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===Context===
 
===Context===
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This [[surah]] was revealed in Mecca before Prophet [[Muhammad]] become a military leader. [[Islam|Islamic]] historian al-Zuhri writes that during this period “the unbelievers of the Quraysh did not oppose what he [Muhammad] said. If he passed the place where they sat together, they pointed to him and said: 'This young man of the tribe of Abd al-Muttalib proclaims a message from heaven!'” However, “this they continued to do until Allah began to attack their gods…, and until He proclaimed that their fathers who died in unbelief were lost [to hellfire]. Then they began to hate the Prophet and show their enmity to him.”<ref>Sharma SS (2004), Caliphs and Sultans: Religious Ideology and Political Praxis, Rupa & Co, New Delhi, p. 63; Muir, p.63</ref>  
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This [[surah]] was revealed in Mecca before Prophet [[Muhammad]] became a military leader. [[Islam|Islamic]] historian al-Zuhri writes that during this period “the unbelievers of the Quraysh did not oppose what he [Muhammad] said. If he passed the place where they sat together, they pointed to him and said: 'This young man of the tribe of Abd al-Muttalib proclaims a message from heaven!'” However, “this they continued to do until Allah began to attack their gods…, and until He proclaimed that their fathers who died in unbelief were lost [to hellfire]. Then they began to hate the Prophet and show their enmity to him.”<ref>Sharma SS (2004), Caliphs and Sultans: Religious Ideology and Political Praxis, Rupa & Co, New Delhi, p. 63; Muir, p.63</ref>  
    
Muslim chronicler al-Baihaqi further records (in The Signs of Prophethood) Muhammad’s disciple Amru ibn al-Aas’ testimony of Quraysh leaders’ discussion concerning Muhammad's verbal attacks on them and their religious beliefs: “Never have we had to tolerate from anyone what we have had to tolerate from this man. He slanders our fathers, criticizes our religions and divides our people, and blasphemes our gods. Such grievous things have we tolerated from this man…” Muhammad, who was nearby and heard this conversation, responded with, “Men of Quraysh! I will surely repay you for this with interest.”<ref>Baihaqi, Dala'il al-Nubuwwah, coc. Tornberg 232, fol. 85a</ref> The rest of the details are covered by the [[tafsir]] literature:
 
Muslim chronicler al-Baihaqi further records (in The Signs of Prophethood) Muhammad’s disciple Amru ibn al-Aas’ testimony of Quraysh leaders’ discussion concerning Muhammad's verbal attacks on them and their religious beliefs: “Never have we had to tolerate from anyone what we have had to tolerate from this man. He slanders our fathers, criticizes our religions and divides our people, and blasphemes our gods. Such grievous things have we tolerated from this man…” Muhammad, who was nearby and heard this conversation, responded with, “Men of Quraysh! I will surely repay you for this with interest.”<ref>Baihaqi, Dala'il al-Nubuwwah, coc. Tornberg 232, fol. 85a</ref> The rest of the details are covered by the [[tafsir]] literature:
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