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'''Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab''' (محمد بن عبد الوهاب, born 1703 in 'Uyaynah; died 1792) was a Muslim scholar from the Najd region of what is today known as [[Saudi Arabia]], who founded the eponymous Wahhabi branch of the [[Salafism|Salafi]] movement, a movement which he would also be ultimately responsible for popularizing in general.
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'''Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab''' (محمد بن عبد الوهاب, born 1703 in 'Uyaynah; died 1792) was a Muslim scholar from the Najd region of what is today known as [[Saudi Arabia]], who founded the eponymous Wahhabi branch of the [[Salafism|Salafi]] movement, a movement which he would also be ultimately responsible for popularizing in general.<ref>Cameron Zargar, "Origins of Wahhabism from Hanbali Fiqh," ''UCLA Journal of Islamic and Near Eastern Law'' 16, no. 1 (2017), 65-114.</ref>
    
==Early life==
 
==Early life==
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Hearing of al-Wahhab's expulsion from Uyaynah and drawn by his teachings, Muhammad bin Saud, another leader in the Najd (this time of the Diriyah settlement), invited al-Wahhab to work and live with him. In 1744, they famously sounded a pact (or ''bay'ah'', lit. "oath of loyalty"). Dividing political and religious affairs between the two of them (the latter being al-Wahhab's responsibility), both set out to conquer the Arabian peninsula. The two families of al-Saud and al-Wahhab would persist in this "mutual support pact" until the present time, and together see the establishment of the first (Emirate of Diriyah, 1744-1818), second (Emirate of Nejd, 1824-1891), and third (Saudi Arabia, 1902-present) Saudi states.
 
Hearing of al-Wahhab's expulsion from Uyaynah and drawn by his teachings, Muhammad bin Saud, another leader in the Najd (this time of the Diriyah settlement), invited al-Wahhab to work and live with him. In 1744, they famously sounded a pact (or ''bay'ah'', lit. "oath of loyalty"). Dividing political and religious affairs between the two of them (the latter being al-Wahhab's responsibility), both set out to conquer the Arabian peninsula. The two families of al-Saud and al-Wahhab would persist in this "mutual support pact" until the present time, and together see the establishment of the first (Emirate of Diriyah, 1744-1818), second (Emirate of Nejd, 1824-1891), and third (Saudi Arabia, 1902-present) Saudi states.
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== Teachings ==
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In their conquest of the Najd, al-Wahhab's conceptions of ''[[tawheed]]'' and ''[[takfeer]]'' would prove crucial in first excommunicating and determining the apostasy of neighboring Arab tribes such that ''[[jihad]]'' against them could be justified.
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=== Tawhid and intercession ===
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==Teachings==
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===Tawhid and intercession===
 
Abd al-Wahhab emphasized [[Tawheed|''tawheed'']], or strict monotheism, as his core teaching, which was epitomized in his famous book entitled ''Kitab al-Tawheed'' (lit. "The book of monotheism"). In focusing on tawheed, al-Wahhab saw any and all veneration of humans (such as venerated scholars, deceased and living) and human constructs (physical shrines as well abstract constructs such as the four schools of Sunni law) as interrupting and violating an absolute monotheism. While orthodox Islam had long accepted the possibility of selected pious persons (specifically the prophet) interceding on behalf of other before God with God's permission on the Day of Judgement, al-Wahhab taught that believing in any such thing was tantamount to [[Shirk|''shirk'']], or polytheism.
 
Abd al-Wahhab emphasized [[Tawheed|''tawheed'']], or strict monotheism, as his core teaching, which was epitomized in his famous book entitled ''Kitab al-Tawheed'' (lit. "The book of monotheism"). In focusing on tawheed, al-Wahhab saw any and all veneration of humans (such as venerated scholars, deceased and living) and human constructs (physical shrines as well abstract constructs such as the four schools of Sunni law) as interrupting and violating an absolute monotheism. While orthodox Islam had long accepted the possibility of selected pious persons (specifically the prophet) interceding on behalf of other before God with God's permission on the Day of Judgement, al-Wahhab taught that believing in any such thing was tantamount to [[Shirk|''shirk'']], or polytheism.
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255. Allah! There is no deity save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. <b>Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave?</b> He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous.}}{{Quote|{{quran|20|109}}|<b>On that day no intercession availeth save (that of) him unto whom the Beneficent hath given leave and whose word He accepteth.</b>}}
 
255. Allah! There is no deity save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. <b>Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave?</b> He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous.}}{{Quote|{{quran|20|109}}|<b>On that day no intercession availeth save (that of) him unto whom the Beneficent hath given leave and whose word He accepteth.</b>}}
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=== Takfeer ===
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===Takfeer===
 
Abd al-Wahhab went so far as to declare all those who believed in the possibility of intercession with God to be [[Kafir|''kuffar'']], or [[non-Muslims]] (lit. "unbelievers"). This practice of excommunication whereby one declares someone else who self-describes as a Muslim to, in fact, be a non-Muslim, is known as ''[[takfeer]].'' Abd al-Wahhab can be seen as responsible for re-popularizing it until the present time (the practice had been at least somewhat common place prior to the 13th century and especially during the civil wars over Muhammad's [[Caliph|caliphal]] succession much earlier on, but had since died out).
 
Abd al-Wahhab went so far as to declare all those who believed in the possibility of intercession with God to be [[Kafir|''kuffar'']], or [[non-Muslims]] (lit. "unbelievers"). This practice of excommunication whereby one declares someone else who self-describes as a Muslim to, in fact, be a non-Muslim, is known as ''[[takfeer]].'' Abd al-Wahhab can be seen as responsible for re-popularizing it until the present time (the practice had been at least somewhat common place prior to the 13th century and especially during the civil wars over Muhammad's [[Caliph|caliphal]] succession much earlier on, but had since died out).
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In their conquest of the Najd, al-Wahhab's conceptions of ''[[tawheed]]'' and ''[[takfeer]]'' would prove crucial in first excommunicating and determining the apostasy of neighboring Arab tribes such that ''[[jihad]]'' against them could be justified.
    
Another popular [[Salafi]] commonly attributed to al-Wahhab is [[Love and Hate in Islam|''al-Wala' wal-Bara' li-Allah'']], or the practice of "loving and hating for the sake of Allah".
 
Another popular [[Salafi]] commonly attributed to al-Wahhab is [[Love and Hate in Islam|''al-Wala' wal-Bara' li-Allah'']], or the practice of "loving and hating for the sake of Allah".
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=== Wahhabism ===
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===Wahhabism===
 
Today, followers of al-Wahhab self-Identify more generically as "Salafis" (which merely connotes a focus on the practices of the [[Salaf|Salafs]], or the early Muslim) and are usually only referred to by others, in an almost derogatory manner, as "Wahhabis". In practical discourse, however, the term Wahhabism proves useful, as the Salafi movement is much larger and far more diverse than the followers of al-Wahhab, who only comprise one sub-group.
 
Today, followers of al-Wahhab self-Identify more generically as "Salafis" (which merely connotes a focus on the practices of the [[Salaf|Salafs]], or the early Muslim) and are usually only referred to by others, in an almost derogatory manner, as "Wahhabis". In practical discourse, however, the term Wahhabism proves useful, as the Salafi movement is much larger and far more diverse than the followers of al-Wahhab, who only comprise one sub-group.
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== See Also ==
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==See Also==
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* [[Salaf]]
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*[[Salaf]]
* [[Salafism]]
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*[[Salafism]]
* [[Ibn Taymiyya|Ibn Taymiyyah]]
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*[[Ibn Taymiyya|Ibn Taymiyyah]]
* [[Madh'hab]]
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*[[Madh'hab]]
* [[Fiqh]]
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*[[Fiqh]]
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== References ==
 
[[Category:Stubs]]
 
[[Category:Stubs]]
 
[[Category:Muslims]]
 
[[Category:Muslims]]
 
[[Category:Islamic scholars]]
 
[[Category:Islamic scholars]]
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