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==Introduction==
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== Marriage ==
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Modern Muslims often claim that [[Islam]] holds women in high regard. Souad Saleh, a female professor at Al-Ahzar University in Cairo and a vocal proponent of women's rights in Egypt, recently stated, "Islam is pure and simple, and it holds women in high esteem."<ref name="Al Ahram">Gamal Nkrumah - [http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2005/766/profile.htm "Soaud Saleh: Time to tear down the divides"] - Al-Ahram Weekly, 27 October - 2 November 2005, Issue No. 766</ref> She also says, "Muslim women were the first to be granted the right to inherit property and conduct their own private business affairs. This was so at an age when the women of Europe and Asia were not allowed to own property, inherit wealth and in some instances were treated as chattel."<ref name="Al Ahram"></ref> When addressing the issue of women being mistreated by their husbands, she states, "guardianship over women … does not give male members of the family license to oppress their female counterparts. Islam enjoins men to protect, love and care for their women folk."<ref name="Al Ahram"></ref>
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=== Marital options ===
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It is also often claimed by Muslims that Islam abolished the horrible practice of female infanticide prevalent among the pagan Arabs. [[Muhammad]] gave clear directions leading to the restriction of polygamy, restrained the unlimited rights by men over their wives, and gave woman both spiritual and material equality with man.<ref> Pierre Crabites, cited in Allama Sir Abdullah Al-Mamun Al-Suhrawardy, ''The Wisdom of Muhammad'' (New York: Citade Press, 2001), p. 20.</ref>
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====A Muslim woman is not permitted to marry a non-Muslim Man====
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Islamic websites often claim that Islam elevates the status of women. For example, at the website of the Muslim Student Association at the University of Southern California, one can find the following regarding [[Women in Islam]]:
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Islamic jurisprudence only allowed a Muslim woman to marry a Muslim man, based on their interpretation of the Qur'an. This injunction has been the cause of great personal grief for inter-faith couples and even the spark of violence and honor killings. According to all schools of Sunni and Shi'a jurisprudence, a non-Muslim man must either convert in order to marry a Muslim women or the couple must be seperated.
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This ruling, derived from a verse in the Qur'an and for which there was scholarly consensus<ref name="IndianaLawJournal">Leeman, Alex B. (2009) "Interfaith Marriage in Islam: An Examination of the Legal Theory Behind the Traditional and Reformist Positions," Indiana Law Journal: Vol. 84 : Iss. 2 , Article 9. pp.754-759
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Available at: http://ilj.law.indiana.edu/articles/84/84_2_Leeman.pdf and https://www.repository.law.indiana.edu/ilj/vol84/iss2/9</ref><ref>[https://www.islamawareness.net/Marriage/fatwa_11.html Verses on Interfaith Marriage: Still Binding? Archive of islamonline.net]</ref><ref>[https://archive.islamonline.net/?p=1187 Why a Muslim Woman Is Not Allowed to Marry a Non-Muslim Man]</ref>, is designed to ensure that a Muslim wife and her future offspring continue to follow the religion of Islam, lest a non-Muslim husband enforces his views on the family.
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*Islam declared women and men equal.
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{{Quote|{{Quran|2|221}}|Wed not idolatresses till they believe; for lo! a believing bondwoman is better than an idolatress though she please you; '''and give not your daughters in marriage to idolaters till they believe''', for lo! a believing slave is better than an idolater though he please you. These invite unto the Fire, and Allah inviteth unto the Garden, and unto forgiveness by His grace, and expoundeth His revelations to mankind that haply they may remember.}}
*Islam condemned pre-Islamic practices degrading and oppressing women.
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*The same injunctions and prohibitions of Islam equally apply to both sexes.
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*Islam gave woman the right of inheritance and the right of individual independent ownership unhampered by father, husband, brother, son or anyone else.
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*Islam gave women the right to accept or reject a marriage proposal free from pressure, and by mutual agreement to specify in the marriage contract that she has the right to divorce (if she misses that option she has the right to seek court divorce if she deems the marriage to have failed beyond repair).
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*Islam does not require woman to change her name at marriage.
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*Islam protects the family and condemns the betrayal of marital fidelity. It recognizes only one type of family: husband and wife united by authentic marriage contract.
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*"Heaven is at the feet of mothers", is a basic Islamic teaching.
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*"The best of you are the kindest to their wives and I am your best to mine", is a teaching by prophet Mohammad.
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*Islam enjoins sounds morality in thinking, behavior and appearance. Dress fashions and social patterns that reduce woman to a sex object and exploit her as such are not acceptable to Islam.
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*The observance of chastity and moral standards is equally demanded by Islam from both men and women. "Women are the siblings of men", is a saying of prophet Mohammad.
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==The Treatment of Women by Men in Islamic Scripture==
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Muslim men have fewer restrictions - they are permitted to marry Muslim women and people of the Book (Jewish and Christian women).
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Some verses of the Qur'an command the believers to be fair and kind to women:
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{{Quote|{{Quran|5|5}}|This day are (all) good things made lawful for you. The food of those who have received the Scripture is lawful for you, and your food is lawful for them. '''And so are the virtuous women of the believers and the virtuous women of those who received the Scripture before you (lawful for you) when ye give them their marriage portions''' and live with them in honour, not in fornication, nor taking them as secret concubines. Whoso denieth the faith, his work is vain and he will be among the losers in the Hereafter.}}
{{Quote|{{Quran|4|19}}|O ye who believe! '''Ye are forbidden to inherit women against their will. Nor should ye treat them with harshness'''…except where they have been guilty of open lewdness; on the contrary '''live with them on a footing of kindness and equity'''. If ye take a dislike to them it may be that ye dislike a thing, and Allah brings about through it a great deal of good.}}
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In recent times, some modernists have argued that the classical view does not necessarily follow from the Qur'anic verses and that Muslim women should be given more freedom, though in both the scholarly and lay communities this remains a decidedly fringe view vis-a-vis the traditional view.<ref>[https://www.huffingtonpost.ca/junaid-jahangir/muslim-women-marriage_b_15472982.html?guccounter=1&guce_referrer_us=aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuZ29vZ2xlLmNvbS8&guce_referrer_cs=Gv3znsP7rlc9K98rQxNZAQ Muslim Women Can Marry Outside The Faith - Blog on Huffington Post by Junaid Jahangir]</ref>
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{{Quote|{{Quran|65|6}}|'''Lodge them where you lodge according to your means, and do not injure them''' in order that you may straiten them…}}
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==== Men can marry up to four wives ====
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{{Quote|{{Quran|4|3}}|If ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four;}}Muhammad's Allowed Wife Limit in the Qur'an{{Quote|{{Quran|33|50}}|O Prophet! We have made lawful to thee thy wives to whom thou hast paid their dowers; and those whom thy right hand possesses out of the prisoners of war whom Allah has assigned to thee; and daughters of thy paternal uncles and aunts, and daughters of thy maternal uncles and aunts, who migrated (from Makka) with thee; and any believing woman who dedicates her soul to the Prophet if the Prophet wishes to wed her;- '''this only for thee, and not for the Believers (at large);''' We know what We  have appointed for them as to their wives and the captives whom their right hands  possess, in order that there should be no difficulty for thee.}}Muhammad on Polygyny for his Son-in-Law Ali{{Quote|{{Bukhari|7|62|157}}| Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhrama:
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I heard Allah's Apostle who was on the pulpit, saying, "Banu Hisham bin Al-Mughira have requested me to allow them to marry their daughter to Ali bin Abu Talib, but I don't give permission, '''and will not give permission unless 'Ali bin Abi Talib divorces my daughter in order to marry their daughter, because Fatima is a part of my body, and I hate what she hates to see, and what hurts her, hurts me."'''}}
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The Qur'an clearly enjoins the believers to treat their women folk well and not to cause them harm here.
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====Child Marriage====
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===Permission to Husbands to Beat Their Wives===
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{{Quote|{{Quran|65|4}}| [speaking of the prescribed waiting period for a divorce]  And those of your women as have passed the age of monthly courses, for them the 'Iddah (prescribed period), if you have doubts (about their periods), is three months, and '''for those who have no courses (i.e. they are still immature)''' their 'Iddah (prescribed period) is three months likewise.}}Muhammad married Aisha at 6, had sex at 9 years of age{{Quote|{{Bukhari|5|58|236}}| Narrated Hisham's father: Khadija died three years before the Prophet departed to Medina. He stayed there for two years or so and then he married 'Aisha when she was a girl of six years of age, and he consumed that marriage when she was nine years old.}}
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{{Quote|{{Quran|4|34}}|Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has given the one more (strength) than the other, and because they support them from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient, and guard in (the husband's) absence what Allah would have them guard. '''As to those women on whose part ye fear disloyalty and ill-conduct, admonish them (first), (Next), refuse to share their beds, (And last) beat them''' (lightly); but if they return to obedience, seek not against them Means (of annoyance): For Allah is Most High, great (above you all).}}
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|7|62|64}}| Narrated 'Aisha: that the Prophet married her when she was six years old and he consummated his marriage when she was nine years old, and then she remained with him for nine years (i.e., till his death).}}
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[[:Category:Islamic_Apologists|Muslim apologists]] will assert that the term "[[Wife Beating in Islam|and beat them]]" speaks only metaphorically. Others insist it means only a simple strike, as with hitting them with a feather or toothpick. Yusuf Ali adds the word 'lightly,' which never appears in the Arabic. Yet, a simple observation of the text shows any of the above to be erroneous.  
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{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|3311}}| 'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) married her when she was seven years old, and he was taken to his house as a bride when she was nine, and her dolls were with her; and when he (the Holy Prophet) died she was eighteen years old.}}
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The text presents a series of progressive disciplinary measures if a man suspects disobedience from his wife:
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#Admonish her. Give her a verbal warning regarding her behavior.
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Ayatollah Khomeini, the Iranian Shia religious leader, married a ten-year-old girl when he was twenty-eight.Khomeini called marriage to a prepubescent girl "a divine blessing," and advised the faithful: "Do your best to ensure that your daughters do not see their first blood in your house."
#sleep in separate beds from her. This humiliates the woman, for in Islam a woman's worth is measured, in part, by her ability to reproduce offspring, particularly male offspring. Sleeping in a separate bed from the wife dishonors her by limiting her ability to reproduce a male child.
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#Beat them. This is the third, most significant step of the progressive discipline process and is expected to be the one that produces the desired result if the first two failed.
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Suggestions such as of hitting the woman "lightly" with a toothpick as the most severe disciplinary measure don't seem to follow logically from the steps laid out in the text and lack textual and traditional attestation.
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Speaking about the waiting period for divorce, the Qur'an states:
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In the most authoritative biography of Muhammad, written by ibn Ishaq, we find the following words of the prophet of Islam:  
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{{Quote|{{Quran|65|4}}|Such of your women as have passed the age of monthly courses, for them the prescribed period, if ye have any doubts, is three months, '''and for those who have no courses''' (it is the same): for those who carry (life within their wombs), their period is until they deliver their burdens: and for those who fear Allah, He will make their path easy.}}
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{{Quote||You have rights over your wives and they have rights over you. You have the right that they should not defile your bed and that they should not behave with open unseemliness. If they do, '''God allows you to put them in separate rooms and to beat them''' but not with severity. If they refrain from these things they have the right to their food and clothing with kindness.<ref>Sirat Rasul Allah, ibn Ishaq, A. Guillaume, translator. Oxford University Press, 1955, page 651.</ref>}}
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====Marriage to virgins====
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Ibn Kathir records a hadith that states:
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{{Quote|{{Muwatta|28|2|4}}|Virgins must give consent for marriage, but… "Malik related to me from Abdullah ibn al-Fadl … 'A woman who has been previously married is more entitled to her person than her guardian and a virgin must be asked for her consent and her silence is her consent.'"}}
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{{Quote||"The best woman is she who when you look at her she '''obeys you''', and when you are absent, she protects her honor and your property."<ref> Tafsir Ibn Kathir - [http://www.tafsir.com/default.asp?sid=4&tid=11021 Qualities of the Righteous Wife] - Tafsir.com</ref>}}
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====Mut'ah marriages====
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Ibn Kathir further elaborates what constitutes ill conduct:
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Mut'ah is a temporary arrangement whereby a man and a woman enter into a contractual arrangement to marry each other for a specified period of time. The time can be as little as one hour or as long as several years, though most Mutah contracts are for hours or a few days. The man gives the woman something of value, and in exchange he is allowed to enter into sexual relations with her, legally, without committing fornication, since they are "married." At the end of the period specified in the contract, each party walks separate ways and neither is indebted to the other. Mut'ah can thus be seen as a religiously-endorsed form of prostitution. The practice actually dates back to Arabia's pre-Islamic days, and was recorded by the pagan Latin historian Ammianus Marcellinus writing in the 300's.
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{{Quote||[It is] the woman from whom you see ill conduct with her husband,''' such as when she acts as if she is above her husband, disobeys him, ignores him, dislikes him, and so forth'''. When these signs appear in a woman, her husband should advise her and remind her of Allah's torment if she disobeys him. Indeed, '''Allah ordered the wife to obey her husband''' and prohibited her from disobeying him, because of the ''enormity of his rights'' and all that he does for her.<ref>Tafsir Ibn Kathir - [http://www.tafsir.com/default.asp?sid=4&tid=11037 Dealing with the Wife's Ill-Conduct] - Tafsir.com</ref>}}
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Mutah is practiced mainly by Shi'ites today, although at one time Muhammad permitted it for all Muslims. This is one of many areas of disagreement between Sunnis and Shi'ites: Sunnis believe Muhammad abrogated Mutah, while Shi'ites disagree and still practice Mut'ah as allowed by Muhammad.
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Scholar Abdul-latif Mushtahiri:  
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According to Islamic literature, Mutah was first made unlawful by Mohammad on the day of the battle of Khaybar (a battle against a jewish tribe named Khaybar), after apparently being practiced since the conception of Islam. It was then made lawful again on the day of Conquest of Makkah for 3 days by Muhammad, when his companions complained to him their desire for women. From this point, it is disagreed upon between Sunnis and Shias on whether Mutah was made again unlawful by Muhammad or not. However, the practice of Mutah continued in the early Muslim Community by the companions until Umar (the second caliph) forbade it sometime between 13-23 AH. Some of Muhammad's companions however still held the belief that Mutah was never made again unlawful by Muhammad, the most notable of which is Ibn Abbas.<ref>https://sunnah.com/muslim:1406f
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{{Quote||If admonishing and sexual desertion fail to bring forth results and the woman is of a cold and stubborn type, '''the Qur'an bestows on man the right to straighten her out by way of punishment and beating provided he does not break her bones nor shed blood'''. Many a wife belongs to this querulous type and requires this sort of punishment to bring her to her senses!"<ref> Quoted in: [http://www.answering-islam.org/BehindVeil/btv3.html The Veil of Equality and Justice: Section 2] - Answering Islam</ref>}}
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https://sunnah.com/muslim:1406g
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===Muhammad's Conduct Towards his Wives===
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https://sunnah.com/muslim:1406f
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{{Quote|{{Muslim|4|2127}}|...He (Muhammad b. Qais) then reported that it was 'A'isha who had narrated this: Should I not narrate to you about myself and about the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him)? We said: Yes. ... he (the Holy Prophet) entered the (house), and said: Why is it, O 'A'isha, that you are out of breath? I said: There is nothing. He said: Tell me or the Subtle and the Aware would inform me. I said: Messenger of Allah, may my father and mother be ransom for you, and then I told him (the whole story). He said: Was it the darkness (of your shadow) that I saw in front of me? I said: Yes. ''He struck me on the chest which caused me pain'', and then said: Did you think that Allah and His Apostle would deal unjustly with you?}}
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https://sunnah.com/muslim:1407a
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|7|62|132}}|Narrated 'Abdullah bin Zam'a:
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https://sunnah.com/muslim:1406i
The Prophet said, "None of you should flog his wife as he flogs a slave and then have sexual intercourse with her in the last part of the day."}}
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==Influence of the Islamic Scriptures on Contemporary Domestic Violence==
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<br /></ref>
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According to the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, over 90% of married women report being kicked, slapped, beaten or sexually abused when husbands were dissatisfied by their cooking or cleaning, or when the women had 'failed' to bear a child or had given birth to a girl instead of a boy. Another organization stated that one woman is murdered and one woman is kidnapped in Pakistan every day.<ref>[http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA33/010/2002/en-http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA33/010/2002/en Pakistan: Violence against women: Media briefing] - Amnesty International</ref>
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The following quotations regarding Mut'ah marriages are from a Shi'ite Muslim website.<ref>[http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/mutah/en/index.php-http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/mutah/en/index.php The Marriage of Mut'ah: Introduction: Preface] - Answering Ansar</ref>  
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==Women – social status==
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:Whenever man sets foot on the earth the need to travel always emerges. Sometimes traveling can involve man going thousands of miles away from home, sometimes for moths, even years. Do one's sexual desires just evaporate when an individual is traveling? Sexual desire isn't like some light switch that turns off when a man leaves his wife to set off on his travels, and turns back home when he gets back! Sexual desire is something that remains permanently with a human, when it accompanies him at all times then how can he curtail such sexual feelings? When someone is traveling and accessing his wife is impossible, and he is incapable of summing her to join him, then what will a young red-blooded male do? Miles away from home, feeling sexually aroused his situation is not one wherein he can get permanently married, so what is he to do? He will feel the only way that he can relieve himself is by amalgamating himself into the society around him.  Islam does not permit a person to sexually relieve himself through masturbation nor is he permitted to adopt the ways of the kufr and indulge himself in fornication, it offers him a legitimate mechanism with which to relieve himself and that is temporary marriage.
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===Women are mere possessions===
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:It is not just traveling, that might necessitate Mutah, there are many in society who just does not have the financial ability / standing to get permanent married, yet they still have sexual desires, again Mut'ah is there to ensure that they practice sex within the boundaries set by Allah (swt).
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In the following hadith, note that Sad bin Ar-Rabi used his wives as a mere possession to be traded in a purely [[Mahr|commercial transaction]]:
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:Islam is a religion that is suited for all nations and ages. Mut'ah is a good example of that. It is only the Deen of Islam that caters for sexual desire by permitting a legitimate method of control. For others societies the only mechanism that they see as the solution to relieving sexual feelings is through the practice of fornication. In the western world adultery and fornication are common and openly performed. Mut'ah is a way of protecting a person from committing these serious sins and vices.
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|3|34|264}}|Narrated Ibrahim bin Sad from his father from his grand-father: Abdur Rahman bin Auf said, "When we came to Medina as emigrants, Allah's Apostle established a bond of brotherhood between me and Sad bin Ar-Rabi'. Sad bin Ar-Rabi' said (to me), 'I am the richest among the Ansar, so '''I will give you half of my wealth and you may look at my two wives and whichever of the two you may choose I will divorce her''', and when she has completed the prescribed period (before marriage) '''you may marry her'''.'}}
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|6|60|139}}| Narrated Abdullah:
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We used to participate in the holy wars carried on by the Prophet and we had no women (wives) with us. So we said (to the Prophet ). "Shall we castrate ourselves?" But the Prophet forbade us to do that and thenceforth he allowed us to marry a woman (temporarily) by giving her even a garment, and then he recited: "O you who believe! Do not make unlawful the good things which Allah has made lawful for you." {{Quran|5|87}} }}
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The prophet of Islam stated the following, recorded in the earliest biography:
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|7|62|52}}| Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah and Salama bin Al-Akwa':
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While we were in an army, Allah's Apostle came to us and said, "You have been allowed to do the Mut'a (marriage), so do it." Salama bin Al-Akwa' said: Allah's Apostle's said, "If a man and a woman agree (to marry temporarily), their marriage should last for three nights, and if they like to continue, they can do so; and if they want to separate, they can do so." I do not know whether that was only for us or for all the people in general. Abu Abdullah (Al-Bukhari) said: 'Ali made it clear that the Prophet said, "The Mut'a marriage has been cancelled (made unlawful)."}}
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{{Quote||"Lay injunctions on women kindly, '''for they are prisoners with you having no control of their persons.''' You have taken them only as a trust from God, and you have the enjoyment of their persons by the words of God, so understand (T. and listen to) my words, O men, for I have told you.<ref> ibn Ishaq, p. 651</ref>}}
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{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|3252}}|Sabra Juhanni reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) permitted temporary marriage for us. So I and another person went out and saw a woman of Bana 'Amir, who was like a young long-necked she-camel. We presented ourselves to her (for contracting temporary marriage), whereupon she said: What dower would you give me? I said: My cloak. And my companion also said: My cloak. And the cloak of-my companion was superior to my cloak, but I was younger than he. So when she looked at the cloak of my companion she liked it, and when she cast a glance at me I looked more attractive to her. She then said: Well, you and your cloak are sufficient for me. I remained with her for three nights, and then Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who has any such woman with whom he had contracted temporary marriage, he should let her off.}}{{Quote|https://quranx.com/Hadith/Muslim/USC-MSA/Book-8/Hadith-3248|Ibn Uraij reported:
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Women are also mentioned in these texts as possessions along with animals:
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'Ati' reported that jibir b. Abdullah came to perform 'Umra, and we came to his abode, and the people asked him about different things, and then they made a mention of temporary marriage, whereupon he said: Yes, we had been benefiting ourselves by this temporary marriage during the lifetime of the Prophet (ﷺ) and during the time of Abu Bakr and 'Umar.}}
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Imam al-Baydawi, in his famous book, ''The Interpretation of the Baydawi'', says, "The purpose of the contractual marriage is the mere pleasure of intercourse with a woman, and her own enjoyment in what she has given" (p. 108).
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{{Quote |Ibn-i-Majah vol.3 no.1918 p.157| When one is given a woman, servant, or cattle, one should seize its forehead and pray to Allah.}}
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===Mahr===
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{{Quote|al-Tabari vol.9 p.113|Treat women well, for they are like domestic animals (awan) with you and do not possess anything for themselves.}}
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=== Nikah ===
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===Women are controlled by their husbands===
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== Domestic obedience and punishment ==
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=== Obedience ===
 
{{Quote|{{Quran|4|34}}|'''Men are the maintainers of women''' because Allah has made some of them to excel others and because they spend out of their property; the good women are therefore obedient, guarding the unseen as Allah has guarded…}}
 
{{Quote|{{Quran|4|34}}|'''Men are the maintainers of women''' because Allah has made some of them to excel others and because they spend out of their property; the good women are therefore obedient, guarding the unseen as Allah has guarded…}}
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`Aisha urged women to take good care of their husbands and to recognize the rights that their husbands had over them. She saw these rights as being so great and so important that a woman was barely qualified to wipe the dust from her husband's feet with her face, as she stated: "O womenfolk, if you knew the rights that your husbands have over you, every one of you would wipe the dust from her husband's feet with her face."<ref>Dr. Muhammad Ali Al-Hashimi - [http://www.msawest.net/islam/humanrelations/womeninislam/idealmuslimah/chapter4.html The Ideal Muslimah (chapter 4)] - MSA West.net</ref>}}
 
`Aisha urged women to take good care of their husbands and to recognize the rights that their husbands had over them. She saw these rights as being so great and so important that a woman was barely qualified to wipe the dust from her husband's feet with her face, as she stated: "O womenfolk, if you knew the rights that your husbands have over you, every one of you would wipe the dust from her husband's feet with her face."<ref>Dr. Muhammad Ali Al-Hashimi - [http://www.msawest.net/islam/humanrelations/womeninislam/idealmuslimah/chapter4.html The Ideal Muslimah (chapter 4)] - MSA West.net</ref>}}
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===Women's prayers are rejected if their husbands are angry with them for any reason===
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==== The Wife Must not Withhold from her Husband ====
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|7|62|121}}| Narrated Abu Huraira:
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The Prophet said, "If a man invites his wife to sleep with him and she refuses to come to him, then the angels send their curses on her till morning."}}
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{{Quote|{{Al Tirmidhi|2|1|2|360}}|
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{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|3366}}|Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: When a woman spends the night away from the bed of her husband, the angels curse her until morning.}}
Abu Umamah narrated that :
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Allah's Messenger said: "There are three whose Salat would not rise up beyond their ears: The runaway slave until he returns, a woman who spends a night while her husband is angry with her, and a people's Imam whom they dislike."}}
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===Women must never be alone in the presence of another man who is not a relative===
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{{Quote|{{Al Tirmidhi||2|10|1160}}|Talq bin Ali narrated that The Messenger of Allah said:
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A women who walks or goes out unaccompanied or in the company of a man who is neither their husband nor a close relative is at risk of arrest on suspicion of prostitution or other "moral offences" in certain majority-Muslim countries.
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“When a man calls his wife to fulfill his need, then let her come, even if she is at the oven.” (Sahih)}}
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In February 2008, an American businesswoman of Jordanian descent was arrested in Saudi Arabia after being found by the religious police sitting in the family area of a Starbucks with a male business associate. They had been working together at their nearby office when power was lost, and they decided to go to Starbucks to use the wireless internet. She was released from jail a day later, bruised and crying after being detained and beaten for being in the presence of another man not a relative.<ref>Sonia Verma - [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,329605,00.html American Woman Boasted of Saudi Freedoms To Bush Brother Before Arrest at Starbucks] - Fox News, February 7, 2008</ref>
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{{Quote|{{cite web|url=http://www.iupui.edu/~msaiupui/chapter4.html |title=The ideal Muslimah - Chapter 4 |publisher= |author= |date= |archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20161006190029/http://www.iupui.edu/~msaiupui/chapter4.html |deadurl=no}}|Marriage in Islam is intended to protect the chastity of men and women alike, therefore it is the woman's duty to respond to her husband's requests for conjugal relations. She should not give silly excuses and try to avoid it. For this reason, several hadith urge a wife to respond to her husband's needs as much as she is able, no matter how busy she may be or whatever obstacles there may be, so long as there is no urgent or unavoidable reason not to do so.
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<br>...<br>
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The issue of protecting a man's chastity and keeping him away from temptation is more important than anything else that a woman can do, because Islam wants men and women alike to live in an environment which is entirely pure and free from any motive of fitnah or haram pleasures. The flames of sexual desire and thoughts of pursuing them through haram means can only be extinguished by means of discharging that natural energy in natural and lawful ways.}}
   −
===Women are deficient in intellect===
+
===Disciplinary punishment===
   −
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|2|24|541}}|Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:
+
==== Wife-beating ====
On 'Id ul Fitr or 'Id ul Adha Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) went out to the Musalla. After finishing the prayer, he delivered the sermon and ordered the people to give alms. He said, "O people! Give alms." Then he went towards the women and said. "O women! Give alms, for I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-Fire were you (women)." The women asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What is the reason for it?" He replied, "'''O women! You curse frequently, and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more [[Women are Deficient in Intelligence|deficient in intelligence]] and religion than you'''. O women, some of you can lead a cautious wise man astray." Then he left.}}
+
{{Quote|{{Quran|4|34}}|Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has given the one more (strength) than the other, and because they support them from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient, and guard in (the husband's) absence what Allah would have them guard. '''As to those women on whose part ye fear disloyalty and ill-conduct, admonish them (first), (Next), refuse to share their beds, (And last) beat them''' (lightly); but if they return to obedience, seek not against them Means (of annoyance): For Allah is Most High, great (above you all).}}[[:Category:Islamic_Apologists|Muslim apologists]] will assert that the term "[[Wife Beating in Islam|and beat them]]" speaks only metaphorically. Others insist it means only a simple strike, as with hitting them with a feather or toothpick. Yusuf Ali adds the word 'lightly,' which never appears in the Arabic. Yet, a simple observation of the text shows any of the above to be erroneous.
   −
===Women's testimony equal to half of man's===
+
The text presents a series of progressive disciplinary measures if a man suspects disobedience from his wife:
   −
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|1|6|301}}|Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:
+
#Admonish her. Give her a verbal warning regarding her behavior.
Once Allah's Apostle went out to the Musalla (to offer the prayer) of 'Id-al- Adha or Al-Fitr prayer. Then he passed by the women and said, "O women! Give alms... I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. A cautious sensible man could be led astray by some of you." The women asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What is deficient in our intelligence and religion?" He said, '''"Is not the evidence of two women equal to the witness of one man?" They replied in the affirmative. He said, "This is the deficiency in her intelligence.'''}}
+
#sleep in separate beds from her. This humiliates the woman, for in Islam a woman's worth is measured, in part, by her ability to reproduce offspring, particularly male offspring. Sleeping in a separate bed from the wife dishonors her by limiting her ability to reproduce a male child.
 +
#Beat them. This is the third, most significant step of the progressive discipline process and is expected to be the one that produces the desired result if the first two failed.
   −
{{Quote|''I’laam al-Muwaqqa’een''. Part 1, p.75.|Allah has commanded the testimony of two women so as to be sure that they remember, because the mind and memory of two women takes the place of the mind and memory of one man.}}
+
Suggestions such as of hitting the woman "lightly" with a toothpick as the most severe disciplinary measure don't seem to follow logically from the steps laid out in the text and lack textual and traditional attestation.  
   −
===Women are the inhabitants of hell===
+
In the most authoritative biography of Muhammad, written by ibn Ishaq, we find the following words of the prophet of Islam:
   −
{{Quote|{{cite web|url=http://islamawakened.com/quran/37/st22.htm#22 |title=Qur'an 37:22-23 |publisher= |author= |date= |archiveurl= |deadurl=no}}|(And it is said unto the angels): Assemble those who did wrong, together with their wives and what they used to worship instead of Allah, and lead them to the path to hell;}}
+
{{Quote||You have rights over your wives and they have rights over you. You have the right that they should not defile your bed and that they should not behave with open unseemliness. If they do, '''God allows you to put them in separate rooms and to beat them''' but not with severity. If they refrain from these things they have the right to their food and clothing with kindness.<ref>Sirat Rasul Allah, ibn Ishaq, A. Guillaume, translator. Oxford University Press, 1955, page 651.</ref>}}
   −
Some Qur'an translators use the word "spouses" instead of "wives."<ref>[http://islamawakened.com/quran/37/22/ 37:22]</ref> Yet, the Qur'an is clear in telling us that if some persons deserve hell, their spouses must simply follow suit irrespective of whether or not they are guilty. The tafsirs are also in disagreement over the correct word; Ibn Abbas goes with "wives."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=73&tSoraNo=37&tAyahNo=22&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=2 |title=Tanwir al-Miqbas min Tafsir Ibn Abbas 37:22 |publisher= |author= |date= |archiveurl= |deadurl=no}}</ref>
+
Ibn Kathir records a hadith that states:
   −
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|1|2|28}}|Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:
+
{{Quote||"The best woman is she who when you look at her she '''obeys you''', and when you are absent, she protects her honor and your property."<ref> Tafsir Ibn Kathir - [http://www.tafsir.com/default.asp?sid=4&tid=11021 Qualities of the Righteous Wife] - Tafsir.com</ref>}}
The Prophet said: '''"I was shown the Hell-fire and that the majority of its dwellers were women who were ungrateful."''' It was asked, "Do they disbelieve in Allah?" (or are they ungrateful to Allah?) He replied, "They are ungrateful to their husbands and are ungrateful for the favors and the good (charitable deeds) done to them.}}
     −
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|1|6|301}}|Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:
+
Ibn Kathir further elaborates what constitutes ill conduct:  
Once Allah's Apostle went out to the Musalla (to offer the prayer) o 'Id-al- Adha or Al-Fitr prayer. Then he passed by the women and said, "'''O women! Give alms, as I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hellfire were you (women)'''..." }}
     −
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|2|18|161}}|Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abbas:
+
{{Quote||[It is] the woman from whom you see ill conduct with her husband,''' such as when she acts as if she is above her husband, disobeys him, ignores him, dislikes him, and so forth'''. When these signs appear in a woman, her husband should advise her and remind her of Allah's torment if she disobeys him. Indeed, '''Allah ordered the wife to obey her husband''' and prohibited her from disobeying him, because of the ''enormity of his rights'' and all that he does for her.<ref>Tafsir Ibn Kathir - [http://www.tafsir.com/default.asp?sid=4&tid=11037 Dealing with the Wife's Ill-Conduct] - Tafsir.com</ref>}}
The people say, "O Allah's Apostle! We saw you taking something from your place and then we saw you retreating." The Prophet replied, "I saw Paradise and stretched my hands towards a bunch (of its fruits) and had I taken it, you would have eaten from it as long as the world remains. '''I also saw the Hell-fire and I had never seen such a horrible sight. I saw that most of the inhabitants were women'''." The people asked, "O Allah's Apostle! Why is it so?" The Prophet replied, "Because of their ungratefulness."}}
     −
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|2|24|541}}|Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:
+
Scholar Abdul-latif Mushtahiri:  
On 'Id ul Fitr or 'Id ul Adha Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) went out to the Musalla. After finishing the prayer, he delivered the sermon and ordered the people to give alms. He said, "O people! Give alms." Then he went towards the women and said. "'''O women! Give alms, for I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-Fire were you (women)'''."}}
     −
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|7|62|124}}|Narrated Usama:
+
{{Quote||If admonishing and sexual desertion fail to bring forth results and the woman is of a cold and stubborn type, '''the Qur'an bestows on man the right to straighten her out by way of punishment and beating provided he does not break her bones nor shed blood'''. Many a wife belongs to this querulous type and requires this sort of punishment to bring her to her senses!"<ref> Quoted in: [http://www.answering-islam.org/BehindVeil/btv3.html The Veil of Equality and Justice: Section 2] - Answering Islam</ref>}}
The Prophet said, "I stood at the gate of Paradise and saw that the majority of the people who entered it were the poor, while the wealthy were stopped at the gate (for the accounts). But the companions of the Fire were ordered to be taken to the Fire. '''Then I stood at the gate of the Fire and saw that the majority of those who entered it were women'''."}}
     −
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|7|62|126}}|Narrated Imran:
+
==== Muhammad's instruction and practice ====
The Prophet said, "I looked at Paradise and saw that the majority of its residents were the poor; and '''I looked at the (Hell) Fire and saw that the majority of its residents were women'''."}}
+
{{Quote|{{Muslim|4|2127}}|...He (Muhammad b. Qais) then reported that it was 'A'isha who had narrated this: Should I not narrate to you about myself and about the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him)? We said: Yes. ... he (the Holy Prophet) entered the (house), and said: Why is it, O 'A'isha, that you are out of breath? I said: There is nothing. He said: Tell me or the Subtle and the Aware would inform me. I said: Messenger of Allah, may my father and mother be ransom for you, and then I told him (the whole story). He said: Was it the darkness (of your shadow) that I saw in front of me? I said: Yes. ''He struck me on the chest which caused me pain'', and then said: Did you think that Allah and His Apostle would deal unjustly with you?}}
   −
===Women compared to dogs===
+
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|7|62|132}}|Narrated 'Abdullah bin Zam'a:
 +
The Prophet said, "None of you should flog his wife as he flogs a slave and then have sexual intercourse with her in the last part of the day."}}
   −
Most orthodox Islamic scholars considers dogs to be haram - forbidden and najis - unclean. Thus the comparison of women to dogs in these Sahih (authentic) ahadith are noteworthy:
+
==== Divine wrath ====
 +
{{Quote|{{Al Tirmidhi|2|1|2|360}}|
 +
Abu Umamah narrated that :
 +
Allah's Messenger said: "There are three whose Salat would not rise up beyond their ears: The runaway slave until he returns, a woman who spends a night while her husband is angry with her, and a people's Imam whom they dislike."}}
 +
===Rights===
 +
{{Quote|{{Quran|4|19}}|O ye who believe! '''Ye are forbidden to inherit women against their will. Nor should ye treat them with harshness'''…except where they have been guilty of open lewdness; on the contrary '''live with them on a footing of kindness and equity'''. If ye take a dislike to them it may be that ye dislike a thing, and Allah brings about through it a great deal of good.}}
   −
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|1|9|490}}|Narrated 'Aisha:
+
{{Quote|{{Quran|65|6}}|'''Lodge them where you lodge according to your means, and do not injure them''' in order that you may straiten them…}}
The things which annul the prayers were mentioned before me. They said, "Prayer is annulled by a dog, a donkey and a woman (if they pass in front of the praying people)." I said, "You have made us (i.e. women) dogs."}}
  −
 
  −
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|1|90|498}}|Narrated 'Aisha: It is not good that you people have made us (women) equal to dogs and donkeys.}}
  −
 
  −
{{Quote|{{Muslim|4|1032}}|Abu Dharr reported: The Messenger of 'Allah (may peace be upon him) said: When any one of you stands for prayer … his prayer would be cut off by (passing of an) ass, woman, and black Dog.}}
  −
 
  −
{{Quote|{{Muslim|4|1034}}|...Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: A woman, an ass and a dog disrupt the prayer.}}
  −
 
  −
{{Quote|{{Muslim|4|1038}}|...Masruq reported: It was mentioned before 'A'isha that prayer is invalidated (in case of passing) of a dog, an ass and a woman (before the worshipper, when he is not screened). Upon this 'A'isha said: You likened us to the asses and the dogs.}}
  −
 
  −
===Women compared to devil===
  −
 
  −
{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|1038}}|
  −
Jabir reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) saw a woman, and so he came to his wife, zainab, as she was tanning a leather and had sexual intercourse with her. He then went to his Companions and told them: '''The woman advances and retires in the shape of a devil,''' so when one of you sees a woman, he should come to his wife, for that will repel what he feels in his heart.}}
  −
 
  −
==Women, marriage and divorce==
  −
 
  −
===A Muslim woman is not permitted to marry a non-Muslim Man===
  −
 
  −
Islamic jurisprudence only allowed a Muslim woman to marry a Muslim man, based on their interpretation of the Qur'an. This injunction has been the cause of great personal grief for inter-faith couples and even the spark of violence and honor killings. According to all schools of Sunni and Shi'a jurisprudence, a non-Muslim man must either convert in order to marry a Muslim women or the couple must be seperated. 
  −
 
  −
This ruling, derived from a verse in the Qur'an and for which there was scholarly consensus<ref name="IndianaLawJournal">Leeman, Alex B. (2009) "Interfaith Marriage in Islam: An Examination of the Legal Theory Behind the Traditional and Reformist Positions," Indiana Law Journal: Vol. 84 : Iss. 2 , Article 9. pp.754-759
  −
Available at: http://ilj.law.indiana.edu/articles/84/84_2_Leeman.pdf and https://www.repository.law.indiana.edu/ilj/vol84/iss2/9</ref><ref>[https://www.islamawareness.net/Marriage/fatwa_11.html Verses on Interfaith Marriage: Still Binding? Archive of islamonline.net]</ref><ref>[https://archive.islamonline.net/?p=1187 Why a Muslim Woman Is Not Allowed to Marry a Non-Muslim Man]</ref>, is designed to ensure that a Muslim wife and her future offspring continue to follow the religion of Islam, lest a non-Muslim husband enforces his views on the family.
  −
 
  −
{{Quote|{{Quran|2|221}}|Wed not idolatresses till they believe; for lo! a believing bondwoman is better than an idolatress though she please you; '''and give not your daughters in marriage to idolaters till they believe''', for lo! a believing slave is better than an idolater though he please you. These invite unto the Fire, and Allah inviteth unto the Garden, and unto forgiveness by His grace, and expoundeth His revelations to mankind that haply they may remember.}}
  −
 
  −
Muslim men have fewer restrictions - they are permitted to marry Muslim women and people of the Book (Jewish and Christian women).
  −
 
  −
{{Quote|{{Quran|5|5}}|This day are (all) good things made lawful for you. The food of those who have received the Scripture is lawful for you, and your food is lawful for them. '''And so are the virtuous women of the believers and the virtuous women of those who received the Scripture before you (lawful for you) when ye give them their marriage portions''' and live with them in honour, not in fornication, nor taking them as secret concubines. Whoso denieth the faith, his work is vain and he will be among the losers in the Hereafter.}}
     −
In recent times, some modernists have argued that the classical view does not necessarily follow from the Qur'anic verses and that Muslim women should be given more freedom, though in both the scholarly and lay communities this remains a decidedly fringe view vis-a-vis the traditional view.<ref>[https://www.huffingtonpost.ca/junaid-jahangir/muslim-women-marriage_b_15472982.html?guccounter=1&guce_referrer_us=aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuZ29vZ2xlLmNvbS8&guce_referrer_cs=Gv3znsP7rlc9K98rQxNZAQ Muslim Women Can Marry Outside The Faith - Blog on Huffington Post by Junaid Jahangir]</ref>
+
== Divorce ==
   −
===The marriage of women who convert to Islam or whose husbands leave Islam is annulled===
+
====The marriage of women who convert to Islam or whose husbands leave Islam is annulled====
   −
Based on another Qur'anic verse and numerous hadiths, Islamic jurisprudence has often decreed the break-up of existing marriages when a wife converts to Islam but the husband does not to do so. This ruling, for which there is also classical scholarly consensus<ref name="IndianaLawJournal"></ref><ref>[https://islamqa.info/en/answers/3408/stories-of-women-who-became-muslim-and-left-their-non-muslim-husbands Stories of Women who Became Muslim and Left their Non-Muslim Husbands - IslamQA.info]</ref>, is based on the following verse:
+
Based on another Qur'anic verse and numerous hadiths, Islamic jurisprudence has often decreed the break-up of existing marriages when a wife converts to Islam but the husband does not to do so. This ruling, for which there is also classical scholarly consensus<ref name="IndianaLawJournal" /><ref>[https://islamqa.info/en/answers/3408/stories-of-women-who-became-muslim-and-left-their-non-muslim-husbands Stories of Women who Became Muslim and Left their Non-Muslim Husbands - IslamQA.info]</ref>, is based on the following verse:
    
{{Quote|{{Quran|60|10}}|O ye who believe! When believing women come unto you as fugitives, examine them. Allah is Best Aware of their faith. Then, if ye know them for true believers, send them not back unto the disbelievers. They are not lawful for them (the disbelievers), nor are they (the disbelievers) lawful for them. And give them (the disbelievers) that which they have spent (upon them). And it is no sin for you to marry such women when ye have given them their dues. And hold not to the ties of disbelieving women; and ask for (the return of) that which ye have spent; and let them (the disbelievers) ask for that which they have spent. That is the judgment of Allah. He judgeth between you. Allah is Knower, Wise.}}
 
{{Quote|{{Quran|60|10}}|O ye who believe! When believing women come unto you as fugitives, examine them. Allah is Best Aware of their faith. Then, if ye know them for true believers, send them not back unto the disbelievers. They are not lawful for them (the disbelievers), nor are they (the disbelievers) lawful for them. And give them (the disbelievers) that which they have spent (upon them). And it is no sin for you to marry such women when ye have given them their dues. And hold not to the ties of disbelieving women; and ask for (the return of) that which ye have spent; and let them (the disbelievers) ask for that which they have spent. That is the judgment of Allah. He judgeth between you. Allah is Knower, Wise.}}
   −
The classical scholars also ruled that if on the other hand a husband converts to Islam, the marriage remains intact so long as his wife is a Christian or Jew. If a Muslim husband or wife leaves Islam, the marriage to his or her Muslim spouse is immediately annulled, though some held that the marriage is unaffected if only the wife leaves the religion, while others said that she becomes the husband's slave.<ref name="IndianaLawJournal"></ref>
+
The classical scholars also ruled that if on the other hand a husband converts to Islam, the marriage remains intact so long as his wife is a Christian or Jew. If a Muslim husband or wife leaves Islam, the marriage to his or her Muslim spouse is immediately annulled, though some held that the marriage is unaffected if only the wife leaves the religion, while others said that she becomes the husband's slave.<ref name="IndianaLawJournal" />
 
  −
===Men can marry up to four wives===
  −
 
  −
{{Quote|{{Quran|4|3}}|If ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four;}}
  −
===Muhammad's Allowed Wife Limit in the Qur'an===
  −
 
  −
{{Quote|{{Quran|33|50}}|O Prophet! We have made lawful to thee thy wives to whom thou hast paid their dowers; and those whom thy right hand possesses out of the prisoners of war whom Allah has assigned to thee; and daughters of thy paternal uncles and aunts, and daughters of thy maternal uncles and aunts, who migrated (from Makka) with thee; and any believing woman who dedicates her soul to the Prophet if the Prophet wishes to wed her;- '''this only for thee, and not for the Believers (at large);''' We know what We  have appointed for them as to their wives and the captives whom their right hands  possess, in order that there should be no difficulty for thee.}}
  −
 
  −
===Muhammad on Polygyny for his Son-in-Law Ali===
  −
 
  −
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|7|62|157}}| Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhrama:
  −
I heard Allah's Apostle who was on the pulpit, saying, "Banu Hisham bin Al-Mughira have requested me to allow them to marry their daughter to Ali bin Abu Talib, but I don't give permission, '''and will not give permission unless 'Ali bin Abi Talib divorces my daughter in order to marry their daughter, because Fatima is a part of my body, and I hate what she hates to see, and what hurts her, hurts me."'''}}
  −
 
  −
===Grounds for a Man to Divorce His Wife===
      +
==== Grounds for a Man to Divorce His Wife ====
 
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|3|49|859}}| Narrated Aisha:
 
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|3|49|859}}| Narrated Aisha:
 
The following Verse: If a woman fears cruelty or desertion on her husband's part (i.e. '''the husband notices something unpleasant about his wife, such as old age or the like, and wants to divorce her''', but she asks him to keep her and provide for her as he wishes). Quran 4:128 "There is no blame on them if they reconcile on such basis."}}
 
The following Verse: If a woman fears cruelty or desertion on her husband's part (i.e. '''the husband notices something unpleasant about his wife, such as old age or the like, and wants to divorce her''', but she asks him to keep her and provide for her as he wishes). Quran 4:128 "There is no blame on them if they reconcile on such basis."}}
Line 231: Line 189:  
{{Quote|{{Quran|2|229}}|The divorce is twice, after that either you retain her on reasonable terms or release her with kindness..}}
 
{{Quote|{{Quran|2|229}}|The divorce is twice, after that either you retain her on reasonable terms or release her with kindness..}}
   −
Ibn Kathir, the one of the most respected of Qur'an commentators:  
+
==== Ibn Kathir, the one of the most respected of Qur'an commentators: ====
 
   
{{Quote||Divorce is thrice. This honorable ayah abrogated the previous practice in the beginning of Islam, when the man had the right to take back his divorced wife even if he had divorced her a hundred times. This situation was harmful for the wife, and this is why Allah made the divorce thrice, where the husband is allowed to take back his wife after the first and the second divorce… The divorce becomes irrevocable after the third divorce.<ref> Tafsir Ibn Kathir (abridged), Shaykh Safiur-Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri et al, translators (Riyadh: Darussalam, 2000), vol 1, p. 635.</ref>}}
 
{{Quote||Divorce is thrice. This honorable ayah abrogated the previous practice in the beginning of Islam, when the man had the right to take back his divorced wife even if he had divorced her a hundred times. This situation was harmful for the wife, and this is why Allah made the divorce thrice, where the husband is allowed to take back his wife after the first and the second divorce… The divorce becomes irrevocable after the third divorce.<ref> Tafsir Ibn Kathir (abridged), Shaykh Safiur-Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri et al, translators (Riyadh: Darussalam, 2000), vol 1, p. 635.</ref>}}
   −
===Divorce process for women===
+
====Divorce process for women====
    
A wife can ask her husband to divorce her, and if he releases her from the marriage she makes a payment to him of the mahr (dowery) she had received or other agreed payment. This is known as khula'. If he refuses, she can try to get a divorce by judicial decree when there are grounds for which his consent is not required (such as inability or failure to fulfil his marital obligations, desertion, insanity, cruelty).  
 
A wife can ask her husband to divorce her, and if he releases her from the marriage she makes a payment to him of the mahr (dowery) she had received or other agreed payment. This is known as khula'. If he refuses, she can try to get a divorce by judicial decree when there are grounds for which his consent is not required (such as inability or failure to fulfil his marital obligations, desertion, insanity, cruelty).  
Line 253: Line 210:  
Regarding the explanation of the following verse:-- "If a wife fears Cruelty or desertion On her husband's part." (4.128) A man may dislike his wife and intend to divorce her, so she says to him, "I give up my rights, so do not divorce me." The above verse was revealed concerning such a case.}}
 
Regarding the explanation of the following verse:-- "If a wife fears Cruelty or desertion On her husband's part." (4.128) A man may dislike his wife and intend to divorce her, so she says to him, "I give up my rights, so do not divorce me." The above verse was revealed concerning such a case.}}
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===Muhallil Marriage===
+
====Muhallil Marriage====
 
A woman can remarry her first husband only if she marries another man and consummates the marriage with him, then proceeds to divorce that man: {{Quote|{{Quran|2|230}}| So if a husband divorces his wife (irrevocably), He cannot, after that, re-marry her until after she has married another husband and He has divorced her.}}
 
A woman can remarry her first husband only if she marries another man and consummates the marriage with him, then proceeds to divorce that man: {{Quote|{{Quran|2|230}}| So if a husband divorces his wife (irrevocably), He cannot, after that, re-marry her until after she has married another husband and He has divorced her.}}
   Line 261: Line 218:  
{{Quote|{{Muwatta|28|7|17}}|Yahya related to me from Malik  … that Rifa'a ibn Simwal divorced his wife, Tamima bint Wahb, in the time of the messenger of Allah three times. She then married 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn az-Zubayr and he turned from her and could not consummate the marriage and so he parted from her. Rifa'a wanted to marry her again and it was mentioned to the Messenger of Allah, and he forbade him to marry her. He said, 'She is not ''halal'' for you until she has tasted the sweetness of intercourse.'}}
 
{{Quote|{{Muwatta|28|7|17}}|Yahya related to me from Malik  … that Rifa'a ibn Simwal divorced his wife, Tamima bint Wahb, in the time of the messenger of Allah three times. She then married 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn az-Zubayr and he turned from her and could not consummate the marriage and so he parted from her. Rifa'a wanted to marry her again and it was mentioned to the Messenger of Allah, and he forbade him to marry her. He said, 'She is not ''halal'' for you until she has tasted the sweetness of intercourse.'}}
   −
===Child Marriage===
+
==Concubinage==
   −
{{Quote|{{Quran|65|4}}| [speaking of the prescribed waiting period for a divorce]  And those of your women as have passed the age of monthly courses, for them the 'Iddah (prescribed period), if you have doubts (about their periods), is three months, and '''for those who have no courses (i.e. they are still immature)''' their 'Iddah (prescribed period) is three months likewise.}}
+
===Men Can Have Sex with (Rape) Female Slaves===
 +
 
 +
{{Quote|{{Quran|4|3}}| If ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four; but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one, '''or (a captive) that your right hands possess.'''}}
 +
 
 +
{{Quote|{{Quran|4|24}}| Also (prohibited are) women already married, '''except those whom your right hands possess''': Thus hath Allah ordained (Prohibitions) against you.}}
 +
 
 +
{{Quote|{{Quran|23|6}}| Those who humble themselves in their prayers; Who avoid vain talk; Who are active in deeds of charity; Who abstain from sex, Except with those joined to them in the marriage bond, '''or (the captives) whom their right hands possess,'''- for (in their case) they are free from blame.}}
 +
 
 +
{{Quote|{{Quran|33|50}}| O Prophet! We have made lawful to thee thy wives to whom thou hast paid their dowers; and '''those whom thy right hand possesses out of the prisoners of war whom Allah has assigned to thee;'''}}
 +
 
 +
Sahih Muslim Chapter 29: IT IS PERMISSIBLE TO HAVE SEXUAL INTERCOURSE WITH A CAPTIVE WOMAN AFTER SHE IS PURIFIED (OF MENSES OR DELIVERY) IN CASE SHE HAS A HUSBAND, HER MARRIAGE IS ABROGATED AFTER SHE BECOMES CAPTIVE
   −
===Marriage to virgins===
+
{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|3432}}|...Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (Allah her pleased with him) reported that at the Battle of Hanain Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent an army to Autas and encountered the enemy and fought with them. Having overcome them and taken them captives, the Companions of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) seemed to refrain from having intercourse with captive women because of their husbands being polytheists. Then Allah, Most High, sent down regarding that:" And women already married, except those whom your right hands possess (iv. 24)" (i. e. they were lawful for them when their 'Idda period came to an end).}}
   −
{{Quote|{{Muwatta|28|2|4}}|Virgins must give consent for marriage, but… "Malik related to me from Abdullah ibn al-Fadl … 'A woman who has been previously married is more entitled to her person than her guardian and a virgin must be asked for her consent and her silence is her consent.'"}}
+
{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|3371}}|...Abu Sirma said to Abu Sa'id al Khadri (Allah he pleased with him): 0 Abu Sa'id, did you hear Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) mentioning al-'azl? He said: Yes, and added: We went out with Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) on the expedition to the Bi'l- Mustaliq and took captive some excellent Arab women; and we desired them, for we were suffering from the absence of our wives, (but at the same time) we also desired ransom for them. So we decided to have sexual intercourse with them but by observing 'azl (Withdrawing the male sexual organ before emission of semen to avoid conception). But we said: We are doing an act whereas Allah's Messenger is amongst us; why not ask him? So we asked Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), and he said: It does not matter if you do not do it, for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will be born.}}
   −
===Mut'ah marriages===
+
"W''hat the right hand possesses"'' is a common euphemism in Arabic for a slave or slaves. Ibn Timiyya says in volume 32, p.7 the following:
   −
Mut'ah is a temporary arrangement whereby a man and a woman enter into a contractual arrangement to marry each other for a specified period of time. The time can be as little as one hour or as long as several years, though most Mutah contracts are for hours or a few days. The man gives the woman something of value, and in exchange he is allowed to enter into sexual relations with her, legally, without committing fornication, since they are "married." At the end of the period specified in the contract, each party walks separate ways and neither is indebted to the other. Mut'ah can thus be seen as a religiously-endorsed form of prostitution. The practice actually dates back to Arabia's pre-Islamic days, and was recorded by the pagan Latin historian Ammianus Marcellinus writing in the 300's.
+
{{quote||'''"It is lawful for a Muslim to (have sex) with as many as he wishes of those whom his right hand possesses,''' … Muslims are not prohibited from having more than four concubines provided that no two sisters are among them."}}
   −
Mutah is practiced mainly by Shi'ites today, although at one time Muhammad permitted it for all Muslims. This is one of many areas of disagreement between Sunnis and Shi'ites: Sunnis believe Muhammad abrogated Mutah, while Shi'ites disagree and still practice Mut'ah as allowed by Muhammad.
+
In the same volume (page 89), Ibn Timiyya says boastfully:
   −
According to Islamic literature, Mutah was first made unlawful by Mohammad on the day of the battle of Khaybar (a battle against a jewish tribe named Khaybar), after apparently being practiced since the conception of Islam. It was then made lawful again on the day of Conquest of Makkah for 3 days by Muhammad, when his companions complained to him their desire for women. From this point, it is disagreed upon between Sunnis and Shias on whether Mutah was made again unlawful by Muhammad or not. However, the practice of Mutah continued in the early Muslim Community by the companions until Umar (the second caliph) forbade it sometime between 13-23 AH. Some of Muhammad's companions however still held the belief that Mutah was never made again unlawful by Muhammad, the most notable of which is Ibn Abbas.<ref>https://sunnah.com/muslim:1406f
+
{{quote||'''"Islam has made it lawful to its followers to have sex through marriage as well as with what the right hand possesses,''' while (for Jews and Christians) they may have sex through marriage only. They are not (allowed to have sex with) what their hand possesses.}}
   −
https://sunnah.com/muslim:1406g
+
===Women Cannot Have Sex with Male Slaves and POWs===
 +
In a  tafsir  explaining surah 23 verses 1-7 of the Qur'an, Abul A'la Maududi explains that women are not allowed to have sex with male slaves and captives.
 +
{{Quote|[[w:Abul A'la Maududi|Abul A'la Maududi]]. [http://www.englishtafsir.com/Quran/23/index.html Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an]. Archived at [http://www.webcitation.org/6mJ45IZ0w]. |"Most certainly those Believers have attained true success who perform their Salat with humility: who refrain from vain things. who spend their Zakat dues in appropriate ways. who guard their private parts scrupulously. except with regard to their wives and those women who are legally in their possession, for in that case they shall not be blame-worthy. but those who go beyond this (in lust for sexual desires), shall be transgressors[7]"
   −
https://sunnah.com/muslim:1406f
+
....
   −
https://sunnah.com/muslim:1407a
+
7: This is a parenthesis which is meant to remove the common misunderstanding that sex desire is an evil thing in itself and satisfying it even in lawful ways is not desirable, particularly for the righteous and godly people. This misunderstanding would have been strengthened had it been only said that the Believers guard their private parts scrupulously, because it would have implied that they live unmarried lives, away from the world, like monks and hermits.  
   −
https://sunnah.com/muslim:1406i
+
....
   −
<br /></ref>
+
The law prescribed in the parenthesis is only applicable to men as is clear from the Text. A woman in the time of Hadrat `Umar did not understand this fine point of the language and indulged in sexual gratification with her slave. When her case was brought before the consultative body of the Companions, they gave the unanimous decision: "She misinterpreted the Book of Allah.".... The wisdom of why '''the slave has been forbidden to the woman''' is that he can only satisfy her sexual desire but cannot become guardian and governor of herself and her household, which leaves a serious flaw in the family life.}}
   −
The following quotations regarding Mut'ah marriages are from a Shi'ite Muslim website.<ref>[http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/mutah/en/index.php-http://www.answering-ansar.org/answers/mutah/en/index.php The Marriage of Mut'ah: Introduction: Preface] - Answering Ansar</ref>
+
===Ban on Forcing Slave Girls into Prostitution===
   −
:Whenever man sets foot on the earth the need to travel always emerges. Sometimes traveling can involve man going thousands of miles away from home, sometimes for moths, even years. Do one's sexual desires just evaporate when an individual is traveling? Sexual desire isn't like some light switch that turns off when a man leaves his wife to set off on his travels, and turns back home when he gets back! Sexual desire is something that remains permanently with a human, when it accompanies him at all times then how can he curtail such sexual feelings? When someone is traveling and accessing his wife is impossible, and he is incapable of summing her to join him, then what will a young red-blooded male do? Miles away from home, feeling sexually aroused his situation is not one wherein he can get permanently married, so what is he to do? He will feel the only way that he can relieve himself is by amalgamating himself into the society around him.  Islam does not permit a person to sexually relieve himself through masturbation nor is he permitted to adopt the ways of the kufr and indulge himself in fornication, it offers him a legitimate mechanism with which to relieve himself and that is temporary marriage.
+
{{Quote|{{cite web|url=http://islamawakened.com/quran/24/st26.htm |title=Qur'an 24:33 |publisher= |author= |date= |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20160504044756/http://islamawakened.com/quran/24/st26.htm |deadurl=no}}|And do not compel your slave girls to prostitution, when they desire to keep chaste, in order to seek the frail good of this world's life; and whoever compels them, then surely after their compulsion Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.}}
   −
:It is not just traveling, that might necessitate Mutah, there are many in society who just does not have the financial ability / standing to get permanent married, yet they still have sexual desires, again Mut'ah is there to ensure that they practice sex within the boundaries set by Allah (swt).
+
The slave women are 'forgiven' for what they were forced to do by the slave owner, but no punishment is prescribed for this action.
   −
:Islam is a religion that is suited for all nations and ages. Mut'ah is a good example of that. It is only the Deen of Islam that caters for sexual desire by permitting a legitimate method of control. For others societies the only mechanism that they see as the solution to relieving sexual feelings is through the practice of fornication. In the western world adultery and fornication are common and openly performed. Mut'ah is a way of protecting a person from committing these serious sins and vices.
+
== Attire ==
   −
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|6|60|139}}| Narrated Abdullah:
+
===Women's Responsibility to Cover===
We used to participate in the holy wars carried on by the Prophet and we had no women (wives) with us. So we said (to the Prophet ). "Shall we castrate ourselves?" But the Prophet forbade us to do that and thenceforth he allowed us to marry a woman (temporarily) by giving her even a garment, and then he recited: "O you who believe! Do not make unlawful the good things which Allah has made lawful for you." {{Quran|5|87}} }}
     −
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|7|62|52}}| Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah and Salama bin Al-Akwa':
+
{{Quote|{{Quran|24|31}}| And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband's fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or the slaves whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments.}}
While we were in an army, Allah's Apostle came to us and said, "You have been allowed to do the Mut'a (marriage), so do it." Salama bin Al-Akwa' said: Allah's Apostle's said, "If a man and a woman agree (to marry temporarily), their marriage should last for three nights, and if they like to continue, they can do so; and if they want to separate, they can do so." I do not know whether that was only for us or for all the people in general. Abu Abdullah (Al-Bukhari) said: 'Ali made it clear that the Prophet said, "The Mut'a marriage has been cancelled (made unlawful)."}}
     −
{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|3252}}|Sabra Juhanni reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) permitted temporary marriage for us. So I and another person went out and saw a woman of Bana 'Amir, who was like a young long-necked she-camel. We presented ourselves to her (for contracting temporary marriage), whereupon she said: What dower would you give me? I said: My cloak. And my companion also said: My cloak. And the cloak of-my companion was superior to my cloak, but I was younger than he. So when she looked at the cloak of my companion she liked it, and when she cast a glance at me I looked more attractive to her. She then said: Well, you and your cloak are sufficient for me. I remained with her for three nights, and then Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: He who has any such woman with whom he had contracted temporary marriage, he should let her off.}}{{Quote|https://quranx.com/Hadith/Muslim/USC-MSA/Book-8/Hadith-3248|Ibn Uraij reported:
+
===Modesty valued more than life===
   −
'Ati' reported that jibir b. Abdullah came to perform 'Umra, and we came to his abode, and the people asked him about different things, and then they made a mention of temporary marriage, whereupon he said: Yes, we had been benefiting ourselves by this temporary marriage during the lifetime of the Prophet (ﷺ) and during the time of Abu Bakr and 'Umar.}}
+
In the Muslim holy city of Mecca in March 2002, fifteen teenage girls perished in a fire at their school when the Saudi religious police, the muttawa'in, wouldn't let them out of the building, because in the female-only school environment, they had shed the all-concealing outer garments that Saudi women must wear in the presence of men. They had not put these garments back on before trying to flee from the fire. The muttawa'in preferred that they die rather than transgress Islamic law, and actually battled police and firemen who were trying to open the school's doors and to save the girls. <ref>Christopher Dickey and Rod Nordland - [http://www.islamawareness.net/MiddleEast/Saudi/fire.html The Fire That Won't Die Out] - Islamawareness, 2002</ref>
Imam al-Baydawi, in his famous book, ''The Interpretation of the Baydawi'', says, "The purpose of the contractual marriage is the mere pleasure of intercourse with a woman, and her own enjoyment in what she has given" (p. 108).
     −
==Sexual relations with women in Islam==
+
== Value of testimony ==
   −
===Man Can Take Pleasure from their Women (Wives)===
+
=== Women's testimony equal to half of man's ===
 +
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|1|6|301}}|Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:
 +
Once Allah's Apostle went out to the Musalla (to offer the prayer) of 'Id-al- Adha or Al-Fitr prayer. Then he passed by the women and said, "O women! Give alms... I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. A cautious sensible man could be led astray by some of you." The women asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What is deficient in our intelligence and religion?" He said, '''"Is not the evidence of two women equal to the witness of one man?" They replied in the affirmative. He said, "This is the deficiency in her intelligence.'''}}
   −
{{Quote|{{Quran|2|222}}| They question thee (O Muhammad) concerning menstruation. Say: It is an illness, so let women alone at such times and go not in unto them till they are cleansed. And when they have purified themselves, then go in unto them as Allah hath enjoined upon you. Truly Allah loveth those who turn unto Him, and loveth those who have a care for cleanness.}}
+
{{Quote|''I’laam al-Muwaqqa’een''. Part 1, p.75.|Allah has commanded the testimony of two women so as to be sure that they remember, because the mind and memory of two women takes the place of the mind and memory of one man.}}
   −
{{Quote|{{Quran|2|223}}| Your women are a tilth for you (to cultivate) so go to your tilth as ye will, and send (good deeds) before you for your souls, and fear Allah, and know that ye will (one day) meet Him. Give glad tidings to believers, (O Muhammad).}}
+
===Females found responsible and punished for rape===
   −
===The Wife Must not Withhold from her Husband===
+
In March 2007, a 19-year-old Saudi woman received a sentence of 90 lashes. Her crime? A man threatened to tell her father that they were having an affair unless she met him alone. When she did, she was kidnapped and repeatedly raped, after which her brother beat her because the rapes brought shame to the family. Rather than giving her justice, a Saudi court sentenced her to be lashed ninety times because she had met a man alone who was not related to her. Fuziyah Al Ouni, a feminist activist, said she was outraged by the case. 'By sentencing her to 90 lashes they are sending a message that she is guilty.'<ref>[http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?section=middleeast&xfile=data/middleeast/2007/march/middleeast_march71.xml Saudi gang-rape victim faces 90 lashes] - Khaleej Times Online, March 5, 2007</ref>
   −
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|7|62|121}}| Narrated Abu Huraira:
+
"In 2004, a sixteen-year old girl, Atefeh Rajabi, was hanged in a public square in Iran. Her crime? Rajabi was charged with adultery -- which probably means she was raped. Her rapist was not executed. Rajabi told the mullah-judge, Haji Rezaii, the he ought to punish men who rape, not their victims." The judge both sentenced and personally hanged Rajabi because, in addition to her crime, he said that she had "a sharp tongue."<ref>Alasdair Palmer - [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/opinion/main.jhtml?xml=/opinion/2004/08/29/do2903.xml&sSheet=/portal/2004/08/29/ixportal.html Death and the maiden in Iran] - The Telegraph, August 29, 2004</ref>
The Prophet said, "If a man invites his wife to sleep with him and she refuses to come to him, then the angels send their curses on her till morning."}}
     −
{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|3366}}|Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: When a woman spends the night away from the bed of her husband, the angels curse her until morning.}}
+
On November 1, 2008 a 13-year-old girl in Somalia was stoned to death after being raped by three men. She was unable to produce the required four witnesses to the rape and was therefore accused of adultery as required by Shari'a law. It was reported that the girl begged for mercy before being buried waist high in the ground and pummeled to death by a mob of 1,000.<ref>[http://www.news24.com/News24/Africa/News/0,,2-11-1447_2419716,00.html Raped girl, 13, stoned to death] news24.com,2008-11-01</ref><ref>David Williams - [http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1081214/Somali-girl-pleaded-mercy-Islamists-stoned-death-raped.html?ITO=1490 Somali girl 'pleaded for mercy' before Islamists stoned her to death for being raped] - Daily Mail, November 5, 2008</ref>
   −
{{Quote|{{Al Tirmidhi||2|10|1160}}|Talq bin Ali narrated that The Messenger of Allah said:
     −
“When a man calls his wife to fulfill his need, then let her come, even if she is at the oven.” (Sahih)}}
+
[[Islamic law]] restricts the validity of a woman's testimony, particularly in cases involving sexual immorality. And Islamic legal theorists have limited it even farther, in the words of one Muslim legal manual, to "cases involving property, or transactions dealing with property, such as sales." In other judicial areas only men can testify. It is virtually impossible, therefore, to prove rape in lands that follow these ''Sharia ''provisions. If the required male witnesses can't be found to exonerate her (four men who testify to seeing the actual crime, according to the Qur'an), the victim's charge of [[rape]] can become an admission of adultery. That accounts for the grim fact that as many as seventy-five percent of the women in prison in Pakistan are, in fact, behind bars for the crime of having been raped.<ref>[http://www.sistersinislam.org.my/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=437&Itemid=194 Rape, Zina and Incest Press Statement - Violence Against Women] - SistersInIslam, April 6, 2000</ref>
   −
{{Quote|{{cite web|url=http://www.iupui.edu/~msaiupui/chapter4.html |title=The ideal Muslimah - Chapter 4 |publisher= |author= |date= |archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20161006190029/http://www.iupui.edu/~msaiupui/chapter4.html |deadurl=no}}|Marriage in Islam is intended to protect the chastity of men and women alike, therefore it is the woman's duty to respond to her husband's requests for conjugal relations. She should not give silly excuses and try to avoid it. For this reason, several hadith urge a wife to respond to her husband's needs as much as she is able, no matter how busy she may be or whatever obstacles there may be, so long as there is no urgent or unavoidable reason not to do so.
+
==Inheritance==
<br>...<br>
  −
The issue of protecting a man's chastity and keeping him away from temptation is more important than anything else that a woman can do, because Islam wants men and women alike to live in an environment which is entirely pure and free from any motive of fitnah or haram pleasures. The flames of sexual desire and thoughts of pursuing them through haram means can only be extinguished by means of discharging that natural energy in natural and lawful ways.}}
     −
===Women are Placed in Paradise for the Pleasure of Men===
+
== Segregation ==
   −
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|6|60|402}}| Narrated Abdullah bin Qais:
+
===Women must never be alone in the presence of another man who is not a relative===
Allah's Apostle said, "In Paradise there is a pavilion made of a single hollow pearl sixty miles wide, in each corner of which there are wives who will not see those in the other corners; and the believers will visit and enjoy them.}}
     −
===Men Can Have Sex with (Rape) Female Slaves===
+
A women who walks or goes out unaccompanied or in the company of a man who is neither their husband nor a close relative is at risk of arrest on suspicion of prostitution or other "moral offences" in certain majority-Muslim countries.
   −
{{Quote|{{Quran|4|3}}| If ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four; but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one, '''or (a captive) that your right hands possess.'''}}
+
In February 2008, an American businesswoman of Jordanian descent was arrested in Saudi Arabia after being found by the religious police sitting in the family area of a Starbucks with a male business associate. They had been working together at their nearby office when power was lost, and they decided to go to Starbucks to use the wireless internet. She was released from jail a day later, bruised and crying after being detained and beaten for being in the presence of another man not a relative.<ref>Sonia Verma - [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,329605,00.html American Woman Boasted of Saudi Freedoms To Bush Brother Before Arrest at Starbucks] - Fox News, February 7, 2008</ref>
   −
{{Quote|{{Quran|4|24}}| Also (prohibited are) women already married, '''except those whom your right hands possess''': Thus hath Allah ordained (Prohibitions) against you.}}
+
==In the modern world==
   −
{{Quote|{{Quran|23|6}}| Those who humble themselves in their prayers; Who avoid vain talk; Who are active in deeds of charity; Who abstain from sex, Except with those joined to them in the marriage bond, '''or (the captives) whom their right hands possess,'''- for (in their case) they are free from blame.}}
+
According to the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, over 90% of married women report being kicked, slapped, beaten or sexually abused when husbands were dissatisfied by their cooking or cleaning, or when the women had 'failed' to bear a child or had given birth to a girl instead of a boy. Another organization stated that one woman is murdered and one woman is kidnapped in Pakistan every day.<ref>[http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA33/010/2002/en-http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/ASA33/010/2002/en Pakistan: Violence against women: Media briefing] - Amnesty International</ref>
   −
{{Quote|{{Quran|33|50}}| O Prophet! We have made lawful to thee thy wives to whom thou hast paid their dowers; and '''those whom thy right hand possesses out of the prisoners of war whom Allah has assigned to thee;'''}}
+
==Women – social status==
   −
Sahih Muslim Chapter 29: IT IS PERMISSIBLE TO HAVE SEXUAL INTERCOURSE WITH A CAPTIVE WOMAN AFTER SHE IS PURIFIED (OF MENSES OR DELIVERY) IN CASE SHE HAS A HUSBAND, HER MARRIAGE IS ABROGATED AFTER SHE BECOMES CAPTIVE
+
===Women are mere possessions===
   −
{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|3432}}|...Abu Sa'id al-Khudri (Allah her pleased with him) reported that at the Battle of Hanain Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent an army to Autas and encountered the enemy and fought with them. Having overcome them and taken them captives, the Companions of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) seemed to refrain from having intercourse with captive women because of their husbands being polytheists. Then Allah, Most High, sent down regarding that:" And women already married, except those whom your right hands possess (iv. 24)" (i. e. they were lawful for them when their 'Idda period came to an end).}}
+
In the following hadith, note that Sad bin Ar-Rabi used his wives as a mere possession to be traded in a purely [[Mahr|commercial transaction]]:
   −
{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|3371}}|...Abu Sirma said to Abu Sa'id al Khadri (Allah he pleased with him): 0 Abu Sa'id, did you hear Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) mentioning al-'azl? He said: Yes, and added: We went out with Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) on the expedition to the Bi'l- Mustaliq and took captive some excellent Arab women; and we desired them, for we were suffering from the absence of our wives, (but at the same time) we also desired ransom for them. So we decided to have sexual intercourse with them but by observing 'azl (Withdrawing the male sexual organ before emission of semen to avoid conception). But we said: We are doing an act whereas Allah's Messenger is amongst us; why not ask him? So we asked Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), and he said: It does not matter if you do not do it, for every soul that is to be born up to the Day of Resurrection will be born.}}
+
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|3|34|264}}|Narrated Ibrahim bin Sad from his father from his grand-father: Abdur Rahman bin Auf said, "When we came to Medina as emigrants, Allah's Apostle established a bond of brotherhood between me and Sad bin Ar-Rabi'. Sad bin Ar-Rabi' said (to me), 'I am the richest among the Ansar, so '''I will give you half of my wealth and you may look at my two wives and whichever of the two you may choose I will divorce her''', and when she has completed the prescribed period (before marriage) '''you may marry her'''.'}}
   −
"W''hat the right hand possesses"'' is a common euphemism in Arabic for a slave or slaves. Ibn Timiyya says in volume 32, p.7 the following:
+
The prophet of Islam stated the following, recorded in the earliest biography:  
   −
{{quote||'''"It is lawful for a Muslim to (have sex) with as many as he wishes of those whom his right hand possesses,''' … Muslims are not prohibited from having more than four concubines provided that no two sisters are among them."}}
+
{{Quote||"Lay injunctions on women kindly, '''for they are prisoners with you having no control of their persons.''' You have taken them only as a trust from God, and you have the enjoyment of their persons by the words of God, so understand (T. and listen to) my words, O men, for I have told you.<ref> ibn Ishaq, p. 651</ref>}}
   −
In the same volume (page 89), Ibn Timiyya says boastfully:
+
Women are also mentioned in these texts as possessions along with animals:
   −
{{quote||'''"Islam has made it lawful to its followers to have sex through marriage as well as with what the right hand possesses,''' while (for Jews and Christians) they may have sex through marriage only. They are not (allowed to have sex with) what their hand possesses.}}
+
{{Quote |Ibn-i-Majah vol.3 no.1918 p.157| When one is given a woman, servant, or cattle, one should seize its forehead and pray to Allah.}}
   −
===Women Cannot Have Sex with Male Slaves and POWs===
+
{{Quote|al-Tabari vol.9 p.113|Treat women well, for they are like domestic animals (awan) with you and do not possess anything for themselves.}}
In a  tafsir  explaining surah 23 verses 1-7 of the Qur'an, Abul A'la Maududi explains that women are not allowed to have sex with male slaves and captives.
  −
{{Quote|[[w:Abul A'la Maududi|Abul A'la Maududi]]. [http://www.englishtafsir.com/Quran/23/index.html Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an]. Archived at [http://www.webcitation.org/6mJ45IZ0w]. |"Most certainly those Believers have attained true success who perform their Salat with humility: who refrain from vain things. who spend their Zakat dues in appropriate ways. who guard their private parts scrupulously. except with regard to their wives and those women who are legally in their possession, for in that case they shall not be blame-worthy. but those who go beyond this (in lust for sexual desires), shall be transgressors[7]"
     −
....
+
===Women are deficient in intellect===
   −
7: This is a parenthesis which is meant to remove the common misunderstanding that sex desire is an evil thing in itself and satisfying it even in lawful ways is not desirable, particularly for the righteous and godly people. This misunderstanding would have been strengthened had it been only said that the Believers guard their private parts scrupulously, because it would have implied that they live unmarried lives, away from the world, like monks and hermits.  
+
{{Quote|{{Bukhari|2|24|541}}|Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:
 +
On 'Id ul Fitr or 'Id ul Adha Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) went out to the Musalla. After finishing the prayer, he delivered the sermon and ordered the people to give alms. He said, "O people! Give alms." Then he went towards the women and said. "O women! Give alms, for I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-Fire were you (women)." The women asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What is the reason for it?" He replied, "'''O women! You curse frequently, and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more [[Women are Deficient in Intelligence|deficient in intelligence]] and religion than you'''. O women, some of you can lead a cautious wise man astray." Then he left.}}
   −
....
+
===Women are the inhabitants of hell===
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The law prescribed in the parenthesis is only applicable to men as is clear from the Text. A woman in the time of Hadrat `Umar did not understand this fine point of the language and indulged in sexual gratification with her slave. When her case was brought before the consultative body of the Companions, they gave the unanimous decision: "She misinterpreted the Book of Allah.".... The wisdom of why '''the slave has been forbidden to the woman''' is that he can only satisfy her sexual desire but cannot become guardian and governor of herself and her household, which leaves a serious flaw in the family life.}}
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{{Quote|{{cite web|url=http://islamawakened.com/quran/37/st22.htm#22 |title=Qur'an 37:22-23 |publisher= |author= |date= |archiveurl= |deadurl=no}}|(And it is said unto the angels): Assemble those who did wrong, together with their wives and what they used to worship instead of Allah, and lead them to the path to hell;}}
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===Ban on Forcing Slave Girls into Prostitution===
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Some Qur'an translators use the word "spouses" instead of "wives."<ref>[http://islamawakened.com/quran/37/22/ 37:22]</ref> Yet, the Qur'an is clear in telling us that if some persons deserve hell, their spouses must simply follow suit irrespective of whether or not they are guilty. The tafsirs are also in disagreement over the correct word; Ibn Abbas goes with "wives."<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=0&tTafsirNo=73&tSoraNo=37&tAyahNo=22&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0&LanguageId=2 |title=Tanwir al-Miqbas min Tafsir Ibn Abbas 37:22 |publisher= |author= |date= |archiveurl= |deadurl=no}}</ref>
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{{Quote|{{cite web|url=http://islamawakened.com/quran/24/st26.htm |title=Qur'an 24:33 |publisher= |author= |date= |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20160504044756/http://islamawakened.com/quran/24/st26.htm |deadurl=no}}|And do not compel your slave girls to prostitution, when they desire to keep chaste, in order to seek the frail good of this world's life; and whoever compels them, then surely after their compulsion Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.}}
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|1|2|28}}|Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:
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The Prophet said: '''"I was shown the Hell-fire and that the majority of its dwellers were women who were ungrateful."''' It was asked, "Do they disbelieve in Allah?" (or are they ungrateful to Allah?) He replied, "They are ungrateful to their husbands and are ungrateful for the favors and the good (charitable deeds) done to them.}}
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The slave women are 'forgiven' for what they were forced to do by the slave owner, but no punishment is prescribed for this action.
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|1|6|301}}|Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:
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Once Allah's Apostle went out to the Musalla (to offer the prayer) o 'Id-al- Adha or Al-Fitr prayer. Then he passed by the women and said, "'''O women! Give alms, as I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hellfire were you (women)'''..." }}
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===Muhammad Suggested Marrying Virgins to Fondle Them===
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|2|18|161}}|Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abbas:
 +
The people say, "O Allah's Apostle! We saw you taking something from your place and then we saw you retreating." The Prophet replied, "I saw Paradise and stretched my hands towards a bunch (of its fruits) and had I taken it, you would have eaten from it as long as the world remains. '''I also saw the Hell-fire and I had never seen such a horrible sight. I saw that most of the inhabitants were women'''." The people asked, "O Allah's Apostle! Why is it so?" The Prophet replied, "Because of their ungratefulness."}}
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|3|38|504}}| Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah:
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|2|24|541}}|Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:
I was accompanying the Prophet on a journey and was riding a slow camel that was lagging behind the others. ... When we approached Medina, I started going (towards my house). The Prophet said, "Where are you going?" I said, "I have married a widow." '''He said, "Why have you not married a virgin to fondle with each other?'''"}}
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On 'Id ul Fitr or 'Id ul Adha Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) went out to the Musalla. After finishing the prayer, he delivered the sermon and ordered the people to give alms. He said, "O people! Give alms." Then he went towards the women and said. "'''O women! Give alms, for I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-Fire were you (women)'''."}}  
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|1|6|298}}| Narrated 'Aisha:
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|7|62|124}}|Narrated Usama:
The Prophet and I used to take a bath from a single pot while we were Junub. During the menses, '''he used to order me to put on an Izar (dress worn below the waist) and used to fondle me.'''}}
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The Prophet said, "I stood at the gate of Paradise and saw that the majority of the people who entered it were the poor, while the wealthy were stopped at the gate (for the accounts). But the companions of the Fire were ordered to be taken to the Fire. '''Then I stood at the gate of the Fire and saw that the majority of those who entered it were women'''."}}
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===Females found responsible and punished for rape===
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|7|62|126}}|Narrated Imran:
 +
The Prophet said, "I looked at Paradise and saw that the majority of its residents were the poor; and '''I looked at the (Hell) Fire and saw that the majority of its residents were women'''."}}
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In March 2007, a 19-year-old Saudi woman received a sentence of 90 lashes. Her crime? A man threatened to tell her father that they were having an affair unless she met him alone. When she did, she was kidnapped and repeatedly raped, after which her brother beat her because the rapes brought shame to the family. Rather than giving her justice, a Saudi court sentenced her to be lashed ninety times because she had met a man alone who was not related to her. Fuziyah Al Ouni, a feminist activist, said she was outraged by the case. 'By sentencing her to 90 lashes they are sending a message that she is guilty.'<ref>[http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticleNew.asp?section=middleeast&xfile=data/middleeast/2007/march/middleeast_march71.xml Saudi gang-rape victim faces 90 lashes] - Khaleej Times Online, March 5, 2007</ref>
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===Women compared to dogs===
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"In 2004, a sixteen-year old girl, Atefeh Rajabi, was hanged in a public square in Iran. Her crime? Rajabi was charged with adultery -- which probably means she was raped. Her rapist was not executed. Rajabi told the mullah-judge, Haji Rezaii, the he ought to punish men who rape, not their victims." The judge both sentenced and personally hanged Rajabi because, in addition to her crime, he said that she had "a sharp tongue."<ref>Alasdair Palmer - [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/opinion/main.jhtml?xml=/opinion/2004/08/29/do2903.xml&sSheet=/portal/2004/08/29/ixportal.html Death and the maiden in Iran] - The Telegraph, August 29, 2004</ref>
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Most orthodox Islamic scholars considers dogs to be haram - forbidden and najis - unclean. Thus the comparison of women to dogs in these Sahih (authentic) ahadith are noteworthy:
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On November 1, 2008 a 13-year-old girl in Somalia was stoned to death after being raped by three men. She was unable to produce the required four witnesses to the rape and was therefore accused of adultery as required by Shari'a law. It was reported that the girl begged for mercy before being buried waist high in the ground and pummeled to death by a mob of 1,000.<ref>[http://www.news24.com/News24/Africa/News/0,,2-11-1447_2419716,00.html Raped girl, 13, stoned to death] news24.com,2008-11-01</ref><ref>David Williams - [http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1081214/Somali-girl-pleaded-mercy-Islamists-stoned-death-raped.html?ITO=1490 Somali girl 'pleaded for mercy' before Islamists stoned her to death for being raped] - Daily Mail, November 5, 2008</ref>
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|1|9|490}}|Narrated 'Aisha:
 +
The things which annul the prayers were mentioned before me. They said, "Prayer is annulled by a dog, a donkey and a woman (if they pass in front of the praying people)." I said, "You have made us (i.e. women) dogs."}}
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|1|90|498}}|Narrated 'Aisha: It is not good that you people have made us (women) equal to dogs and donkeys.}}
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[[Islamic law]] restricts the validity of a woman's testimony, particularly in cases involving sexual immorality. And Islamic legal theorists have limited it even farther, in the words of one Muslim legal manual, to "cases involving property, or transactions dealing with property, such as sales." In other judicial areas only men can testify. It is virtually impossible, therefore, to prove rape in lands that follow these ''Sharia ''provisions. If the required male witnesses can't be found to exonerate her (four men who testify to seeing the actual crime, according to the Qur'an), the victim's charge of [[rape]] can become an admission of adultery. That accounts for the grim fact that as many as seventy-five percent of the women in prison in Pakistan are, in fact, behind bars for the crime of having been raped.<ref>[http://www.sistersinislam.org.my/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=437&Itemid=194 Rape, Zina and Incest Press Statement - Violence Against Women] - SistersInIslam, April 6, 2000</ref>
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{{Quote|{{Muslim|4|1032}}|Abu Dharr reported: The Messenger of 'Allah (may peace be upon him) said: When any one of you stands for prayer … his prayer would be cut off by (passing of an) ass, woman, and black Dog.}}
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===Muhammad married Aisha at 6, had sex at 9 years of age===
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{{Quote|{{Muslim|4|1034}}|...Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: A woman, an ass and a dog disrupt the prayer.}}
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|5|58|236}}| Narrated Hisham's father: Khadija died three years before the Prophet departed to Medina. He stayed there for two years or so and then he married 'Aisha when she was a girl of six years of age, and he consumed that marriage when she was nine years old.}}
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{{Quote|{{Muslim|4|1038}}|...Masruq reported: It was mentioned before 'A'isha that prayer is invalidated (in case of passing) of a dog, an ass and a woman (before the worshipper, when he is not screened). Upon this 'A'isha said: You likened us to the asses and the dogs.}}
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|7|62|64}}| Narrated 'Aisha: that the Prophet married her when she was six years old and he consummated his marriage when she was nine years old, and then she remained with him for nine years (i.e., till his death).}}
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===Women compared to devil===
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{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|3311}}| 'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) married her when she was seven years old, and he was taken to his house as a bride when she was nine, and her dolls were with her; and when he (the Holy Prophet) died she was eighteen years old.}}
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{{Quote|{{Muslim|8|1038}}|
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Jabir reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) saw a woman, and so he came to his wife, zainab, as she was tanning a leather and had sexual intercourse with her. He then went to his Companions and told them: '''The woman advances and retires in the shape of a devil,''' so when one of you sees a woman, he should come to his wife, for that will repel what he feels in his heart.}}
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==Sexual relations with women in Islam==
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Ayatollah Khomeini, the Iranian Shia religious leader, married a ten-year-old girl when he was twenty-eight.Khomeini called marriage to a prepubescent girl "a divine blessing," and advised the faithful: "Do your best to ensure that your daughters do not see their first blood in your house."
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===Man Can Take Pleasure from their Women (Wives)===
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Speaking about the waiting period for divorce, the Qur'an states:
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{{Quote|{{Quran|2|222}}| They question thee (O Muhammad) concerning menstruation. Say: It is an illness, so let women alone at such times and go not in unto them till they are cleansed. And when they have purified themselves, then go in unto them as Allah hath enjoined upon you. Truly Allah loveth those who turn unto Him, and loveth those who have a care for cleanness.}}
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{{Quote|{{Quran|65|4}}|Such of your women as have passed the age of monthly courses, for them the prescribed period, if ye have any doubts, is three months, '''and for those who have no courses''' (it is the same): for those who carry (life within their wombs), their period is until they deliver their burdens: and for those who fear Allah, He will make their path easy.}}
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{{Quote|{{Quran|2|223}}| Your women are a tilth for you (to cultivate) so go to your tilth as ye will, and send (good deeds) before you for your souls, and fear Allah, and know that ye will (one day) meet Him. Give glad tidings to believers, (O Muhammad).}}
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==Women – dress requirements, modesty==
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===Women are Placed in Paradise for the Pleasure of Men===
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===Women's Responsibility to Cover===
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|6|60|402}}| Narrated Abdullah bin Qais:
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Allah's Apostle said, "In Paradise there is a pavilion made of a single hollow pearl sixty miles wide, in each corner of which there are wives who will not see those in the other corners; and the believers will visit and enjoy them.}}
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{{Quote|{{Quran|24|31}}| And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband's fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or the slaves whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments.}}
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===Muhammad Suggested Marrying Virgins to Fondle Them===
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===Modesty valued more than life===
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|3|38|504}}| Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah:
 +
I was accompanying the Prophet on a journey and was riding a slow camel that was lagging behind the others. ... When we approached Medina, I started going (towards my house). The Prophet said, "Where are you going?" I said, "I have married a widow." '''He said, "Why have you not married a virgin to fondle with each other?'''"}}
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In the Muslim holy city of Mecca in March 2002, fifteen teenage girls perished in a fire at their school when the Saudi religious police, the muttawa'in, wouldn't let them out of the building, because in the female-only school environment, they had shed the all-concealing outer garments that Saudi women must wear in the presence of men. They had not put these garments back on before trying to flee from the fire. The muttawa'in preferred that they die rather than transgress Islamic law, and actually battled police and firemen who were trying to open the school's doors and to save the girls. <ref>Christopher Dickey and Rod Nordland - [http://www.islamawareness.net/MiddleEast/Saudi/fire.html The Fire That Won't Die Out] - Islamawareness, 2002</ref>
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{{Quote|{{Bukhari|1|6|298}}| Narrated 'Aisha:
 +
The Prophet and I used to take a bath from a single pot while we were Junub. During the menses, '''he used to order me to put on an Izar (dress worn below the waist) and used to fondle me.'''}}
    
==Shame and honor==
 
==Shame and honor==
Line 431: Line 404:     
The United Nations Population Fund estimated in September 2000 that as many as 5,000 women and girls fall victim to such killings each year. Some examples:
 
The United Nations Population Fund estimated in September 2000 that as many as 5,000 women and girls fall victim to such killings each year. Some examples:
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====Aqsa Parvez====
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Aqsa Parvez was strangled to death by her father, Muhammad Parvez, on December 10, 2007 in Ontario, Canada. Aqsa shamed her father because she refused to wear the hijab and wanted to dress in Western clothing.
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====Amina and Sarah Said====
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Amina and Sarah, two sisters, were gunned down by their Egyptian father Yaser Said on New Year's Day 2008 in Dallas, Texas. Their crime in his eyes: wanting to be like other teenagers in high school and dress in western clothing. Yaser was assisted by his wife and has fled the country. He was captured by police in Texas on August 26th, 2020 and is awaiting trial.
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====Sandeela Kanwal====
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On July 6, 2008 Chaudhry Rashid, a Pakistani man, strangled his daughter with a bungee cord for refusing an arranged marriage. During his arraignment, Rashid told the judge, "I have done nothing wrong." He believes he was justified in his acts by his faith.
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====Aasiya Hassan====
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Aasiya Hassan was beheaded by her husband, Muzzammil Hassan, in February 2009. Muzzammil was said to be an influential member of the Muslim community of Buffalo, New York where the couple lived and where they operated Bridges TV, a media outlet designed to help remove the stereotype of Islam as a violent religion.
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====The Shafii Family: Three sisters and a wife====
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A man, his second wife, and his oldest son were charged with the drowning murder of the man's first wife and his three daughters in July 2009. Muhammad Shafii, a Canadian man of Afghani descent, his son Hamid Muhammad Shafi, and his second wife Tooba Muhammad Yahya, were charged with first degree murder after authorities learned they had been planning the murder for months.
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For more media coverage on honor killing among Muslims, see Fox News video special on honor killing in America.<ref>LinkTVWatch - [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S5yHUfw89cc Murder in the Family: Honor Killing in America (Part 1)] youtube.com</ref>
      
===Female circumcision (FGM)===
 
===Female circumcision (FGM)===
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