Responses to Apologetics: Muhammad and Aisha
This article refutes miscellaneous apologetics which may not be fully covered in our main articles, but are used by some to justify the marriage between the Islamic Prophet Muhammad and his six-year-old bride Aisha.
Muhammad did not have sexual intercourse with Aisha when she was 6 years-old
This is a strawman argument. No one of any note has claimed Muhammad had sexual intercourse with Aisha when she was 6 years-old. It was only their marriage that took place when she was aged 6. Sexual intercourse occurred when she was 9 lunar years-old (possibly 8 years-old if the Gregorian calender is used to calculate her age).
The Qur'an does not say Muhammad married Aisha when she was 6 and had sex with her when she was 9
The Qur'an is not a biography of Muhammad. By name, he is only mentioned 4 times in the Qur'an. The Qur'an is not a historical narrative and without the Hadiths and Sirat (which are accepted by the majority of the world's Muslims and Islamic scholars) there would be no Five Pillars, Islam as Muslims know it would be unrecognizable, and there would be little to no historical evidence that a person known as Prophet Muhammad ever existed. Therefore they cannot be ignored. Furthermore, the Qur'an itself permits pedophilia in verse 65:4.
Allah's purpose for the marriage was not sex, Aisha was a great scholar who narrated important hadiths
There is no purpose of an Islamic marriage (nikah) if there will be no sex between the couple. If 54 year old Muhammad did not want to have sex with 9 year old Aisha but wanted to keep her in his house, he could easily have adopted her as his grand-daughter instead. He already had an adopted son.
And even if we were to accept the marriage as a result of Allah's foreknowledge, it still does not explain why he could not foretell that millions of young girls today would face pedophilic child marriages, explicitly using Muhammad and Aisha's relationship as justification.
The hadiths do not say Muhammad had sex with Aisha when she was 9. They have been poorly translated
In multiple sahih hadiths, as discussed in this article, the Arabic terms used are "udkhilath" and "bana biha", which in their context can only be referring to "sexual intercourse" and nothing else.
There is 1 hadith that says Aisha "never saw the private parts of Muhammad"
The hadith being referred to is found in Sunan Ibn Majah. This collection of hadith (containing Arabic text alongside its English translation) can be purchased in book form or freely viewed on the Internet, and has a unique and useful feature that separates it from other hadith collections. Each narration "is also followed by its status in regards to the authenticity."
The hadith concerning Aisha "never seeing the private parts of Muhammad" has been classed as da'if, meaning it is weak. And weak hadiths hold no authority in Islam and have no value for the purpose of formulating shari'ah. Since those who use this hadith for apologetic purposes will be aware of its status as weak, the omission of this crucial detail may be considered by some as disingenuous.
Additionally, the hadiths that confirm Aisha consummated her marriage are mutawatir ('corroborated'), meaning the same narrations (either with minor variation or word-for-word) have been passed down through different isnads (chains).
When the same/similar narration is passed down through multiple isnads, then it is of higher authenticity than one which may be reported through a lesser number of isnads (especially if they contradict). This classification can be joined with other classifications; for example, if a narration were both 'sahih' and 'mutawatir' then it is of the highest authenticity regarding classification of ahadith.
Since all the most authentic collections confirm that the relationship between Muhammad and Aisha was a sexual one, this lone, weak hadith can be ignored.
The idea that Aisha was a virgin her entire life is an alien one to Islam, and if we were to be as "difficult" and/or disingenuous as the apologists appear to be, we could always point out that, literally speaking, there is no need to "see the private parts" of anyone in order to have sex with them.
There are also hadith which tell us Muhammad had sex with all (9 to 11) of his wives in one night, and Sauda (who was fat) gave up her night of sex to Aisha. Are we now to believe he was in fact not having sex with them, but reading them bedtime stories or engaging in some other evening activity?
There are also sahih narations which tell us that Muhammad's first encounter with Aisha following her admittance into his house "surprised" her, that she used to wash and scrape off the semen from his clothes, and that he used to fondle her and suck her tongue.
Some Islamic sources say Aisha was aged 12, 14, 15, 17, 18 and 21 when Muhammad had sex with her
All authentic sources of Aisha’s own testimony confirm she was aged nine at the time. These alternate ages have been derived from misquotations, indirect sources, fuzzy dating techniques, and slander, in an attempt to cast doubt upon facts which have been unquestionably accepted by Muslims for almost 1,500 years.
Even today, the vast majority of the world's Muslims acknowledge and accept Aisha's young age and many of these honest Muslims take offense to these lies propagated by western Muslim apologists who are embarrassed by their own prophet's actions. In fact, Islamic scholar and teacher of Fiqh at Sunnipath.com and Livingislam.org, Shaykh Gibril Fouad Haddad's work has been referenced in our refutation to all these claims, which you can read here.
Muhammad waited for 3 years so Aisha could attain puberty before having sex with her
Playing with dolls and similar images is forbidden in Islam, unless you are a child who has yet to reach the age of puberty. Thus, the doll-playing exegesis applied to the relevant hadith narrations prove that Aisha remained pre-pubertal at the time of consummation.
Muhammad made an exception for Aisha by allowing her to play with dolls even after puberty
This is purely wishful thinking that ultimately backfires on the user because it assumes Muhammad, the perfect Muslim whose example is to be emulated, defied Allah by not adhering to his sacred law (the Shar'iah).
Unless Allah clearly specified an exemption for Muhammad, he would have followed the rules governing doll-playing in Islam. Claiming otherwise only makes Muhammad into a hypocrite and a bad example for other Muslims to follow.
Menstruation in hot climates starts earlier than in cold ones, so girls in Arabia matured as early as 9
There is absolutely no evidence that climate has anything to do with the onset of menarche/puberty. In many instances the truth is the opposite of what apologists claim. For example, the mean ages at menarche for Denmark, Finland and the United Kingdom are 13.0, 13.2 and 13.3. In comparison, the mean ages at menarche for Senegal, Tanzania and Yemen are 16.1, 15.21 and 14.4.
For girls in the Medieval (5th to 15th century) Middle East, the average age at menarche was between 12 to 13 years of age, not 9. In fact, the average age at menarche for Medieval Europeans was very similar, at 12 to 14 years of age.
In 1 hadith Aisha says "When a girl is nine years old, she is a woman (meaning, she has attained puberty)"
If we were to accept this interpretation made by apologists, it would mean Aisha is also making an incorrect blanket statement. Not many girls go through puberty at the age of 9, especially in the Middle East during Aisha's lifetime, yet she appears to be claiming all 9 year-olds go through puberty. So the only conclusion that can be drawn from this erroneous interpretation is that this "great scholar of Islam" was stupid.
If we take a rational approach to reaching conclusions, we can clearly see this alleged narration does not prove Aisha had attained puberty. "she has attained puberty" is written in parenthesis, meaning it was added by the translator and was not taken from the original source.
She was also a young child who had been sexually defiled at the age of nine, so obviously she would consider that moment in time to have been the moment when she went from being a child to becoming a women. Her statement had absolutely nothing to do with attaining puberty.
Why did Muhammad wait for 3 years if it was not so Aisha could attain puberty?
According to Bukhari, Aisha fell ill and lost her hair after her marriage/engagement to Muhammad at the age of six. The same hadith also confirms that she was "handed over to him" once her hair grew back. Since Bukhari is Sahih (authentic), we have no reason to dismiss this explanation.
Also according to Tabari (a less reliable, yet widely respected and accepted source among Muslims), the delay was due to Muhammad not having the gold to pay the sadaq.
One thing we can be sure of is that the delay had nothing to do with her pubertal status, as such an important issue would not have gone without some commentary by the early Islamic sources and it would have also contradicted Muhammad's Qur'anic revelation which sanctions pedophilia.
If Muhammad was a pedophile, he would still not have waited 3 years to have sex with Aisha
It is not unusual for a pedophile to know his intended child partner for some years before initiating sexual contact. This is known as "grooming". A survey by the Mayo Clinic revealed heterosexual male pedophiles preferred girls in the age range of 8-10 years (Aisha was 9), and frequently met them when they were even younger.
Also, if we take Bukhari's explanation into consideration, it makes perfect sense. A pedophile would not want to have sex with an ill child if he thinks he is going to catch some sort of disease from doing so.
If Muhammad was a pedophile, Aisha's parents would not have offered her to him
Aisha's parents did not offer her to Muhammad. It was in fact Muhammad who approached Abu Bakr, and he (Aisha's father) initially protested.
Even today, it is not uncommon for cult members to give their young children to the cult leader to "marry" and sexually abuse. So if she were to have been offered to Muhammad, this would not justify the marriage in any way.
Abu Bakr became the 1st Caliph. Muhammad married Aisha to "cement the relations of the budding nation"
Abu Bakr was already Muhammad's closest companion. There was no need for him to "cement relations" with Abu Bakr by marrying his 6-year-old daughter, and thereby forever legitimizing child-marriages within Islam.
Additionally, if this was the sole purpose behind the marriage, he could have just as easily married Abu Bakr's other daughter, Asma bint Abu Bakr, who was a lot older and not married at the time.
Aisha consented to the marriage. If it was abuse, she would have left Muhammad
In Islam, a virgin's silence is her "consent". To the rest of us, this does not constitute consent, and the idea that a young child's willingness to engage in sexual activity with a grown adult somehow makes the act morally justifiable is abhorrent. It is an excuse that many pedophiles use to justify their behavior.
In fact, Aisha did not consent to her marriage. This is the specific reason why Islamic scholars are "unanimously agreed that a father may marry off his young daughter without consulting her." Furthermore, "there is no age limit to be intimate with one's wife even if she is a minor (did not attain puberty)", but "when she attains puberty, she has the right to maintain the marriage or discontinue the marriage."
As to not leaving him; both of the young victims, aged 12 and 15, of Warren Jeffs, the polygamist cult leader, did not leave him. They "entered into unions with Jeffs willingly, and did not participate in the trial against him." Regardless of the victims support for him, he was still a pedophile and was convicted in 2011 of sexually abusing children.
Aisha loved Muhammad and always spoke highly of him. Would a pedophile be worthy of such praise?
If you read the narrations by Aisha, you will find that their nature and content are often derogatory towards Islam, and at times she is found mocking and belittling her husband. Indeed, this is one of the reasons why the Shi'ite sect hold a very negative view of her.
For example; she said Muhammad was affected with magic, and black magic is considered to be the devil’s doing, thereby she is in fact proclaiming he was under the influence of the devil. She also created the impression that he was forgetful and clumsy, she disclosed things which Muhammad had told her in private. and once noted, with unmissable sarcasm, "I feel that your Lord hastens in fulfilling your wishes and desires."
Muhammad and Aisha's relationship was far from idyllic. Muhammad at one time struck her painfully in the chest, and he allowed Abu Bakr to slap her, and Aisha even claimed to dislike facing him.
As to the original question; Would a pedophile be worthy of such praise? The answer is, yes. Victims of pedophilia often defend their abusers. Any praise heaped on Muhammad by Aisha can be easily explained by the Stockholm Syndrome.
Muhammad can't be a pedophile, he also had sex with grown women
According to statistics provided by the Mayo Clinic, 93% of heterosexual male pedophiles have also engaged in adult relationships.
Pedophiles prefer children, but Muhammad had many adult wives and only 1 child-bride
It is common knowledge that after Khadijah's death, Aisha, who was Muhammad's only child bride, was also his favorite wife, and according to Islamic oral traditions, Muhammad preferred young virgin girls to "matrons", he had sexual intentions for at least one other baby girl, and he coveted a child princess still being wet-nursed.
The stringent DSM-IV-TR clinical definition of pedophilia, which is applied to Muhammad's behavior here, also does not require a person to be solely or preferentially attracted to children for a positive diagnosis of pedophilia. The DSM-IV only requires that someone have had a sexual attraction for a child and have acted on that attraction at least once.
At that time, it was okay to have sex with 9 year olds in Arabia. It was a cultural norm
As they themselves have left behind no written records, there is no evidence of pedophilic marriages being accepted among the non-Muslim Arabs of Muhammad's time. The only sources we have are Muslim sources, so to claim that such a marriage was a cultural norm among all Arabs is baseless conjecture.
During the Medieval period it was the norm in Jewish Middle Eastern cultures for girls to be given in marriage when they were 12-13 years old, coinciding perfectly with the average age at menarche in the Medieval Middle East which was also 12-13 years. A large age gap between the spouses was also opposed, yet the age gap between Muhammad and Aisha was a massive 45 years.
Besides, a lot of other things were acceptable in the past, but that does not make them any more moral or right.
Drinking alcohol and gambling were both permitted activities in pre-Islamic Arabia, yet Muhammad chose to ban these relatively harmless "cultural norms". Why did he not do the same for slavery or pedophilia rather than indulging in both himself?
As with pedophilia, Muhammad's actions perpetuated the existence of slavery by institutionalizing it within Islam. Muhammad was a slave-trader. He not only owned many male and female slaves, but he also captured, sold, and had sex with his slaves. Even Bilal, the famed "black Muslim", was bought in exchange for a black non-Muslim slave.
People lived shorter life spans back then, a 9 year old girl would be comparable to a 20 year old today
This is a false argument based on the conflation of two different things. Life expectancy, which refers to the average length of life from birth, lowered in the past by very high rates of infant mortality. And the average lifespan, which looks at how long people lived once they had passed the infant stage.
So, when apologists claim,"people lived shorter life spans," it does not mean people in the past lived an accelerated life cycle. It means that more of them died as children than do today.
For example, if a society had a life expectancy of 35 years, this does not mean that a person of 35 years was considered to be old. If they managed to live past their childhood years, they still had a very good chance of continuing on to that society's average lifespan, which could have been 60 or 70 years of age. What it does mean, is that so many children died at birth, or at 5, or at 11 years of age that it brought the average life expectancy down.
A nine year old girl in 7th century Arabia would absolutely not "be comparable to a 20 year old today." She would still be just a nine year old girl.
Additionally, Muhammad lived to the age of 63 years, Aisha to 66, Asma bint Abu Bakr to 100, Khadijah to 64 and Abu Bakr to 61. Do these seem like shorter lives?
Even today in developed countries, someone who reaches the age of 60 is considered old, and rarely do people reach the age of 100. If you knew your daughter would die like Aisha at 66, would that make it okay for her to have sex at the age of 9 with a 54 year old man?
All religious founders were products of their time. We cannot judge Muhammad by today's standards
Most Muslims clearly disagree with this statement. Unlike other faiths, in Islam, Muhammad is the "uswa hasana, al-Insān al-Kāmil" (the perfect human, whose example is worthy of imitation). The Qur'an even refers to his morality as “sublime”, and as the Qur'an is believed by Muslims to be the literal and final words of God, they are beyond the constraints of time.
All mainstream Muslims consider Muhammad to be the perfect example to follow. For them to suggest otherwise (thereby conceding that Muhammad's actions are immoral when compared to today's standards) would constitute apostasy via blasphemy in belief and would make them liable for the death sentence under Islamic law.
They do not judge morality by "today's" standard, but by Muhammad's standard. Hence millions of young girls today are forced into pedophilic child marriages by individuals, and even entire countries, who explicitly use Muhammad and Aisha's relationship as justification.
Muhammad and Aisha's relationship is also used to hinder attempts by developing countries to move forward by banning child marriages. For example; in countries like Yemen, Bangladesh, Iran, and Northern Nigeria, recent attempts at reforming laws and banning child marriages have been opposed and stopped on the grounds that such a ban would be "un-Islamic".
In some cases, Muhammad and Aisha's relationship is used to effectively "turn back the clock" by legalizing child marriages in places they were previously illegal. For example; in 2010, the Malaysian State of southern Malacca legalized child marriages specifically between adult Muslim men and young Muslim girls below the age of 16. Ivy Josiah, the executive director of the Women's Aid Organisation, noted "Child marriage amounts to paedophilia ... It is really a regressive move. It is turning back the clock."
The Islamic texts themselves specifically destroy any appeals to cultural relativism that could be otherwise aimed at Muhammad's marriage. In Sahih Bukhari, Muhammad claimed it was Allah's will (through a dream) that he marry Aisha. Thus, it was not the primitive Arabian culture that led to his marriage, but the "timeless" morality of Allah.
The Jewish Talmud says sex with a little girl is permitted if she is three years of age
The claim that the Talmud says "Sexual intercourse with a little girl is permitted if she is three years of age," is an antisemitic myth. Yevamot 11b, the citation provided with this claim, has no relevant passage.
Whilst the language used is very crude, the discussion relates to the dowry for virgins and non-virgins. It has nothing to do with what acts are allowed, encouraged, forbidden, or discouraged. It is ironic that this passage has been manipulated from its original context of a financial discussion into one of a religious discussion. While there are numerous Talmudic passages of a religious nature, this one discusses dowries and not forbidden and permitted relations.
Mary married 90-year-old Joseph when she was only 12, so Joseph was a pedophile too
Everyone who makes this claim, cite the same New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia page. What they do not mention is that this page begins by warning readers, "the apocryphal literature is full of details, the non-admittance of these works into the Canon of the Sacred Books casts a strong suspicion upon their contents".
According to Wikipedia, apocrypha is defined as "spurious", "of questionable authenticity", and "Christian texts that are not canonical." Thus they can be considered as the Christian equivalent of da`if (weak) or maudu (fabricated) hadith.
Something that is non-canonical is not binding on a follower and can be ignored. There is no authoritative Christian text which state Mary's age. Claims about her age are, at best, educated guesses, but guesses none-the-less. Bukhari and Muslim, on the other hand, are canonical Islamic writings of the utmost religious authenticity, accepted by approximately 90 percent of the world's Muslims.
Even if we do accept this tu-quoque logical fallacy as a valid argument, there remains several problems. The first being the fact that the New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia page does not say Mary married Joseph when she was aged only 12.
What it actually says, after warning readers once again that the stories are "unreliable", is that Mary was 12 to 14 at the time of the choosing of candidates, and the Annunciation (the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the virgin called Mary, that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus) took place two years later. This would make Mary 14 to 16 at the time of her marriage, not 12, or 9, as was the case between Muhammad and Aisha. She would have been a teenager of child-bearing age, not a pre-pubescent pre-teen child.
Another problem is that the theological significance of Joseph and Muhammad to the Christian and Islamic faiths are incomparable (i.e. the logical fallacy of false equivalence). Unlike the Muslim view of Muhammad, Christians do not consider Joseph to be an uswa hasana (excellent model of conduct). Joseph's moral character holds no importance within Christian theology. He could have been insane and it would not matter to a Christian.
Then there is the fact that, according to both the Christian scriptures and the Islamic ones, Mary was a virgin when she conceived and gave birth to Jesus; therefore, her relationship with Joseph could not have been a sexual one until after Jesus' birth, making her possibly 17 years of age at the time the marriage was eventually consummated, if ever.
Indeed, the same New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia page continues the narrative of Joseph's life by stating both Mary and Joseph entered the marriage with the understanding that it was never to be consummated.
Mary's Perpetual virginity, the belief that Mary remained a virgin her entire life, is an essential article of faith for the majority of the worlds Christians (including the Roman Catholic, Anglo-Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox Christians). It is even held by some Muslims.
Finally, the most decisive argument against the claim that Joseph was a pedophile is the fact that the same non-canonical writings which are used to gather information on Joseph and Mary's age, also confirm Mary's status as "ever virgin" (in The History of Joseph the Carpenter, Jesus says on Joseph's death "my mother, virgin undefiled").
Catholic & Eastern Churches believe pedophile Joseph is a Saint, that's the same as an Uswa Hasana in Islam
A saint and an uswa hasana are nothing alike. The entire Islamic faith, almost all of its laws, rituals, and moral principles, are defined by the uswa hasana's actions. A saint has no similar function in Christianity. Their actions do not determine Christian laws, rituals, or moral principles in any way. Joan of Arc and countless others are Catholic saints too, but that means very little to how one practices Christianity.
Muhammad is the central figure of Islam, Joseph is not the central figure of Christianity. Islam would not exist if Muslims decided Muhammad was immoral. On the other hand, for Christians of any stripe, Joseph is a "non entity" as far as its theology is concerned. The closest analogy to Muhammad and an uswa hasana in Christianity is the figure of Jesus, and very few non-Christians would argue that their view of Christians and Christianity would not improve if his followers behaved more like him.
In addition, it is the same Catholic and Eastern Churches which consider Joseph a saint, who also hold to the belief of Mary's perpetual virginity. Since Mary's ever-lasting virginity is an integral part or "pillar" of their faith, and most modern theologians think the Pope could reverse a sainthood without undermining the Church's doctrines, it is not hard to imagine what would have become of Joseph's saint status if he did have intercourse with Mary.
Furthermore, as has already been stated in the previous section, Joseph cannot be labeled as a pedophile by anyone's standards because there is no authoritative, or even apocryphal, Christian text that state an adult Joseph had sex with a child Mary. Therefore, even if the status of saint was equivalent to that of an uswa hasana, it would not matter to a Christian or help Muslims in excusing the actions of Muhammad.
If Muhammad was a pedophile, then so is the Christian god for impregnating Mary
Ignoring the fact that a pedophile by its very definition means someone who is sexually attracted to pre-pubescent children, so a teenager of child-bearing age is not pre-pubescent, it has already been shown in a previous section that there is no authoritative Christian text which state Mary's age. Claims about her age are, at best, educated guesses, but guesses none-the-less.
Additionally, the apocryphal literature (the Christian equivalent of weak or fabricated hadith) used to gather information on Mary's possible age actually reveal she may have been 16 at the time of her marriage, not 12.
Even if we were to assume she was 12 at the time, there still remain several problems with this claim.
According to the Bible, Mary became with child by "the power of the Highest", a phrase that does not, or does not necessarily, correspond to Mary being "impregnated."
Even if we do accept that the Christian god "impregnated" Mary, both Christians and Muslims believe God is omnipotent. Therefore sexual intercourse, something which would have to take place if we were to accept this claim, is not necessary in order to achieve this. For example, artificial insemination needs no sexual intercourse. If humans can create a method to impregnate people without the need for sexual intercourse, why can an omnipotent deity not do the same? Of course, from an omnipotent entity, this would not need to be a physical procedure, nor would there be a need for the hymen to be torn.
Muslims also believe in the virgin birth. So, if Muslims insist the Christian god must have had sex with Mary in order to have a son, it is tantamount to an admission that, according to Islam, Allah must have also had sex with Mary in order for her to conceive Jesus.
In short; the Christian text do not mention anything of a sexual nature, i.e. there was no penis or any other indicator suggesting a sexual experience. Clearly, if there was no physical contact involved, then there was no sexual contact. Without this much needed sexual contact, there is no pedophilia.
Conversely, the Qur'an explicitly tells us Allah (or Gabriel if we refer to the tafsir text) blew into Mary's vagina in order for her to conceive Jesus.
Americans and Europeans both considered child marriages to be acceptable
Yes, that is correct. But note the past tense. They considered, not consider. Marriage to young girls was previously seen as normal, and yet most Americans and Europeans today, both religious and secular, find child marriages to be repulsive. Could this be because they have no uswa hasana (an excellent model of conduct) who married and had sex with a child?
This would explain why there is not a single mainstream Christian who argues in favor of child-marriages on the basis that "Saint Joseph (allegedly) did it 2000 years ago", "King Richard II did it 600 years ago" or that banning it would be "un-Christian". Whilst the majority of mainstream Muslim scholars argue in favor of child-marriages on the basis that "Prophet Muhammad did it 1400 years ago", "the Prophet's Companions did it" or that banning it would be "un-Islamic". In some cases, Muhammad and Aisha's relationship has even been used to effectively "turn back the clock" by legalizing child marriages in places today where they were previously illegal.
Man-made laws have evidently evolved with our morality, whilst Shari'ah (consisting of the Qur'an and Sunnah) are seen as Allah's unalterable holy law. To attempt to change it would be considered blasphemous, as it constitutes Bid'ah, something which was forbidden by Muhammad himself. What can be altered is Islamic jurisprudence, but as that is extracted from, and cannot contradict, Shari'ah, the results tend to remain unacceptable to the modern world. The world has moved on, but Islam mostly has not.
Even today, there are states in America that allow girls to get married at 15, 14 or even 13
The age of marriage in the US varies by State, but is generally 18 (with two exceptions where the minimum age is actually higher). Most states, however, allow minors below 18 to marry (generally at 16 but sometimes lower) with parental and/or judicial consent.
These early marriage laws are for teenagers who fall in love, may or may not have gotten pregnant, and wish to get married. They do not allow pedophiles to indulge in their sexual fantasies.
Using the State of Texas as an example; the age of marriage is 18, but with parental or judicial consent it is lowered to 14. Likewise, the age of consent is 18. However, when a girl is under the age of 17, her sexual partner can be no more than 3 years older, and it must be proven that there was no duress, i.e. there was understood consent between the couple. So a 14 year-old can have sex with a 17 year-old with consent, but not with an 18 year-old. The 18 year-old would be a sex offender guilty of statutory rape.
If contemporary American laws are applied to a 54 year-old Muhammad, this would mean any attempts by him to marry a minor in any State would be denied by law, and an admission of sexual relations would result in him being charged with statutory rape and becoming a registered sex offender.
- A’isha: Mohammed’s Nine-Year Old Wife - MuslimHope
- Muhammad, Aisha, Islam, and Child Brides - Answering Islam
- Was Muhammad a Pedophile? An Examination of Muhammad’s Relationship with a Nine-Year-Old Girl - Answering Islam
- Let's clear up all this pedophilia garbage... - FFI forum discussion on another defence of Muhammad's marriage to a child
- Was Prophet Muhammad a Pedophile? - FFI forum discussion on why Mohammed actually waited 3 years before consummation
- How many times name of the holy prophet Muhammad mentioned in Quran? - Answers.com, accessed October 24, 2011
- Much like the hadith literature and prophetic biographies, the early non-Muslim references to Muhammad that do exist seem to paint a very negative picture of him. For example; the Doctrina Jacobi portrays him as a bandit, and the Mandaeans' Haran Gawaitha depicts him as the "Son-of-Slaughter, the Arab" converting "people to himself by the sword."
- According to the Qur'an, one can marry and have sexual intercourse with a child who has not yet reached her menses. In Quran 65:4, the Qur'an addresses divorce and how long one should wait for remarriage after the divorce of females who are too old or too young to menstruate, in Arabic called iddah (the stipulated waiting period). So we are told in this verse normally women should wait three monthly periods, but if she's too old or too young to menstruate then you should simply measure by three moon phases. From Quran 33:49 it is understood that the Iddah is required only if sexual contact has occurred within the marriage. If a woman is not touched by her husband, she should not have to observe any waiting period at all. Hence for a child who has not yet reached her menses having to observe the Iddah must mean that sexual intercourse had already taken place within her previous marriage. For further details, see: Pedophilia in the Qur'an
- Sheik Abdul-Aziz Ibn Baaz, supreme religious authority of Saudi Arabia: "...If she is married without her permission, by threat or coercion, then the marriage is not valid. The only exeption is in the case of the father and his daughter who is less than nine years of age. There is no harm if he gets her married while she is less than nine years old, according to the correct opinion. This is based on the messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) marrying Aisha without her consent when she was less than nine years old, as is stated in authentic Hadith..." - Questions Related to Marriage/ Is it allowed for a father to force his daughter to marry a specific man that she does not want to marry? - Muslim Students Organization of the University of Houston
- Sheikh Hamoud Hashim al-Tharihi, general secretary of the Vice and Virtue Committee and member of the Islah Party in Yemen: "Because this happened to the Prophet, we cannot tell people that it is prohibited to marry at an early age" - Child marriage and divorce in Yemen - Jenny Cuff, BBC, November 6, 2008
- Mufti Fazlul Haque Amini: "Banning child marriage will cause challenging the marriage of the holy prophet of Islam, who also married minor Ayesha, when she was just eight years old. The new law [seeking to ban child marriages] initiated by the current government [of Bangladesh] will put the moral character of the prophet into controversy and challenge. Islam permits child marriage and it will not be tolerated if any ruler will ever try to touch this issue in the name of giving more rights to women." - Islamist leader threatens of waging Jihad - Weekly Blitz, April 20, 2011
- Former governor and current senator of Zamfara State, Nigeria, Ahmed Sani Yerima:
"Child marriage in Islam is permissible. In the Koran there is no specific age of marriage...[If the government imposed new laws against child marriage] There will be violent conflict from the Muslims, saying that 'no, we will not accept this, we'd rather die than accept something which is not a law from Allah.'" - "Nigeria Child Brides-Broken Lives", Times Online, November 28, 2008 (archived), http://www.wunrn.com/news/2008/11_08/11_24_08/112408_nigeria.htm.
And again in 2013:
"As was expected, former governor and current senator of Zamfara State Ahmed Sani Yerima reiterated his support for marrying off underage girls Saturday saying he could give out his six-year old daughter in marriage if he so wished. Last Tuesday, the Senator successfully prevented an amendment to the second part of Section 22 of the constitution by the Senate, which dwells on affirming someone as of age once the person is married, though the person could be lower than 18 years in age. He answered his critics in an online publication saying he did not deserve such criticisms. Here is the full statement: "Nigeria has many uncountable problems and none of them is early marriage. As a matter of fact early marriage (is) the solution to about half of our problems. For those who wonder if I can give my daughter(s) out in marriage at the age of 9 or 13, I tell you most honestly, I can give her out at the age of 6 if I want to and it’s not your business. This is because I am a Muslim and I follow the example of the best of mankind, Muhammad ﺻَﻠَّﻰ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪُ ﻋَﻠَﻴْﻪِ ﻭَﺳَﻠَّﻢَ..."", "I Could Marry Off My Six Year Old Daughter If I So Wished, Senator Ahmed Yerima Replies Critics", The Nigeria Today, July 21, 2013 (archived), http://thenigeriatoday.net/i-could-marry-off-my-six-year-old-daughter-if-i-so-wished-senator-ahmed-yerima-replies-critics/ Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Imam Sani" defined multiple times with different content
- Sheikh Mohamed Ben Abderrahman Al-Maghraoui: "The marriage of nine-year-old girls is not forbidden because according to the Hadith (the Prophet Mohammed's sayings), Mohammed married Aisha when she was only seven-years-old and he consummated his union when she was nine." - Moroccan theologian: Muslim girls can wed at nine - Middle East Online, September 15, 2008
- Imam Muhammad ibn Majah Al-Qazwini, Trans. Nasiruddin Al-Khattab, "Sunan Ibn Majah (5 Vol. Set)", Dar-us-Salam Publications, First Edition, ISBN 9789960988139, June 2007 (archived), http://store.dar-us-salam.com/product/H15.html.
- Sunan Ibn Majah, "The Book of Purification and its Sunnah - كتاب الطهارة وسننها", Sunnah.com, English ref: Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 662, Arabic ref: Book 1, Hadith 707, accessed June 30, 2013 (archived), http://sunnah.com/urn/1256610.
- Muzammil Siddiqi, "May People Act According to a Weak Hadith?", Islam Online, Fatwa Bank, September 27, 2003 (archived from the original), http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=https%3A%2F%2Fweb.archive.org%2Fweb%2F20061216005731%2Fhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.islamonline.net%2Fservlet%2FSatellite%3Fpagename%3DIslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar%2FFatwaE%2FFatwaE%26cid%3D1119503547442&date=2014-03-15.
- The authenticity follows directly after the narration's text, so it is impossible to miss: "It was narrated from a freed slave of 'Aishah that: 'Aishah said: "I never looked at (or I never saw) the private part of the Messenger of Allah." (Da'if)(One of the narrators) Abu Bakr (Ibn Abu Shaibah) said: "Abu Nu'aim would say: '(From) a freed female slave of 'Aishah.'""
- "Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet used to pass by (have sexual relation with) all his wives in one night, and at that time he had nine wives." - Sahih Bukhari 7:62:142
- "Narrated Qatada: Anas bin Malik said, "The Prophet used to visit all his wives in a round, during the day and night and they were eleven in number." I asked Anas, "Had the Prophet the strength for it?" Anas replied, "We used to say that the Prophet was given the strength of thirty (men)." And Sa'id said on the authority of Qatada that Anas had told him about nine wives only (not eleven)." - Sahih Bukhari 1:5:268
- "Narrated 'Aisha: Sauda asked the permission of the Prophet to leave earlier at the night of Jam', and she was a fat and very slow woman. The Prophet gave her permission." - Sahih Bukhari 2:26:740
- "Narrated Aisha: Whenever Allah's Apostle wanted to go on a journey, he would draw lots as to which of his wives would accompany him. He would take her whose name came out. He used to fix for each of them a day and a night. But Sauda bint Zam'a gave up her (turn) day and night to 'Aisha, the wife of the Prophet in order to seek the pleasure of Allah's Apostle (by that action)." - Sahih Bukhari 3:47:766 See also: Sahih Bukhari 3:48:853, Sahih Muslim 8:3451 & Sahih Muslim 8:3452
- "Narrated Aisha: When the Prophet married me, my mother came to me and made me enter the house (of the Prophet) and nothing surprised me but the coming of Allah's Apostle to me in the forenoon." - Sahih Bukhari 7:62:90
- "Narrated 'Aisha: I used to wash the semen off the clothes of the Prophet and even then I used to notice one or more spots on them." - Sahih Bukhari 1:4:233
- "Abdullah b. Shihab al-Khaulani reported: I stayed in the house of 'A'isha and had a wet dream (and perceived its effect on my garment), so (in the morning) I dipped both (the clothes) in water. This (act of mine) was watched by a maid-servant of A'isha and she informed her. She (Hadrat A'isha) sent me a message: What prompted you to act like this with your clothes? He (the narrator) said: I told that I saw in a dream what a sleeper sees. She said: Did you find (any mark of the fluid) on your clothes? I said: No. She said: Had you found anything you should have washed it. In case I found that (semen) on the garment of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) dried up, I scraped it off with my nails." - Sahih Muslim 2:572 See Also Sahih Muslim 2:566, Sahih Muslim 2:567, Sahih Muslim 2:568, Sahih Muslim 2:569, Sahih Muslim 2:570, Sahih Muslim 2:571
- "Narrated 'Aisha: The Prophet and I used to take a bath from a single pot while we were Junub. During the menses, he used to order me to put on an Izar (dress worn below the waist) and used to fondle me." - Sahih Bukhari 1:6:298
- "Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin: The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to kiss her and suck her tongue when he was fasting." - Sunan Abu Dawud 13:2380
- "Narrated 'Aisha: I used to play with the dolls in the presence of the Prophet, and my girl friends also used to play with me. When Allah's Apostle used to enter they used to hide themselves, but the Prophet would call them to join and play with me. (The playing with the dolls and similar images is forbidden, but it was allowed for 'Aisha at that time, as she was a little girl, not yet reached the age of puberty.) (Fateh-al-Bari page 143, Vol.13)" - Sahih Bukhari 8:73:151
- Little Girls Playing With Dolls - The Islamic Ruling Concerning Tasweer, Abu Muhammad Abdur-Ra'uf Shakir
- Frederic Thomas, François Renaud, Eric Benefice, Thierry de Meeus, Jean-Francois Guegan, "International Variability of Ages at Menarche and Menopause: Patterns and Main Determinants," Human Biology: Volume 73, Number 2, April 2001, pp. 271-290, 10.1353/hub.2001.0029
"Mean Age at Menarche and References
Algeria 14.3 Grassivaro-
Egypt 13.2 Attallah (1978)
Morocco 13.75* Loukid et al.
Sudan 13.75 Attallah et al. (1983) — —
Yemen 14.4 Yemen Arab Republic Fertility
Cameroon 14.61 Biyong et al.
Congo-Brazza 12.0 Samba (1982)
Congo-Kinshasa 13.83 Rashid-Tozin
Ghana 13.98 Adadevoh et
Kenya 14.4 Rogo et al. (1987)
Nigeria 15.0* Morabia et al.
Senegal 16.1 Simondon et al. (1997) — —
Somalia 14.78 Gallo (1975) — —
Sudan 13.75 Attallah et al. (1983) — —
Tanzania 15.21 Hautvast (1971) — —
Zambia 13.7 Katzarski et al. (1980) — —
Zimbabwe 13.5 Mbizvo et al. (1995) — —
USA 12.8 Malina and Bouchard (1991)
Britain 13.3 Mascie-Taylor
Table 1. Mean (or Median*) Age at Menarche and Country
Algeria 14.3 Grassivaro-
Argentina 12.59 Zurlo de Mirotti
Australia 13.0* Morabia et
Bangladesh 15.8 Riley and Khan
Belgium 13.0* Vercauteren
Britain 13.3 Mascie-Taylor
Cameroon 14.61 Biyong et al.
Canary Islands — —
Chile 13.0* Morabia et
China 12.38* Huen et al.
Colombia 12.8 Pardo and Uriza
Congo-Brazza 12.0 Samba (1982)
Congo-Kinshasa 13.83 Rashid-Tozin
Cuba 13.01 Jordan-Rodriguez
Czechoslovkia 14.6 Magursky et
Denmark 13.0 Helm and Grolund
Dominican Rep. 12.6 Mancebo (1990)
Egypt 13.2 Attallah (1978)
Finland 13.2 Dahlstrom
France 13.05* Crognier (1979)
Age Variability at Menarche and Menopause / 275
East Germany 14.0* Morabia et al.
Ghana 13.98 Adadevoh et
Greece 12.0 Pentzos-Daponte Peters (1984)
Guatemala 13.75 Khan et al. (1995)
Haiti 15.37 Barnes-Josiah
Hungary 12.9 Dober and Kiralyfalvi
Iceland 13.06 Macgusson
India (Punjab) 14.31 Singh and Ahuja
Indonesia 13.0 Samsudin (1990)
Ireland 13.52 Hoey et al. (1986)
Israel 13.29 Belmaker (1982)
Italia 12.2 Zoppi (1992)
Jamaica 13.1 Jamaica National (1988)
Japan 12.5 Nakamura et
Kenya 14.4 Rogo et al. (1987)
Malaysia 14.2 Wilson (1985)
Mexico 12.4 Garcia-Baltazar
Morocco 13.75* Loukid et al.
Nepal (high altitude) 16.2* Beall (1983)
New-Zealand 12.9 St George et
Nicaragua 14.0 Guido et al.
Nigeria 15.0* Morabia et al.
Norway 13.2* Nafstad et al.
Papua New Guinea 15.8 Groos and Smith
Peru 13.23 Soto-Caceres Servigon
Philippines 13.6 Zablan (1988)
Poland 13.06 Laska-Mierzejewska et al. (1982) — —
Romania 13.47 Stukovsky et al. (1967) — —
Russia 13.0 Iampol’skaia (1997) 49.0 Balan (1995)
Sardinia 12.78* Floris et al. (1987) — —
Senegal 16.1 Simondon et al. (1997) — —
Somalia 14.78 Gallo (1975) — —
South Africa (black women) — — 49.2 Walker et al. (1984)
Southern Korea 13.9 Kim et al. (1986) — —
Spain 12.31 de la Puente et al. (1997) — —
Sri Lanka 13.5 Balasuriya and Fernando (1983) — —
Sudan 13.75 Attallah et al. (1983) — —
Sweden 13.09 Furu (1976) 50.9* Hagstad (1988)
Switzerland 13.0 Morabia et al. (1996) 50.0 Morabia et al. (1996)
Tahiti 12.75* Ducros and Ducros (1987) — —
Taiwan 13.6 Chow et al. (1997) 49.5 Chow et al. (1997)
Tanzania 15.21 Hautvast (1971) — —
Thailand 12.3 Piya-Anant et al. (1997) 50.3 Tungphaisal et al. (1991)
Turkey 13.28 Vicdan et al. (1996) 47.8 Carda et al. (1998)
United Arab Emirates — — 47.3 Rizk et al. (1998)
USA 12.8 Malina and Bouchard (1991) 51.3* Kato et al. (1998)
Venezuela 12.68* Farid-Coupal et al. (1981) — —
Yemen 14.4 Yemen Arab Republic Fertility Survey (1979) — —
Zambia 13.7 Katzarski et al. (1980) — —
Zimbabwe 13.5 Mbizvo et al. (1995) — —"
- Also see this table on the mean ages of menarche around the world (Reference: "Average age at menarche in various cultures," The Museum of Menarche (mum.org), accessed January 12, 2013).
- Average age at menarche in various cultures - Mum.org, accessed January 12, 2013
- "Narrated Aisha: The Prophet engaged me when I was a girl of six (years). We went to Medina and stayed at the home of Bani-al-Harith bin Khazraj. Then I got ill and my hair fell down. Later on my hair grew (again) and my mother, Um Ruman, came to me while I was playing in a swing with some of my girl friends. She called me, and I went to her, not knowing what she wanted to do to me. She caught me by the hand and made me stand at the door of the house. I was breathless then, and when my breathing became Allright, she took some water and rubbed my face and head with it. Then she took me into the house. There in the house I saw some Ansari women who said, "Best wishes and Allah's Blessing and a good luck." Then she entrusted me to them and they prepared me (for the marriage). Unexpectedly Allah's Apostle came to me in the forenoon and my mother handed me over to him, and at that time I was a girl of nine years of age." - Sahih Bukhari 5:58:234
- "... then Abu Bakr asked [the Prophet] "O Messenger of God, what prevents you from consummating the marriage with your wife?" The Prophet said "The bridal gift (sadaq)."..." - al-Tabari Volume XXXIX, pp. 171-173
- Ryan C. W. Hall, MD, and Richard C. W. Hall, MD, PA, - "A profile of Pedophilia: Definition, Characteristics of Offenders, Recidivism, Treatment Outcomes and Forensic Issues" - Page 459, April 2007;82(4):457-471 • www.mayoclinicproceedings.com
- "Narrated 'Ursa: The Prophet asked Abu Bakr for 'Aisha's hand in marriage. Abu Bakr said "But I am your brother." The Prophet said, "You are my brother in Allah's religion and His Book, but she (Aisha) is lawful for me to marry."" - Sahih Bukhari 7:62:18
- "He [Albert Tony Walker] began showing affection to married women, and grooming the group’s younger women to be his “spiritual brides.” He convinced Silva that allowing him to bed her daughters was the right thing to do, talking to her for hours about saving them from “some worldly guy,” she recalled. “He said, ‘God had given us the power to bring on the seed of God, and how great would that be to have your children blessed?’ ” Kalena is a grown woman and mother of two now with honey-brown hair cascading down to her waist. Her clear blue eyes grow tearful when she remembers how Walker began separating her from her mother and siblings at age 11 to fondle her. At 12, he began raping her, telling her he wanted her to bear his child. Eventually, at 16, she did get pregnant." - Family members who lost faith find justice - Andria Simmons, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, February 27, 2011
- "Narrated Abu Haraira: Allah's Apostle said, "A lady slave should not be given in marriage until she is consulted, and a virgin should not be given in marriage until her permission is granted." The people said, "How will she express her permission?" The Prophet said, "By keeping silent (when asked her consent)." Some people said, "If a man, by playing a trick, presents two false witnesses before the judge to testify that he has married a matron with her consent and the judge confirms his marriage, and the husband is sure that he has never married her (before), then such a marriage will be considered as a legal one and he may live with her as husband." - Sahih Bukhari 9:86:100, See Also: Sahih Bukhari 9:86:98 and Sahih Bukhari 9:86:101
- "m3.13 Guardians are of two types, those who may compel their female charges to marry someone, and those who may not. 1. The only guardians who may compel their charge to marry are a virgin bride's father or father's father, compel meaning to marry her to a suitable match (def: m4) without her consent. 2. Those who may not compel her are not entitled to marry her to someone unless she accepts and gives her permission. Whenever the bride is a virgin, the father or father's father may marry her to someone without her permission, though it is recommended to ask her permission if she has reached puberty. A virgin's silence is considered as permission." - Reliance of the Traveller: A Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law - Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, Edited and Translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller
- Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr, Al-Istidhkaar, 16/49-50: "The scholars are unanimously agreed that a father may marry off his young daughter without consulting her. The Messenger of Allaah married ‘Aa’ishah bint Abi Bakr when she was young, six or seven years old, when her father married her to him." - Is it acceptable to marry a girl who has not yet started her menses? - Islam Q&A, Fatwa No. 12708
- "According to the Shari'ah, if a girl is a minor (did not attain puberty), she may be given in marriage by her father. When she attains puberty, she has the right to maintain the marriage or discontinue the marriage. There is no age limit to be intimate with one's wife even if she is a minor." - I would like to marry a woman who is 12 years old, her father and she has also agreed. What is your advise? - Islamic Q & A Online with Mufti Ebrahim Desai, Ask-Imam, Question No. 6737
- "As a prophet of his polygamist sect, Warren Jeffs documented everything he did, keeping track of every marriage he performed, every young woman he wed, and even recording his intimate moments ... Jeffs had 78 wives in addition to his legal spouse, and 24 of them were under age 17, said Eric Nichols, lead prosecutor for the Texas Attorney General's office, which is handling the case ... Jurors deliberated for 3½ hours before finding Jeffs guilty of sexually assaulting two girls, ages 12 and 15, whom he'd wed during what his sect considers "spiritual marriages." Prosecutors used DNA evidence to show Jeffs fathered a child with the older victim and played an audio recording of what they said was him sexually assaulting the younger girl ... Jeffs' sect has more than 10,000 members nationwide who believe polygamy brings exaltation in heaven. Both victims entered into unions with Jeffs willingly, and did not participate in the trial against him. But Nichols said in his closing statement that the crimes were so egregious that under Texas law, convictions did not require the victim to bring charges." - Polygamist leader convicted of child sex assault - Will Weissert, Associated Press, August 5, 2011
- "Narrated 'Aisha: Magic was worked on the Prophet so that he began to fancy that he was doing a thing which he was not actually doing..." - Sahih Bukhari 4:54:490 see alsoSahih Bukhari 7:71:658, Sahih Bukhari 7:71:660, Sahih Bukhari 7:71:661, Sahih Bukhari 8:73:89, and Sahih Bukhari 8:75:400
- "Narrated 'Aisha: The Prophet heard a man (reciting Quran) in the Mosque, and he said, "May Allah bestow His Mercy upon him. No doubt, he made me remember such-and such Verses of such-and-such Sura which I dropped (from my memory)..." - Sahih Bukhari 3:48:82
- "Narrated Aswad: Ibn Az-Zubair said to me, "Aisha used to tell you secretly a number of things. What did she tell you about the Ka'ba?" I replied, "She told me that once the Prophet said, 'O 'Aisha! Had not your people been still close to the pre-Islamic period of ignorance (infidelity)! I would have dismantled the Ka'ba and would have made two doors in it; one for entrance and the other for exit." Later on Ibn Az-Zubair did the same." - Sahih Bukhari 1:3:128
- "Narrated Aisha: I used to look down upon those ladies who had given themselves to Allah's Apostle and I used to say, "Can a lady give herself (to a man)?" But when Allah revealed: "You (O Muhammad) can postpone (the turn of) whom you will of them (your wives), and you may receive any of them whom you will; and there is no blame on you if you invite one whose turn you have set aside (temporarily).' (33.51) I said (to the Prophet), "I feel that your Lord hastens in fulfilling your wishes and desires."" - Sahih Bukhari 6:60:311
- "... He (Muhammad b. Qais) then reported that it was 'A'isha who had narrated this: ... I said: There is nothing. He said: Tell me or the Subtle and the Aware would inform me. I said: Messenger of Allah, may my father and mother be ransom for you, and then I told him (the whole story). He said: Was it the darkness (of your shadow) that I saw in front of me? I said: Yes. He struck me on the chest which caused me pain, and then said: Did you think that Allah and His Apostle would deal unjustly with you?..."" - Sahih Muslim 4:2127
- "I would say something which would make the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) laugh, so he said: Messenger of Allah, I wish you had seen (the treatment meted out to) the daughter of Khadija when you asked me some money, and I got up and slapped her on her neck. Allah's Messenger (mav peace be upon him) laughed and said: They are around me as you see, asking for extra money. Abu Bakr (Allah be pleased with him) then got up went to 'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) and slapped her on the neck, and 'Umar stood up before Hafsa and slapped her saying: You ask Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) which he does not possess. They said: By Allah, we do not ask Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) for anything he does not possess." - Sahih Muslim 9:3506
- "Narrated 'Aisha: The things which annul the prayers were mentioned before me. They said, "Prayer is annulled by a dog, a donkey and a woman (if they pass in front of the praying people)." I said, "You have made us (i.e. women) dogs. I saw the Prophet praying while I used to lie in my bed between him and the Qibla. Whenever I was in need of something, I would slip away for I disliked to face him."" - Sahih Bukhari 1:9:490
- "Stockholm Syndrome has also been explained in evolutionary terms. Historically raptio (e.g., Rape of the Sabine women) and bride kidnapping have been (and still are in some places) very common practices. Women who were kidnapped and consistently fought back were likely to be killed or imprisoned and thus not have children. But women who bonded with and submitted to their captors were more likely to have children and their children were more likely to receive the genes that made their mothers more passive and bonding towards their captors. And over several generations, this made the population of humans more genetically prone to submission and bonding when kidnapped." - Stockholm Syndrome - Wikipedia, accessed October 13, 2011
- Goodwin, Jan. Price of Honour: Muslim Women Lift the Veil of Silence on the Islamic World. UK: Little, Brown Book Group, 1994
- "Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah: While we were returning from a Ghazwa (Holy Battle) with the Prophet, I started driving my camel fast, as it was a lazy camel A rider came behind me and pricked my camel with a spear he had with him, and then my camel started running as fast as the best camel you may see. Behold! The rider was the Prophet himself. He said, 'What makes you in such a hurry?" I replied, I am newly married " He said, "Did you marry a virgin or a matron? I replied, "A matron." He said, "Why didn't you marry a young girl so that you may play with her and she with you?" When we were about to enter (Medina), the Prophet said, "Wait so that you may enter (Medina) at night so that the lady of unkempt hair may comb her hair and the one whose husband has been absent may shave her pubic region." - Sahih Bukhari 7:62:16
- "Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: When I got married, Allah's Apostle said to me, "What type of lady have you married?" I replied, "I have married a matron' He said, "Why, don't you have a liking for the virgins and for fondling them?" Jabir also said: Allah's Apostle said, "Why didn't you marry a young girl so that you might play with her and she with you?'" - Sahih Bukhari 7:62:17
- "(Suhayli, ii. 79: In the riwaya of Yunus I. I. recorded that the apostle saw her (Ummu'lFadl) when she was a baby crawling before him and said, 'If she grows up and I am still alive I will marry her.' But he died before she grew up and Sufyan b. al-Aswad b. 'Abdu'l-Asad al-Makhzumi married her and she bore him Rizq and Lubab..." - Ibn Ishaq, The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah, translated by A. Guillaume [Oxford University Press, Karachi]
- "Muhammad saw Um Habiba the daughter of Abbas while she was fatim (age of nursing) and he said, "If she grows up while I am still alive, I will marry her."" - Musnad Ahmad, Number 25636
- "Narrated Abu Usaid: We went out with the Prophet to a garden called Ash-Shaut till we reached two walls between which we sat down. The Prophet said, "Sit here," and went in (the garden). The Jauniyya (a lady from Bani Jaun) had been brought and lodged in a house in a date-palm garden in the home of Umaima bint An-Nu'man bin Sharahil, and her wet nurse was with her. When the Prophet entered upon her, he said to her, "Give me yourself (in marriage) as a gift." She said, "Can a princess give herself in marriage to an ordinary man?" The Prophet raised his hand to pat her so that she might become tranquil. She said, "I seek refuge with Allah from you." He said, "You have sought refuge with One Who gives refuge. Then the Prophet came out to us and said, "O Abu Usaid! Give her two white linen dresses to wear and let her go back to her family." Narrated Sahl and Abu Usaid: The Prophet married Umaima bint Sharahil, and when she was brought to him, he stretched his hand towards her. It seemed that she disliked that, whereupon the Prophet ordered Abu Usaid to prepare her and to provide her with two white linen dresses. (See Hadith No. 541)." - Sahih Bukhari 7:63:182
- According to the most stringent clinical definition of pedophilia, the DSM-IV-TR, a pedophile is someone who (1) over a period of at least six months, has had recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child or children (generally age 13 years or younger). (2) has acted on these sexual urges, or the sexual urges or fantasies have caused marked distress or interpersonal difficulties. (3) is at least aged 16 years and at least 5 years older than the child or children in Criterion 1. Note: This does not include an individual in late adolescence involved in an ongoing sexual relationship with a 12- or 13-year-old.
- Kiddushin (tosafot) 41a
- Yebamot 44a
- Sanhedrin 76a
- "O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones, and (divination by) arrows, are an abomination,- of Satan's handwork: eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper." - Qur'an 5:90-91
- "Mohammed had many male and female slaves. He used to buy and sell them, but he purchased more slaves than he sold, especially after God empowered him by His message, as well as after his immigration from Mecca. He once sold one black slave for two. His name was Jacob al-Mudbir. His purchases of slaves were more than he sold. He was used to renting out and hiring many slaves, but he hired more slaves than he rented out." - Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, "Zad al-Ma'ad", part 1, page 160
- "These are the names of Muhammad's male slaves: Yakan Abu Sharh, Aflah, 'Ubayd, Dhakwan, Tahman, Mirwan, Hunayn, Sanad, Fadala Yamamin, Anjasha al-Hadi, Mad'am, Karkara, Abu Rafi', Thawban, Ab Kabsha, Salih, Rabah, Yara Nubyan, Fadila, Waqid, Mabur, Abu Waqid, Kasam, Abu 'Ayb, Abu Muwayhiba, Zayd Ibn Haritha, and also a black slave called Mahran, who was re-named (by Muhammad) Safina (`ship')" - Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, "Zad al-Ma'ad", part 1, Pages 114-116
- "Muhammad's Maid Slaves "are Salma Um Rafi', Maymuna daughter of Abu Asib, Maymuna daughter of Sa'd, Khadra, Radwa, Razina, Um Damira, Rayhana, Mary the Coptic, in addition to two other maid-slaves, one of them given to him as a present by his cousin, Zaynab, and the other one captured in a war." - Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, "Zad al-Ma'ad", part 1, Pages 114-116
- "....Waqidi has informed us that Abu Bakr has narrated that the messenger of Allah (PBUH) had sexual intercourse with Mariyyah [his Coptic slave] in the house of Hafsah...." - Tabaqat v. 8 p. 223 Publisher Entesharat-e Farhang va Andisheh Tehran 1382 solar h ( 2003) Translator Dr. Mohammad Mahdavi Damghan
- "A rock was put on a slave's chest. When Abu Bakr complained, they said, 'You are the one who corrupted him, so save him from his plight.' I will do so,' said Bakr. 'I have a black slave, tougher and stronger than Bilal, who is a heathen. I will exchange him. The transaction was carried out." - Ishaq:144
- "And most surely you conform (yourself) to sublime morality." - Quran 68:4
- Questions about Apostasy (Blasphemy) - Al Sunna.org
- Islamist leader threatens of waging Jihad - Weekly Blitz, April 20, 2011
- yessir - Child Marriage - Death Of 13 Year Old Bride After Wedding - A BIG MESSAGE, April 10, 2010
- YEMEN: Deep divisions over child brides - IRIN, March 28, 2010
- Outcry over Malaysian child marriages - Sydney Morning Herald, August 4, 2010
- "....You were shown to me twice (in my dream) before I married you. I saw an angel carrying you in a silken piece of cloth, and I said to him, 'Uncover (her),' and behold, it was you. I said (to myself), 'If this is from Allah, then it must happen....." - Sahih Bukhari 9:87:140
- Gil Student - The Talmud Does Not Permit Sex With A Three Year Old - The Real Truth About The Talmud, accessed March 23, 2012
- Charles Souvay - St. Joseph - The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 24 Oct. 2011
- "The chief sources of information on the life of St. Joseph are the first chapters of our first and third Gospels; they are practically also the only reliable sources, for, whilst, on the holy patriarch's life, as on many other points connected with the Saviour's history which are left untouched by the canonical writings, the apocryphal literature is full of details, the non-admittance of these works into the Canon of the Sacred Books casts a strong suspicion upon their contents; and, even granted that some of the facts recorded by them may be founded on trustworthy traditions, it is in most instances next to impossible to discern and sift these particles of true history from the fancies with which they are associated. Among these apocryphal productions dealing more or less extensively with some episodes of St. Joseph's life may be noted the so-called "Gospel of James", the "Pseudo-Matthew", the "Gospel of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary", the "Story of Joseph the Carpenter", and the "Life of the Virgin and Death of Joseph"." - St. Joseph - Charles Souvay, The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 24 Oct. 2011
- Apocrypha - Wikipedia, accessed October 24, 2011
- Annunciation - Wikipedia, accessed October 24, 2011
- "It will not be without interest to recall here, unreliable though they are, the lengthy stories concerning St. Joseph's marriage contained in the apocryphal writings. When forty years of age, Joseph married a woman called Melcha or Escha by some, Salome by others; they lived forty-nine years together and had six children, two daughters and four sons, the youngest of whom was James (the Less, "the Lord's brother"). A year after his wife's death, as the priests announced through Judea that they wished to find in the tribe of Juda a respectable man to espouse Mary, then twelve to fourteen years of age. Joseph, who was at the time ninety years old, went up to Jerusalem among the candidates; a miracle manifested the choice God had made of Joseph, and two years later the Annunciation took place. These dreams, as St. Jerome styles them, from which many a Christian artist has drawn his inspiration (see, for instance, Raphael's "Espousals of the Virgin"), are void of authority; they nevertheless acquired in the course of ages some popularity; in them some ecclesiastical writers sought the answer to the well-known difficulty arising from the mention in the Gospel of "the Lord's brothers"; from them also popular credulity has, contrary to all probability, as well as to the tradition witnessed by old works of art, retained the belief that St. Joseph was an old man at the time of marriage with the Mother of God." - St. Joseph - Charles Souvay, The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 24 Oct. 2011
- "This marriage, true and complete, was, in the intention of the spouses, to be virgin marriage (cf. St. Augustine, "De cons. Evang.", II, i in P.L. XXXIV, 1071-72; "Cont. Julian.", V, xii, 45 in P.L. XLIV, 810; St. Thomas, III:28; III:29:2). But soon was the faith of Joseph in his spouse to be sorely tried: she was with child. However painful the discovery must have been for him, unaware as he was of the mystery of the Incarnation, his delicate feelings forbade him to defame his affianced, and he resolved "to put her away privately; but while he thought on these things, behold the angel of the Lord appeared to him in his sleep, saying: Joseph, son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife, for that which is conceived in her, is of the Holy Ghost. . . And Joseph, rising from his sleep, did as the angel of the Lord had commanded him, and took unto him his wife" (Matthew 1:19, 20, 24)." - St. Joseph - Charles Souvay, The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 24 Oct. 2011
- Perpetual virginity of Mary - Wikipedia, accessed October 24, 2011
- The History of Joseph the Carpenter - Interfaith Online, accessed October 24, 2011
- Brian Palmer - Your Halo, Please? - Slate Magazine, April 5, 2010
- "And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God." - Luke 1:35 (King James Version)
- N.B. Note that King Richard II's marriage to a child was never consummated. Although he visited his young bride nearly every day, they lived in different houses and did not sleep under the same roof, let alone in the same bed. King Richard was murdered when Queen Isabella was only eleven years old, and she was at that time still a virgin. Medieval Europeans, especially royalty, frequently arranged marriages in which one or both parties were prepubescent. But it was extremely unusual for such a marriage to be consummated before puberty.
- "Getting married at an early age is something that is confirmed by the book of Allah, the Sunnah of his Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam), the consensus of the scholars and the actions of the companions, and the Muslims who came after them... There are many Ahadith which confirm that marriage at an early age was widespread among the companions and no one denied its permissibility. Getting married at an early age was not peculiar to the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) as some people think, but it was general for him and for his Ummah. The following are some of the actions of the Sahaba (companions): 1. Ali Ibn Abi Talib, may Allah be pleased with him, married his daughter, Um Kulthum to Omar Ibn Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, and she mothered a child before the death of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam). Omar got married to her while she was young before reaching the age of puberty. This is reported by Ibn Saad in 'Al-Tabaqat'. 2. From Urwa Ibn Zubair: that Zubair, may Allah be pleased with him, married his daughter when she was very young. Reported by Saeed Ibn Mansour, in his Sunnah, and Ibn Abi Shaibah, in Al-musannaf, with a Sahih chain of narration. Al-Shafie said in the book of Al-Um: "Many companions of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) married their daughters while these were still young." - Child marriage in Islam, Islamweb, Fatwa No. 88089, June 24, 2004
- "A'isha reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who innovates things in our affairs for which there is no valid (reason) (commits sin) and these are to be rejected." - Sahih Muslim 18:4266
- "Narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "If somebody innovates something which is not in harmony with the principles of our religion, that thing is rejected." - Sahih Bukhari 3:49:861
- Khalid Baig - Sunnah and Bid'ah - Albalagh, May 5, 2001
- Concept of Bidah in Islam - Alahazrat International Islamic Web
- Nebraska (19) and Mississippi (21).
- "Sec. 21.11. Indecency With A Child.
(a) A person commits an offense if, with a child younger than 17 years of age, whether the child is of the same or opposite sex, the person: (1) engages in sexual contact with the child or causes the child to engage in sexual contact; or (2) with intent to arouse or gratify the sexual desire of any person: [...] (b) It is an affirmative defense to prosecution under this section that the actor: (1) was not more than three years older than the victim and of the opposite sex; (2) did not use duress, force, or a threat against the victim at the time of the offense; ", Texas Penal Code: Title 5. Offenses Against the Person. Chapter 21. Sexual Offenses