%D9%8E+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%86%D9%91%D9%8E%D8%A7%D8%B3%D9%8F+%D9%81%D9%90%D9%8A+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B7%D9%91%D9%8F%D8%B1%D9%8F%D9%82%D9%90+%D8%AA%D9%8E%D8%B3%D9%8E%D8%A7%D9%81%D9%8F%D8%AF%D9%8E+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%92%D8%AD%D9%8E%D9%85%D9%90%D9%8A%D8%B1%D9%90
  19. Orgies Through the Ages
  20. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/are-lightning-strikes-becoming-more-common/
  21. https://www.islamweb.net/ar/fatwa/18510/%D9%85%D8%B9%D9%86%D9%89-%D9%84%D9%83%D8%B9-%D8%A8%D9%86-%D9%84%D9%83%D8%B9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%AF-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AD%D8%AF%D9%8A%D8%AB
  22. http://hdith.com/?s=%D9%85%D9%90%D9%86+%D8%A7%D9%82%D9%92%D8%AA%D9%90%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%A8%D9%90+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%8E%D9%91%D8%A7%D8%B9%D9%8E%D8%A9%D9%90+%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D9%90%D9%81%D9%8E%D8%A7%D8%AE%D9%8F+%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D9%87%D9%90%D9%84%D9%8E%D9%91%D8%A9%D9%90&order=color