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==Introduction==  
 
==Introduction==  
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These past few years have seen many inventions falsely claimed and attributed to Islamic inventors, which in fact either existed in pre-Islamic eras, were invented by other cultures, or both. Such claims have even been forced upon the unsuspecting public in a nationwide tour which opened with an exhibition at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester and the University of Manchester, England. To celebrate this 'momentous' series of events, an article titled “How Islamic inventors changed the world” was written by Paul Vallely and published in ''The Independent'' on the 11<sup>th</sup> of March 2006. This inaccurate piece of propaganda has received much praise from Muslims and is still being widely circulated on Islamic websites, forums, blogs, and is even used as a source (to validate false claims of Islamic inventions) in over twenty<ref>Wikipedia search term: [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special%3ASearch&redirs=1&search=%22How+Islamic+inventors+changed+the+world%22&fulltext=Search&ns0=1&ns4=1&ns9=1&ns14=1&title=Special%3ASearch&advanced=1&fulltext=Advanced+search "How Islamic inventors changed the world"] - Results: Inventions in medieval Islam, Timeline of historic inventions, Al-Jazari, Combination lock, Cheque, Islamic Golden Age, Al-Andalus, Science in medieval Islam, Medicine in medieval Islam, Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam, List of Muslim scientists, Paul Vallely, Pinhole camera, Timeline of science and engineering in the Islamic world, Inoculation, Ink, Timeline of medicine and medical technology, Science in the Middle Ages, History of medicine, History of technology, List of persons considered father or mother of a field, Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Arab contributions to science. Retrieved December 24, 2009</ref> separate [[Islam, Science and the Problems at Wikipedia|articles on Wikipedia]]. This article boldly opened with the following statement: "''From coffee to cheques and the three-course meal, the Muslim world has given us many innovations that we take for granted in daily life. As a new exhibition opens, Paul Vallely nominates 20 of the most influential- and identifies the men of genius behind them.''"<ref name="Paul Vallely">Paul Vallely - [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/how-islamic-inventors-changed-the-world-469452.html How Islamic inventors changed the world] - The Independent, March 11, 2006</ref> This article lists and examines all twenty of these “Islamic inventions that changed the world”, and in doing so, it will reveal their actual inventors and the true role of Islam/Muslims, if any, behind the inventions.
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These past few years have seen many inventions falsely claimed and attributed to Islamic inventors, which in fact either existed in pre-Islamic eras, were invented by other cultures, or both. Such claims have even been forced upon the unsuspecting public in a nationwide tour which opened with an exhibition at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester and the University of Manchester, England. To celebrate this 'momentous' series of events, an article titled “How Islamic inventors changed the world” was written by Paul Vallely and published in ''The Independent'' on the 11<sup>th</sup> of March 2006. This inaccurate piece of propaganda has received much praise from Muslims and is still being widely circulated on Islamic websites, forums, blogs, and is even used as a source (to validate false claims of Islamic inventions) in over twenty<ref>Wikipedia search term: [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special%3ASearch&redirs=1&search=%22How+Islamic+inventors+changed+the+world%22&fulltext=Search&ns0=1&ns4=1&ns9=1&ns14=1&title=Special%3ASearch&advanced=1&fulltext=Advanced+search "How Islamic inventors changed the world"] - Results: Inventions in medieval Islam, Timeline of historic inventions, Al-Jazari, Combination lock, Cheque, Islamic Golden Age, Al-Andalus, Science in medieval Islam, Medicine in medieval Islam, Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam, List of Muslim scientists, Paul Vallely, Pinhole camera, Timeline of science and engineering in the Islamic world, Inoculation, Ink, Timeline of medicine and medical technology, Science in the Middle Ages, History of medicine, History of technology, List of persons considered father or mother of a field, Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Arab contributions to science. Retrieved December 24, 2009</ref> separate articles on Wikipedia. This article boldly opened with the following statement: "''From coffee to cheques and the three-course meal, the Muslim world has given us many innovations that we take for granted in daily life. As a new exhibition opens, Paul Vallely nominates 20 of the most influential- and identifies the men of genius behind them.''"<ref name="Paul Vallely">Paul Vallely - [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/how-islamic-inventors-changed-the-world-469452.html How Islamic inventors changed the world] - The Independent, March 11, 2006</ref> This article lists and examines all twenty of these “Islamic inventions that changed the world”, and in doing so, it will reveal their actual inventors and the true role of Islam/Muslims, if any, behind the inventions.
    
==The Inventions==
 
==The Inventions==
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{{Quote||Invented for the Sultan of Egypt in 953 after he demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes. It held ink in a reservoir and, as with modern pens, fed ink to the nib by a combination of gravity and capillary action.<ref name="Paul Vallely"></ref>}}
 
{{Quote||Invented for the Sultan of Egypt in 953 after he demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes. It held ink in a reservoir and, as with modern pens, fed ink to the nib by a combination of gravity and capillary action.<ref name="Paul Vallely"></ref>}}
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The history of the fountain pen cannot begin otherwise than with the quill pen. The quill pen was used for the writings of Egyptian kings 4,000 years ago. They most often used a goose feather carved into a sharp tip and dipped into ink of vegetable origin. Though the first pencil was invented by Conrad Gessner In 1567, <ref>Dennis B. Smith - [{{Reference archive|1=http://www.leadholder.com/lh-non-gesner.html|2=2011-02-08}} Conrad Gessner] - Leadholder: The Online Drafting Pencil Museum</ref> it remained like this until the end of the 18<sup>th</sup> century when the metal pen was invented. Daniel Schwenter wrote about the idea of creating a fountain pen in his ''Delicia Physic-Mathematicae'' in 1636 <ref>[{{Reference archive|1=http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/1881235|2=2011-02-08}} Daniel Schwenter] - Academic dictionaries and encyclopedias</ref>, efforts to manufacture a pen with its own ink supply began in the year 1656. For example, Samuel Pepys had one in the year 1663. It functioned in such a way that a small pipe above the tip of the feather was filled with ink by means of a small piston. But a slightly more practically usable pen came to the world in the 19<sup>th</sup> century. A fountain pen which functioned on the same principle (a pen with a piston) was created by the inventor Folsch in 1809.<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20070808094427/http://www.quido.cz/objevy/pero.a.htm Fountain pen] - Quido Magazine</ref> Later in 1931, László Bíró presented the first ballpoint pen at the Budapest world fair,<ref>[{{Reference archive|1=http://www.sztnh.gov.hu/kiadv/ipsz/199608/biro.html|2=2011-02-08}} Golyó a tollban - megemlékezés Bíró László Józsefről (in Hungarian)] - Hungarian Patent Office<!--  --></Ref> the ballpoint pen was designed to use better ink that would not clog or smear.<ref>[{{Reference archive|1=http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/ballpen.htm|2=2011-02-10}} Ballpen] - The Great Idea Finder, May 5, 2006</ref>
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The history of the fountain pen cannot begin otherwise than with the quill pen. The quill pen was used for the writings of Egyptian kings 4,000 years ago. They most often used a goose feather carved into a sharp tip and dipped into ink of vegetable origin. Though the first pencil was invented by Conrad Gessner In 1567, <ref>Dennis B. Smith - [{{Reference archive|1=http://www.leadholder.com/lh-non-gesner.html|2=2011-02-08}} Conrad Gessner] - Leadholder: The Online Drafting Pencil Museum</ref> it remained like this until the end of the 18<sup>th</sup> century when the metal pen was invented. Daniel Schwenter wrote about the idea of creating a fountain pen in his ''Delicia Physic-Mathematicae'' in 1636 <ref>[{{Reference archive|1=http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/1881235|2=2011-02-08}} Daniel Schwenter] - Academic dictionaries and encyclopedias</ref>, efforts to manufacture a pen with its own ink supply began in the year 1656. For example, Samuel Pepys had one in the year 1663. It functioned in such a way that a small pipe above the tip of the feather was filled with ink by means of a small piston. But a slightly more practically usable pen came to the world in the 19<sup>th</sup> century. A fountain pen which functioned on the same principle (a pen with a piston) was created by the inventor Folsch in 1809.<ref>[http://web.archive.org/web/20070808094427/http://www.quido.cz/objevy/pero.a.htm Fountain pen] - Quido Magazine</ref> Later in 1931, László Bíró presented the first ballpoint pen at the Budapest world fair,<ref>[{{Reference archive|1=http://www.sztnh.gov.hu/kiadv/ipsz/199608/biro.html|2=2011-02-08}} Golyó a tollban - megemlékezés Bíró László Józsefről (in Hungarian)] - Hungarian Patent Office<!--  --></ref> the ballpoint pen was designed to use better ink that would not clog or smear.<ref>[{{Reference archive|1=http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/ballpen.htm|2=2011-02-10}} Ballpen] - The Great Idea Finder, May 5, 2006</ref>
    
Those who claim that the fountain pen was invented in AD 953 by a Muslim need to produce both the evidence of a fountain pen, and evidence of the type of ink used.
 
Those who claim that the fountain pen was invented in AD 953 by a Muslim need to produce both the evidence of a fountain pen, and evidence of the type of ink used.
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==See Also==
 
==See Also==
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* [[Golden Age]] ''- A hub page that leads to other articles related to the "Golden Age"''
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*[[Golden Age]] ''- A hub page that leads to other articles related to the "Golden Age"''
* [[Refutations]] ''- A hub page that leads to other articles related to Refutations''
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*[[Refutations]] ''- A hub page that leads to other articles related to Refutations''
    
==External Links==
 
==External Links==
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*[http://islam-watch.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=214&Itemid=60 Islam’s Gifts to the World] - ''A pictorial presentation of some of Islam's great contributions to the world. (satire)''
 
*[http://islam-watch.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=214&Itemid=60 Islam’s Gifts to the World] - ''A pictorial presentation of some of Islam's great contributions to the world. (satire)''
 
*[http://www.paulvallely.com/ paulvallely.com] ''- Paul Vallely's official site''
 
*[http://www.paulvallely.com/ paulvallely.com] ''- Paul Vallely's official site''
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[[Category:Temp3]]
 
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