Changes

Jump to navigation Jump to search
397 bytes removed ,  20:03, 17 August 2020
m
no edit summary
Line 1: Line 1: −
{{QualityScore|Lead=1|Structure=4|Content=3|Language=3|References=3}}
+
{{QualityScore|Lead=1|Structure=4|Content=3|Language=3|References=3}}'''Jizyah''' or '''jizya''' (جزية) is the extra tax imposed on non-Muslims ([[Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Dhimmitude|Dhimmis]]) who live under Muslim rule according to the [[Qur'an]] and [[hadith]]:
 +
 
 
==Definition==
 
==Definition==
  −
'''Jizyah''' or '''jizya''' (جزْي) is the extra tax imposed on non-Muslims ([[Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Dhimmitude|Dhimmis]]) who live under Muslim rule according to the [[Qur'an]] and [[hadith]]:
      
{{Quote|{{Quran|9|29}}|Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold forbidden that which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.}}
 
{{Quote|{{Quran|9|29}}|Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold forbidden that which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.}}
Line 14: Line 13:  
Once a land is conquered by Islamic armies the ruler can impose a taxation on those non-Muslims who will not convert to [[Islam]].  
 
Once a land is conquered by Islamic armies the ruler can impose a taxation on those non-Muslims who will not convert to [[Islam]].  
   −
Jizyah is paid as a sign of submission and gives Dhimmis some legal protection in return. Under dhimmitude (the status that [[Islamic law]], the Sharia, mandates for non-Muslims) Dhimmis usually are not allowed to carry arms to protect themselves, serve in the army or government, display symbols of their faith, build or repair places of worship etc. If the conquered do not wish to pay or convert, their fate may very well be slavery (under which, [[rape]] is permitted) or (as evidenced in the quotes above) death.  
+
Jizyah is paid as a sign of submission and humiliation and gives Dhimmis some legal protection in return. Under dhimmitude (the status that [[Islamic law]], the Sharia, mandates for non-Muslims) Dhimmis usually are not allowed to carry arms to protect themselves, serve in the army or government, display symbols of their faith, build or repair places of worship etc. Further stipulations can include the requirement for dhimmis to dress differently, live in inferior houses, use inferior transport, and oblige themselves to the feeding and housing of Muslims as needed. If the conquered do not wish to pay or convert, their fate may very well be slavery (under which, [[rape]] is permitted) or (as evidenced in the quotes above) death.  
    
The amount of the Jizyah tax and the way it was collected varied from time to time and from place to place, but when imposed, the forced payment of Jizyah greatly stimulated the conversion of non-Muslims into Islam.<ref>[http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?tocId=9368576 Jizya] - Encyclopedia Britannica</ref> In some cases the taxation of the non-Muslims was so profitable that some Islamic rulers discouraged their subjects from converting to Islam, lest they should lose their income.<ref>Hawting, G.R. ''The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661-750''. Routledge. p. 77. ISBN 0-415-24073-5.</ref>
 
The amount of the Jizyah tax and the way it was collected varied from time to time and from place to place, but when imposed, the forced payment of Jizyah greatly stimulated the conversion of non-Muslims into Islam.<ref>[http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?tocId=9368576 Jizya] - Encyclopedia Britannica</ref> In some cases the taxation of the non-Muslims was so profitable that some Islamic rulers discouraged their subjects from converting to Islam, lest they should lose their income.<ref>Hawting, G.R. ''The First Dynasty of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate AD 661-750''. Routledge. p. 77. ISBN 0-415-24073-5.</ref>
Line 20: Line 19:  
==Context==
 
==Context==
   −
To be fair to history; Jizyah was not entirely an Islamic initiative or the innovation of its prophet [[Muhammad]], (Emphasis on the word “entirely”). A certain form of Jizyah had existed among the tribes of Northern Arabia in pre-Islamic times. This fact is attested by the famous historian Philip. K. Hitti in his ''History of Arabs''. ''Ghazw'' (غزو) or raiding others for feeding mouths was an accepted norm among the Bedouin tribes of that time. As ''Hitti'' noted, "Ghazw was a manly occupation of Bedouins where fighting mood was a chronic mental condition". For people among the tribes, everything that belonged to the other tribes guaranteeing material gain made a legitimate target. The context made it necessary for a weaker tribe or a sedentary settlement on the borderland to buy protection from the stronger tribe by paying what it then called ''Khuwwah'' which later became Jizyah in Muhammad’s Islam. Along with the booty acquired through raids and wars, Jizyah turned out to be a good source of income for believers when they were constantly occupied in spreading the newly founded religion by means of violence. To sum up, by imposing Jizyah on subjugated unbelievers Muhammad was reinstating an undivine tribal norm into his religion, thus broadening an abject backward practice.
+
Jizyah was not entirely an Islamic initiative or the innovation of its prophet [[Muhammad]]. A certain form of Jizyah had existed among the tribes of Northern Arabia in pre-Islamic times. This fact is attested by the famous historian Philip. K. Hitti in his ''History of Arabs''. ''Ghazw'' (غزو) or raiding others for feeding mouths was an accepted norm among the Bedouin tribes of that time. As ''Hitti'' noted, "Ghazw was a manly occupation of Bedouins where fighting mood was a chronic mental condition". For people among the tribes, everything that belonged to the other tribes guaranteeing material gain made a legitimate target. The context made it necessary for a weaker tribe or a sedentary settlement on the borderland to buy protection from the stronger tribe by paying what it then called ''Khuwwah'' which later became Jizyah in Muhammad’s Islam. Along with the booty acquired through raids and wars, Jizyah turned out to be a good source of income for believers.
    
==A Sign of Kufr and Disgrace==
 
==A Sign of Kufr and Disgrace==
Line 32: Line 31:  
{{Quote|Ahkaam al-Sijn wa’l-Sujana’ wa Mu’aamalat al-Sujana’ fi’l-Islam by Hasan Abi’l-Ghuddah, 256|If some people persist in rejecting the religion of Allaah and stand in the way of ruling by that which Allaah has revealed on earth, or they fight against the call to Allaah, then we give them the choice of three things: Either they become Muslim; or if they refuse they pay the jizyah (whereby they pay a specified amount to the Muslims in return for being allowed to remain their land, and the Muslims undertake to protect them); or, if they refuse that, there is nothing left but the way which they themselves have chosen, which is fighting and dealing violently with those who have persecuted the Muslims and put obstacles in the path of the Islamic da’wah. In this way the Muslims will gain the upper hand and the enemies will be humiliated; then when we have killed and wounded many of them and gained the upper hand over them, we may take prisoners and bind a bond firmly on them.|}}
 
{{Quote|Ahkaam al-Sijn wa’l-Sujana’ wa Mu’aamalat al-Sujana’ fi’l-Islam by Hasan Abi’l-Ghuddah, 256|If some people persist in rejecting the religion of Allaah and stand in the way of ruling by that which Allaah has revealed on earth, or they fight against the call to Allaah, then we give them the choice of three things: Either they become Muslim; or if they refuse they pay the jizyah (whereby they pay a specified amount to the Muslims in return for being allowed to remain their land, and the Muslims undertake to protect them); or, if they refuse that, there is nothing left but the way which they themselves have chosen, which is fighting and dealing violently with those who have persecuted the Muslims and put obstacles in the path of the Islamic da’wah. In this way the Muslims will gain the upper hand and the enemies will be humiliated; then when we have killed and wounded many of them and gained the upper hand over them, we may take prisoners and bind a bond firmly on them.|}}
   −
Saudi Sheikh Muhammad bin Abd Al-Rahman Al-'Arifi, Imam of the mosque of King Fahd Defense Academy, discussed the coming Muslim conquest of the Vatican. Citing a Hadith in an article posted on the Kalemat website in 2002, he stated:
+
Saudi Sheikh Muhammad bin Abd Al-Rahman Al-'Arifi, Imam of the mosque of King Fahd Defense Academy, imagines the coming Muslim conquest of the Vatican:
 
{{Quote|Saudi Sheikh Muhammad bin Abd Al-Rahman Al-'Arifi|"… We will control the land of the Vatican; we will control Rome and introduce Islam in it. Yes, the Christians, who carve crosses on the breasts of the Muslims … will yet pay us the Jiziya [poll tax paid by non-Muslims under Muslim rule], in humiliation, or they will convert to Islam…"<ref>[http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=17710 The Next Pope and Islamic Prophecy] frontpagemag.com</ref>}}
 
{{Quote|Saudi Sheikh Muhammad bin Abd Al-Rahman Al-'Arifi|"… We will control the land of the Vatican; we will control Rome and introduce Islam in it. Yes, the Christians, who carve crosses on the breasts of the Muslims … will yet pay us the Jiziya [poll tax paid by non-Muslims under Muslim rule], in humiliation, or they will convert to Islam…"<ref>[http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=17710 The Next Pope and Islamic Prophecy] frontpagemag.com</ref>}}
   Line 126: Line 125:  
===Zakat===
 
===Zakat===
   −
Some will say that Muslims also had to pay a tax equivalent to the jizyah paid by Dhimmis'. It is true that Muslims, under the empire, paid a tax called zakat. However, this zakat is a 2.5% tax, while the jizyah (which can vary) is about a 10% income tax (although it has been known to be as high as 50%). Muslims are obligated to pay this so-called "charity tax" even today, as its one of the five pillars of Islam. But, instead of paying it to the state, they now pay zakat to charities of their choice. It must however be noted that the majority of Islamic scholars are of the view that non-Muslims should not benefit from this alms giving,<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.islamicawakening.com/viewarticle.php?articleID=984|title= The way of giving Zakat al-Fitr in non-Islamic Lands|publisher= IslamicAwakening|author= Haytham bin Jawwad al-Haddad|series= Article ID: 984|date= November 20, 2002|archiveurl= http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.islamicawakening.com/viewarticle.php?articleID=984&date=2011-05-09|deadurl=no}}</ref> which is why we find mainstream Islamic charities, like Islamic Relief, almost exclusively<ref>[http://www.thereligionofpeace.com/Articles/Islamic-Relief.htm Islamic Relief and the Myth of Non-Discriminating Muslim Charity] - TROP</ref> focusing their humanitarian work in Muslim majority nations or areas in non-Muslim countries which are heavily populated by Muslim minorities. In the aftermath of the 2010 Pakistan floods, many Christian survivors were denied aid supplied by Muslim charities for this very reason.<ref>[http://www.catholicculture.org/news/headlines/index.cfm?storyid=7460 Pakistan: some Christians denied aid unless they convert to Islam] - Catholic Culture, September 6, 2010</ref>
+
Muslims also had to pay a tax called Zakat. However, this zakat is a 2.5% tax, while the jizyah (which can vary) is about a 10% income tax (although it has been known to be as high as 50%). Muslims are obligated to pay this so-called "charity tax" even today, as its one of the five pillars of Islam. But, instead of paying it to the state, they now pay zakat to charities of their choice. It must however be noted that the majority of Islamic scholars are of the view that non-Muslims should not benefit from this alms giving,<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.islamicawakening.com/viewarticle.php?articleID=984|title= The way of giving Zakat al-Fitr in non-Islamic Lands|publisher= IslamicAwakening|author= Haytham bin Jawwad al-Haddad|series= Article ID: 984|date= November 20, 2002|archiveurl= http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.islamicawakening.com/viewarticle.php?articleID=984&date=2011-05-09|deadurl=no}}</ref> which is why mainstream Islamic charities, like Islamic Relief, almost exclusively<ref>[http://www.thereligionofpeace.com/Articles/Islamic-Relief.htm Islamic Relief and the Myth of Non-Discriminating Muslim Charity] - TROP</ref> focusing their humanitarian work in Muslim majority nations or areas in non-Muslim countries which are heavily populated by Muslim minorities. In the aftermath of the 2010 Pakistan floods, many Christian survivors were denied aid supplied by Muslim charities as a result.<ref>[http://www.catholicculture.org/news/headlines/index.cfm?storyid=7460 Pakistan: some Christians denied aid unless they convert to Islam] - Catholic Culture, September 6, 2010</ref>
    
===Devshirme===
 
===Devshirme===
Line 138: Line 137:  
In Islamic territories, Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians who did not convert to Islam were required to pay a tax called the jizya. Many people converted to Islam to avoid this tax or to escape the ban on non-Muslims owning land. As financial problems mounted for the Umayyad rulers, authorities imposed the kharaj as a property tax for recent converts. Popular opposition to the tax led to a revolt in 747 and precipitated the downfall of the Umayyad dynasty.}}
 
In Islamic territories, Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians who did not convert to Islam were required to pay a tax called the jizya. Many people converted to Islam to avoid this tax or to escape the ban on non-Muslims owning land. As financial problems mounted for the Umayyad rulers, authorities imposed the kharaj as a property tax for recent converts. Popular opposition to the tax led to a revolt in 747 and precipitated the downfall of the Umayyad dynasty.}}
   −
The Umayyad caliph Umar II made non-Arab converts to Islam pay kharaj as a compensation for the diminished jizya tax base.<ref>Kennedy, Hugh. ''The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates''. Pearson. p. 107. ISBN 0-582-40525-4.</ref>
+
The Umayyad caliph Umar II made non-Arab converts to Islam pay kharaj as a compensation for the diminished jizya tax base.<ref>Kennedy, Hugh. ''The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates''. Pearson. p. 107. ISBN 0-582-40525-4.</ref>
   −
Some western apologists of Islam say that jizya and kharaj were not significantly higher than the taxes collected in the pre-Islamic [[w:Byzantine Empire|Byzantine]] and [[w:Sassanid Empire|Sassanid]] empires. The following quote by orientalist scholars proves otherwise:
+
Some have said that jizya and kharaj were not significantly higher than the taxes collected in the pre-Islamic [[w:Byzantine Empire|Byzantine]] and [[w:Sassanid Empire|Sassanid]] empires. However:
    
{{Quote|N. V. Pigulevskaya, A. Yu. Yakubovski, I. P. Petrushevski, L. V. Stroeva, A. M. Belenitski. ''The History of Iran from Ancient Times to the End of Eighteenth Century'' (in Persian), Tehran, 1967, p. 161.|A comparison between pre-Islamic documents and those of the Islamic period reveals that conquering Arabs increased the land taxation without exception. Thus, raising taxes of each acre of wheat field to 4 dirhams and each acre of barley field to 2 dirhams, whereas during reign of Khosro Anushiravan it used to be a single dirham for each acre of a wheat or barley field. During the later stage of Umayyad Caliphate, conquered and subjugated Persians were paying from one fourth to one third of their land produce to the Arab Empire as kharaj.}}
 
{{Quote|N. V. Pigulevskaya, A. Yu. Yakubovski, I. P. Petrushevski, L. V. Stroeva, A. M. Belenitski. ''The History of Iran from Ancient Times to the End of Eighteenth Century'' (in Persian), Tehran, 1967, p. 161.|A comparison between pre-Islamic documents and those of the Islamic period reveals that conquering Arabs increased the land taxation without exception. Thus, raising taxes of each acre of wheat field to 4 dirhams and each acre of barley field to 2 dirhams, whereas during reign of Khosro Anushiravan it used to be a single dirham for each acre of a wheat or barley field. During the later stage of Umayyad Caliphate, conquered and subjugated Persians were paying from one fourth to one third of their land produce to the Arab Empire as kharaj.}}
Line 147: Line 146:     
===Miscellaneous===
 
===Miscellaneous===
 +
 
*The Hedaya, a 12th-century legal manual considered one of the most influential books of Hanafi Islamic law, states that a [[w:tithe|tithe]] on wine and pork should be collected from [[dhimmi|dhimmis]] and polytheists whenever they pass by any collector's office in an Islamic state.<ref>Marghinani. ''The Hedaya'' (Arabic) Translated by Charles Hamilton. Book I Chapter IV. p. 13.</ref>
 
*The Hedaya, a 12th-century legal manual considered one of the most influential books of Hanafi Islamic law, states that a [[w:tithe|tithe]] on wine and pork should be collected from [[dhimmi|dhimmis]] and polytheists whenever they pass by any collector's office in an Islamic state.<ref>Marghinani. ''The Hedaya'' (Arabic) Translated by Charles Hamilton. Book I Chapter IV. p. 13.</ref>
   Line 162: Line 162:     
==External Links==
 
==External Links==
 +
 
*[http://debate.org.uk/debate-topics/historical/the-jizyah-tax The Jizyah Tax: Equality And Dignity Under Islamic Law?]
 
*[http://debate.org.uk/debate-topics/historical/the-jizyah-tax The Jizyah Tax: Equality And Dignity Under Islamic Law?]
 
*[http://www.bharatvani.org/books/jihad/app2.htm Jizyah and the Zimmî]
 
*[http://www.bharatvani.org/books/jihad/app2.htm Jizyah and the Zimmî]
Editors, recentchangescleanup, Reviewers
6,537

edits

Navigation menu