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==Criticism==
 
==Criticism==
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The need for this declaration arose due to a conflict between [[Islam|Islamic]] and non-Islamic notions of [[Human Rights|human rights]]. In 1981 the Iranian representative to the United Nations declared that "the [[Universal Declaration of Human Rights]] represented a secular interpretation of the Judeo-Christian tradition, which could not be implemented by Muslims."<ref>David G. Littman - [{{Reference archive|1=http://www.nationalreview.com/articles/205577/human-rights-and-human-wrongs/david-g-littman|2=2013-01-08}} Human Rights and Human Wrongs] - National Review, January 19, 2003</ref> Similar views were expressed by other countries such as [[Sudan]], [[Iran]], and [[Saudi Arabia]], leading to this alternative declaration being adopted by 45 member states of the OIC. Nevertheless, this declaration has been severely criticized by many, including; the International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU), the Association for World Education (AWE) and the Association of World Citizens (AWC) for its incompatibility with human rights, [[Islam and Women|women's rights]], religious freedom and [[Free Speech|freedom of expression]], by "imposing restrictions on nearly every human right based on Islamic Sharia law."<ref>[{{Reference archive|1=http://web.archive.org/web/20101030053805/http://www.iheu.org/node/3162|2=2013-01-08}} The Cairo Declaration and the Universality of Human Rights] - International Humanist and Ethical Union, May 28, 2008</ref> Furthermore, according to the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ):
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The need for this declaration arose due to a conflict between [[Islam|Islamic]] and non-Islamic notions of [[Human Rights|human rights]]. In 1981 the Iranian representative to the United Nations declared that "the [[Universal Declaration of Human Rights]] represented a secular interpretation of the Judeo-Christian tradition, which could not be implemented by Muslims."<ref>David G. Littman - [{{Reference archive|1=http://www.nationalreview.com/articles/205577/human-rights-and-human-wrongs/david-g-littman|2=2013-01-08}} Human Rights and Human Wrongs] - National Review, January 19, 2003</ref> Similar views were expressed by other countries such as Sudan, Iran, and Saudi Arabia, leading to this alternative declaration being adopted by 45 member states of the OIC. Nevertheless, this declaration has been severely criticized by many, including; the International Humanist and Ethical Union (IHEU), the Association for World Education (AWE) and the Association of World Citizens (AWC) for its incompatibility with human rights, [[Islam and Women|women's rights]], religious freedom and [[Free Speech|freedom of expression]], by "imposing restrictions on nearly every human right based on Islamic Sharia law."<ref>[{{Reference archive|1=http://web.archive.org/web/20101030053805/http://www.iheu.org/node/3162|2=2013-01-08}} The Cairo Declaration and the Universality of Human Rights] - International Humanist and Ethical Union, May 28, 2008</ref> Furthermore, according to the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ):
    
{{Quote|1=[http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=ODkzM2Q2NGE5ODQzZWI2Y2QyMzhlYjA4NWRlOWYzMzE= Feb. 1992 Joint Statement to the UNCHR]<BR>The International Commission of Jurists and the International Federation for Human Rights|2=1) It gravely threatens the inter-cultural consensus on which the international human rights instruments are based;<BR>2) It introduces, in the name of the defence of human rights, an intolerable discrimination against both non-Muslims and women;<BR>3) It reveals a deliberately restrictive character in regard to certain fundamental rights and freedoms, to the point that certain essential provisions are below the legal standard in effect in a number of Muslim countries;<BR>4) It confirms under cover of the "Islamic Shari'a (Law)" the legitimacy of practices, such as corporal punishment, that attack the integrity and dignity of the human being.}}
 
{{Quote|1=[http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=ODkzM2Q2NGE5ODQzZWI2Y2QyMzhlYjA4NWRlOWYzMzE= Feb. 1992 Joint Statement to the UNCHR]<BR>The International Commission of Jurists and the International Federation for Human Rights|2=1) It gravely threatens the inter-cultural consensus on which the international human rights instruments are based;<BR>2) It introduces, in the name of the defence of human rights, an intolerable discrimination against both non-Muslims and women;<BR>3) It reveals a deliberately restrictive character in regard to certain fundamental rights and freedoms, to the point that certain essential provisions are below the legal standard in effect in a number of Muslim countries;<BR>4) It confirms under cover of the "Islamic Shari'a (Law)" the legitimacy of practices, such as corporal punishment, that attack the integrity and dignity of the human being.}}
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