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===Ibn Ishaq===
 
===Ibn Ishaq===
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{{Quote|{{citation|title=The Life of Muhammad|trans_title=Sirat Rasul Allah|ISBN=0-19-636033-1|year=1955|publisher=Oxford UP|author1=Ibn Ishaq (d. 768)|author2=Ibn Hisham (d. 833)|editor=A. Guillaume|url=https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up|pages=326-327}}<br>{{citation|title=سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا|author1=ابن إسحاق|author2=ابن هشام|url=https://app.turath.io/book/23833|publisher=al-Maktabah al-Shamilah|volume=vol. |pages=674-677}}|Then God mentions the unbelievers and what they will meet when they die, and describes them, and tells His prophet about them until He says: 'If you come upon them in war, deal with them so forcibly as to terrify those who follow them, haply they may take warning,' i.e. make a severe example of them to those that come after, that haply they may understand. 'And prepare what strength you can against them, and cavalry by which you may strike terror into the enemy of God and your enemy' as far as His words, 'And whatever you spend in the way of God will be repaid to you: you will not be wronged,' i.e. you will not lose your reward with God in the next life and a rapid recompense in this world. Then He said, 'And if they incline to peace incline thou to it,' i.e. if they ask you for peace on the basis of Islam then make peace on that basis, 'and rely on God,' verily God will suffice thee, 'He is the Hearer, the Knower'. 'And if they would deceive thee, God is sufficient for thee,' He being behind thee, 'He it is who strengthens thee with His help' after weakness 'and by the believers. And He made them of one mind' by the guidance with which God sent thee to them. 'Hadst thou spent all the world's wealth thou hadst not made them of one mind but God made them of one mind' by His religion to which He gathered them. 'He is mighty, wise.'<br>
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{{Quote|{{citation|title=The Life of Muhammad|trans_title=Sirat Rasul Allah|ISBN=0-19-636033-1|year=1955|publisher=Oxford UP|author1=Ibn Ishaq (d. 768)|author2=Ibn Hisham (d. 833)|editor=A. Guillaume|url=https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up|pages=326-327}}<br>{{citation|title=سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا|author1=ابن إسحاق|author2=ابن هشام|url=https://app.turath.io/book/23833|publisher=al-Maktabah al-Shamilah|volume=vol. 1|pages=674-677}}|Then God mentions the unbelievers and what they will meet when they die, and describes them, and tells His prophet about them until He says: 'If you come upon them in war, deal with them so forcibly as to terrify those who follow them, haply they may take warning,' i.e. make a severe example of them to those that come after, that haply they may understand. 'And prepare what strength you can against them, and cavalry by which you may strike terror into the enemy of God and your enemy' as far as His words, 'And whatever you spend in the way of God will be repaid to you: you will not be wronged,' i.e. you will not lose your reward with God in the next life and a rapid recompense in this world. Then He said, 'And if they incline to peace incline thou to it,' i.e. if they ask you for peace on the basis of Islam then make peace on that basis, 'and rely on God,' verily God will suffice thee, 'He is the Hearer, the Knower'. 'And if they would deceive thee, God is sufficient for thee,' He being behind thee, 'He it is who strengthens thee with His help' after weakness 'and by the believers. And He made them of one mind' by the guidance with which God sent thee to them. 'Hadst thou spent all the world's wealth thou hadst not made them of one mind but God made them of one mind' by His religion to which He gathered them. 'He is mighty, wise.'<br>
 
Then He said: 'O prophet, God is sufficient for thee and the believers who follow thee. O prophet, exhort the believers to fight. If there are
 
Then He said: 'O prophet, God is sufficient for thee and the believers who follow thee. O prophet, exhort the believers to fight. If there are
 
twenty steadfast ones among you they will overcome two hundred, and if there are a hundred of you they will overcome a thousand unbelievers for they are a senseless people,' i.e. they do not fight with a good intention nor for truth nor have they knowledge of what is good and what is evil.<br>
 
twenty steadfast ones among you they will overcome two hundred, and if there are a hundred of you they will overcome a thousand unbelievers for they are a senseless people,' i.e. they do not fight with a good intention nor for truth nor have they knowledge of what is good and what is evil.<br>
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{{Quote|{{citation|title=The History of al-Tabari|trans_title=Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk|volume=vol. VIII|ISBN=0-7914-3149-5|year=1997|publisher=SUNY Press|author=al-Tabari (d. 923)|editor=Michael Fishbein|url=https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n2028/mode/2up|page=129}}<br>{{citation|title=تاريخ الرسل والملوك|author=أبو جعفر الطبري|url=https://app.turath.io/book/9783|publisher=al-Maktabah al-Shamilah|volume=vol. 3|page=20}}|After the Messenger of God had finished with Khaybar, God cast fear into the hearts of the people of Fadak when they received news of what God had brought upon the people of Khaybar; so they sent to the Messenger of God to make peace with him for a half share of Fadak. Their messengers came to him in Khaybar (or on the way, or perhaps after he had arrived in Medina), and he accepted their terms. Fadak became the property of the Messenger of God exclusively, because no horses or camels had been spurred against it.}}
 
{{Quote|{{citation|title=The History of al-Tabari|trans_title=Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk|volume=vol. VIII|ISBN=0-7914-3149-5|year=1997|publisher=SUNY Press|author=al-Tabari (d. 923)|editor=Michael Fishbein|url=https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n2028/mode/2up|page=129}}<br>{{citation|title=تاريخ الرسل والملوك|author=أبو جعفر الطبري|url=https://app.turath.io/book/9783|publisher=al-Maktabah al-Shamilah|volume=vol. 3|page=20}}|After the Messenger of God had finished with Khaybar, God cast fear into the hearts of the people of Fadak when they received news of what God had brought upon the people of Khaybar; so they sent to the Messenger of God to make peace with him for a half share of Fadak. Their messengers came to him in Khaybar (or on the way, or perhaps after he had arrived in Medina), and he accepted their terms. Fadak became the property of the Messenger of God exclusively, because no horses or camels had been spurred against it.}}
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{{Quote|{{Tabari|9|p. 42}}|We have been dealt a situation from which there is no escape. You have seen what Muhammad has done. Arabs have submitted to him and we do not have the strength to fight. You know that no herd is safe from him. And '''no one even dares go outside for fear of being terrorized.'''}}
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{{Quote|{{citation|title=The History of al-Tabari|trans_title=Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk|volume=vol. IX|ISBN=0-88706-691-7|year=1990|publisher=SUNY Press|author=al-Tabari (d. 923)|editor=Ismail K. Poonawala|url=https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n2267/mode/2up|pages=42-43}}<br>{{citation|title=تاريخ الرسل والملوك|author=أبو جعفر الطبري|url=https://app.turath.io/book/9783|publisher=al-Maktabah al-Shamilah|volume=vol. 3|pages=97-98}}|Ibn Humayd--Salamah--Muhammad b. Ishaq--Ya'qub b. 'Utbah b. al-Mughirah b. al-Akhnas b. Shariq al-Thaqafi: 'Amr b. Umayyah, brother of the Banu 'Ilaj, had shunned 'Abd Yalil b. 'Amr, and there was ill feeling between the two. 'Amr b. Umayyah was one of the most cunning of the Arabs. He ambled over to 'Abd Yalil b. 'Amr and entered his dwelling place . He then sent word to him that 'Amr b. Umayyah said, "Come out to me." 'Abd Yalil said to the messenger: "Woe to you! Has 'Amr sent you?" The messenger replied: "Indeed, he is standing here in your dwelling place." 'Abd Yalil then retorted, "I would not have thought that of 'Amr. He knows how to protect himself better than that." [So he came out], and when he saw 'Amr he welcomed him. 'Amr said: "We have been dealt a situation from which there is no escape (hijrah) Indeed, you have seen what has transpired as regards this man [i.e., the Messenger of God). All the Arabs have embraced Islam and you do not have the strength to make war against them, so consider your situation ." Thereupon, Thaqif deliberated among themselves, some saying to one another, "Don't you see that your herd is not safe, and none of you can dare go out without being cut off [from the town]." They deliberated [further] and decided to send a man to the Prophet as they had [previously] sent 'Urwah. They spoke to 'Abd Yalil b. `Amr b. 'Umayr, who was of the same age as 'Urwah b. Masud, but he declined to undertake the task. Fearing that he would be dealt with as was 'Urwah on his return, he said, "I am not doing anything until you send someone with me ." Thus they agreed to send two men from the Ahlaf and three from the Banu Malik. There were six [all told]: 'Uthman b. Abi al-'Ag b. Bishr b. 'Abd Duhman, brother of the Banu Yasar; Aws b. 'Awf, brother of the Banii Salim [b. 'Awf], Numayr b. Kharashah b. Rabi 'ah, brother of  Balharith; and from the Ahlaf, al-Hakam b. 'Amr b. Wahb b. Mu'attib and Shurahbil b. Ghaylan b. Salimah b. Mu'attib. 'Abd Yalil then departed with them as leader of his folk and in charge of their affairs. He took them [i.e., the other five] with him because he feared he would be dealt with as was 'Urwah b . Mas'ud, and he hoped that each man among them would keep his [own] clan occupied on their return to al-Ta'if.}}
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{{Quote|{{Tabari|8|p. 138}}|Muhammad carried arms, helmets, and spears. He led a hundred horses, appointing Bahir to be in charge of the weapons and Maslamah to be in charge of the horses. When '''the Quraysh received word of this, it frightened them.'''}}
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{{Quote|{{citation|title=The History of al-Tabari|trans_title=Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk|volume=vol. VIII|ISBN=0-7914-3149-5|year=1997|publisher=SUNY Press|author=al-Tabari (d. 923)|editor=Michael Fishbein|url=https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n2028/mode/2up|page=138}}<br>{{citation|title=تاريخ الرسل والملوك|author=أبو جعفر الطبري|url=https://app.turath.io/book/9783|publisher=al-Maktabah al-Shamilah|volume=vol. 3|page=26}}|According to [al-Waqidi]--Mu'adh b. Muhammad alAnsari--'Asim b. 'Umar b. Qatadah, who said: He carried arms, helmets, and spears and led a hundred horses. He appointed Bashir b. Sa'd to be in charge of the weapons, and Muhammad b. Maslamah to be in charge of the horses. When Quraysh received word of this, it frightened them. They sent Mikraz b. Hafs b. al-Akhyaf, who met him at Marr al-Zahran. [The Messenger of God] said to him: "Young or old, I have never been known but for keeping a promise. I do not want to bring in weapons against them, but the weapons will be close to me." Mikraz returned to Quraysh and informed them.}}
    
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