Dhimma

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Part of the regulations placed on Christians and Jews under the Dhimma system is that they are not allowed to repair or build anew their churches and synagogues - damaged architecture must remain so.

The dhimma is the "pact of protection" entailing the social rights, responsibilities, and restrictions entailed by the status of being a "dhimmi." According to orthodox Islamic law (Shari'ah), those who are qualified for Dhimmi status within the Muslim society are the free (i.e non-slave) Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians. Adherents of other religions, as well as those without religion, are asked to convert to Islam; if they refuse, they are to be forced to convert (or face execution, en masse). [1] However, historically, adherents of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and other religions, have lived as Dhimmis within Muslim states.

In the pre-Islamic northern Arabia of the prophets predecessors, different tribes existed in a constant state of warfare, with peace being the exception to the general rule of unending warfare[2]. The dhimma as a whole is conceived of in the Islamic tradition as "protection" of the non-Muslim from the endless state of jihad, itself a continuation of the war like state of the Arabs before Islam. If the conquered do not wish to pay or convert, their fate may very well be slavery (under which, rape is permitted) or death. The Pact of Umar also declares that dhimmis are forbidden to ride horses and camels, and may only ride donkeys, and only on packsaddles, and imposes many other restrictions besides these, all of which are meant to humiliate and humble the dhimmi while rendering his religion not a threat to Islam. In return the dhimmi receives the right to live and own property in the Islamic state. As such the Muslim jurists and scholars see it as a form of mercy and protection; in reality, though, the laws and strictures of the dhimma outlining legal discrimination against and limitations on religious minorities constitute a form of religious apartheid and second class citizenship. The limitations extend to but are not limited to freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom to marry the partner of one's choosing, freedom of movement, taxation without representation, the right to own and bear arms, and freedom from slavery and unpaid servitude. The implementation of these rules have varied over time, but Islamic scholars to this day continue to advocate for the implementation of the dhimma, and Islamist regimes in recent times such as the Islamic State, the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan have continued to implement elements of the dhimma in the modern age.

According to the Qur'an and hadith, the centerpiece of the dhimma contract is that the Jizyah tax must be paid by the dhimmis as a sign of submission. Legally, the payment of this tax grants the dhimmis some legal protection in return. As established by the Pact of Omar, dhimmis usually are not allowed to carry arms to protect themselves, serve in the army or government, display symbols of their faith, build or repair places of worship, they must wear distinctive clothing which includes the Zunar (a kind of belt) wherever they go (which parallels the Nazi practice of making Jews wear yellow badges), etc. Some of these laws are still enforced today in Muslim countries, like Egypt and Saudi Arabia, which enforce various aspects of Shari'ah, although the dhimma as a whole has not been enforced anywhere since the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after World War I.


Origins

According to Islamic sources the pact of the dhimma originated with Muhammad himself after the battle of Khaybar. Muhammad, having defeated the Jews of the oasis, destroyed their forts, killed their leader, taken his wife as his own, tortured and killed various of their number in order to find their treasures, and cut down their palm trees, allowed the surviving Jews to remain there on the condition that they pay half their crop to him and the Muslims [3]. This was the beginning of the jizyah and the dhimma. According to his biographer ibn S'ad, Muhammad would later write to a Christian ruler:

I will not fight against you unless I write to you in advance. So, join the fold of Islam or pay the jizyah. Obey Allah and His Apostle and the messengers of His Apostle, honour them and dress them in nice clothes.… Provide Zayd with good clothes. If my messengers will be pleased with you, I shall also be pleased with you.… Pay three wasaq of barley to Harmalah… [4]
Sa’d, Kitab Al-Tabaqat Al-Kabir, vol. 1, 328-329.

Here the beginnings of the tripartite offer can be glimpsed. The full trifecta of conversion to Islam, paying the Jizyah, or death would be finalized by the masterful Muslim general Khalid bin Al-Walid, the "Sword of Allah", in his jihad against the Christians of Iraq and their Zoroastrian overlords:

I call you to God and to Islam. If you respond to the call, then you are Muslims: You obtain the benefits they enjoy and take up the responsibilities they bear. If you refuse, then [you must pay] the jizyah. If you refuse the jizyah, I will bring against you tribes of people who are more eager for death than you are for life. We will then fight you until God decides between us and you.” [5]
Al-Tabari, The History of al-Tabari, vol. 11, The Challenge to the Empires, translated by Khalid Yahya Blankinship (State University of New York Press, 1993), 6

This tripartite offer of death, paying the jizya and accepting the dhimma, or converting to Islam would be copied by Islamic conquerors throughout the ages, from Spain to Indonesia, and is still found today in the declarations of war and "invitation" by Islamic terrorist groups such as Al-Qaeda.

The Pact Of Umar

The Pact of Umar is a historical document preserved by Islamic historians such as Al-Tabari which lays out the rights and responsibilities of the non-Muslims living under the Islamic rule of the 2nd Rashidun Caliph Umar. According to the legend recorded by Tabari, Umar concluded the pact with the grateful Christian Patriarch of Jerusalem, who led him about the city and prayed with him. In reality, Sophronius's surviving writings make no mention of Umar or even Islam as a whole, but bear witness to the terrible destruction wrought by the Arab invaders in the city. Although clearly legendary in character and subject to multiple layers of redaction, the document lays out a number of rules and stipulations for the conquered Christian population of Jerusalem. It is a document which was utilized frequently by later jurists dealing with the subject of the dhimma [6]. According to the body of the pact as preserved in later accounts, there were many rules that were placed on the newly minted Christian dhimmis of Jerusalem:

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate!

This is a writing to Umar from the Christians of such and such a city. When You [Muslims] marched against us [Christians],: we asked of you protection for ourselves, our posterity, our possessions, and our co-religionists; and we made this stipulation with you, that we will not erect in our city or the suburbs any new monastery, church, cell or hermitage; that we will not repair any of such buildings that may fall into ruins, or renew those that may be situated in the Muslim quarters of the town; that we will not refuse the Muslims entry into our churches either by night or by day; that we will open the gates wide to passengers and travellers; that we will receive any Muslim traveller into our houses and give him food and lodging for three nights; that we will not harbor any spy in our churches or houses, or conceal any enemy of the Muslims. [At least six of these laws were taken over from earlier Christian laws against infidels.]

That we will not teach our children the Qu'ran [some nationalist Arabs feared the infidels would ridicule the Qu'ran; others did not want infidels even to learn the language]; that we will not make a show of the Christian religion nor invite any one to embrace it; that we will not prevent any of our kinsmen from embracing Islam, if they so desire. That we will honor the Muslims and rise up in our assemblies when they wish to take their seats; that we will not imitate them in our dress, either in the cap, turban, sandals, or parting of the hair; that we will not make use of their expressions of speech, nor adopt their surnames [infidels must not use greetings and special phrases employed only by Muslims]; that we will not ride on saddles, or gird on swords, or take to ourselves arms or wear them, or engrave Arabic inscriptions on our rings; that we will not sell wine [forbidden to Muslims]; that we will shave the front of our heads; that we will keep to our own style of dress, wherever we may be; that we will wear girdles round our waists [infidels wore leather or cord girdles; Muslims, cloth and silk].

That we will not display the cross upon our churches or display our crosses or our sacred books in the streets of the Muslims, or in their market-places; that we will strike the clappers in our churches lightly [wooden rattles or bells summoned the people to church or synagogue]; that we will not recite our services in a loud voice when a Muslim is present; that we will not carry Palm branches [on Palm Sunday] or our images in procession in the streets; that at the burial of our dead we will not chant loudly or carry lighted candles in the streets of the Muslims or their market places; that we will not take any slaves that have already been in the possession of Muslims, nor spy into their houses; and that we will not strike any Muslim.

All this we promise to observe, on behalf of ourselves and our co-religionists, and receive protection from you in exchange; and if we violate any of the conditions of this agreement, then we forfeit your protection and you are at liberty to treat us as enemies and rebels..[7]
Pact of Umar, Quoted in Jacob Marcus, The Jew in the Medieval World: A Sourcebook, 315-1791, (New York: JPS, 1938), 13-15

Amongst the most promiment of these rules were the restrictions on building new places of worship, the stipulations on the different clothing that the dhimmis were forced to wear, the prohibition on copying Muslims in style, and the limitations on worship which the Christians had to abide by. The pact ends with recognition of the fact that if it is broke, the dhimmis will lose their "protection" and the jihad will resume against them. Although enforcement varied throughout the ages, all of these laws found implementation at different times and different places in the modern world up until the middle of the 20th century.

The Dhimma as Social Contract

The law professor Antoine Fattal offered the following analysis of dhimmitude after close study of Islamic law:

Dhimma (or dhimmitude) ... is one of the results of the jihad or holy war. ; Connected with the notion of jihad is the distinction between dar al-harb (territory or "house" of war) and dar al-islam (house of Islam). The latter includes all territories subject to Muslim authority. It is in a state of perpetual war with the dar al-harb. The inhabitants of the dar al-harb are harbis, who are not answerable to the Islamic authority and whose persons and goods are mubah, that is, at the mercy of Believers. However, when Muslims are in a subordinate state, they can negotiate a truce with the harbis lasting no more than ten years, which they are obliged to revoke unilaterally as soon as they regain the upper hand, following the example of the Prophet after Hudaibiyya The dhimmi, we might say, is a second-class citizen. If they [the ruling Muslims] tolerate him it is a calculated step, whether because they cherish the hope of converting him or for material reasons, because they force him to shoulder virtually the entire burden of taxation. They provide a place for him in the state, but not without reminding him continually of his inferior status. They prevent him from occupying high positions in society, and if by merit or intrigue he manages to climb to such places everything conspires to relegate him once again to obscurity. If the dhimmi acquires an independent legal status or privileges associated with his personal position, if he is permitted even his own courts, it is only because he cannot share with the Faithful the advantages of their own justice, which is essentially religious. In no case is the dhimmi the equal of a Muslim. He is condemned to social inequality and forms part of a despised caste: inequality so far as his personal rights are concerned, inequality in taxation, and inequality before the law, since his testimony is neither accepted by the Muslim courts of justice nor even, for the same minor crime, is the punishment the same ... No social relationship, no fellowship is possible between Muslims and dhimmis.[8]

Scriptural Basis in the Qur'an and Sunnah

The fuquhaa' (Islamic jurists) call on many sources in the Islamic canon of the Quran and Sunnah when dealing with the subject of the dhimma. The basis of the institution of the dhimma is found in the Qur'an:

Fight those who believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, nor hold that forbidden which hath been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion of Truth, (even if they are) of the People of the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.

This verse, laying out the subjugated position of the non-Muslim in the Muslim society by means of the jizya, is the main verse in the Qur'an upon which the entire legal theory of the dhimma is buit.

Beyond this verse, the attitude of the Qur'an, particularly as read by later mufassirun and Islamic scholars, towards unbelievers including the so-called "People of the Book" is unremittingly negative. The main understanding (in the traditional Islamic reading) is that the Jews and Christians are cursed for rejecting the message of the prophet:

And the Jews say: The hand of Allah is tied up! Their hands shall be shackled and they shall be cursed for what they say. Nay, both His hands are spread out, He expends as He pleases; and what has been revealed to you from your Lord will certainly make many of them increase in inordinacy and unbelief; and We have put enmity and hatred among them till the day of resurrection; whenever they kindle a fire for war Allah puts it out, and they strive to make mischief in the land; and Allah does not love the mischief-makers.
The Jews call 'Uzair a son of Allah, and the Christians call Christ the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouth; (in this) they but imitate what the unbelievers of old used to say. Allah's curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the Truth!

Ibn Kathir in his tafsir explains the meaning of the Jizya verse in surah at-Tauba (Surah 9):

Paying Jizyah Is a Sign of Kufr and Disgrace Allah said, "until they pay the Jizyah," if they do not choose to embrace Islam, "with willing submission," in defeat and subservience, "and feel themselves subdued," disgraced, humiliated and belittled. Therefore, Muslims are not allowed to honor the people of Dhimmah or elevate them above Muslims, for they are miserable, disgraced, and humiliated. Muslim recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Propeht said, "Do not initiate the Salam to the Jews and the Christians, and if you meet them in a raod, force them to its narrowest alley. " This is why the Leader of the faithful `Umar b. Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, demanded his well-known conditions be met by the Christians, these conditions that ensured their continued humiliation, degradation, and disgrace. The scholars of Hadith narrated from Abdur-Rahman b. Ghanm Al-Ash'ari that he said, "I recorded for `Umar b. Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, the tems of the treaty of peace he conducted with the Christians of Ash-Sham: `In the Name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. This is a document to the servant of Allah, `Umar the Leader of the faithful, for the Christians of such and such city. When you [Muslims] came to us we requested safety for ourselves, children, property and followers of our religion. We made a condition on ourselves that we will neither erect in our areas a monastery, church, or a sanctuary for a monk, nor restore any place of worship that needs restoration nor use any of them for the purpose of enmity against Muslims. We will not prevent any Muslim from resting in our churches whether they come by day or night, and we will open the doors [of our houses of worship] for the wayfarer and passerby. Those Muslims who come as guests, will enjoy boarding and food for three days. We will not allow a spy against Muslims into our churches and homes or hide deceit [or betrayal] against Muslims. We will not teach our children the Qur'an, publicize practices of Shirk, invite anyone to Shirk or prevent any of our fellows from embracing Islam, if they choose to do so. We will respect Muslims, move from places we sit in if they choose to sit in them. We will not imitate their clothing, caps, turbans, sandals, hairstyles, speech, nicknames and title names, or ride on saddles, hang swords on the shoulders, collect weapons of any kind or carry these weapons. We will not encrypt our stamps in Arabic, or sell liquor. We will have the front of our hair cut, wear our customary clothes wherever we are, wear belts around our waist, refrain from erecting crosses on the outside of our churches and demonstrating them and our books in public in Muslim fairways and markets. We will not sound the bells of our churches, except discretely, or raise our voices while reciting our holy books inside our churches in the presence of Muslims, nor raise our voices [with prayer] at our funerals, or light torches in funeral processions in the fairways of Muslims, or in their markets. We will not bury our dead next to Muslim dead, or buy servants who were captured by Muslims. We will be guides for Muslims and refrain from breaching privacy in their homes.' When I gave this document to `Umar, he added to it, `We will not beat any Muslim. These are the conditions that we set against ourselves and followers to our religion in return for safety and Allah said, "Fight against those who believe not in Allah, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger, and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth among the People of the Scripture, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued. "
Tafsir of Ibn Kathir on Qur'an 9:29


The "Aman" or peace that the Islamic state affords to the conquered people comes with many conditions according to ibn Kathir:

We made a condition on ourselves that we will neither erect in our areas a monastery, church, or a sanctuary for a monk, nor restore any place of worship that needs restoration nor use any of them for the purpose of enmity against Muslims. We will not prevent any Muslim from resting in our churches whether they come by day or night, and we will open the doors [of our houses of worship] for the wayfarer and passerby. Those Muslims who come as guests, will enjoy boarding and food for three days. We will not allow a spy against Muslims into our churches and homes or hide deceit [or betrayal] against Muslims. We will not teach our children the Qur'an, publicize practices of Shirk, invite anyone to Shirk or prevent any of our fellows from embracing Islam, if they choose to do so. We will respect Muslims, move from places we sit in if they choose to sit in them. We will not imitate their clothing, caps, turbans, sandals, hairstyles, speech, nicknames and title names, or ride on saddles, hang swords on the shoulders, collect weapons of any kind or carry these weapons. We will not encrypt our stamps in Arabic, or sell liquor. We will have the front of our hair cut, wear our customary clothes wherever we are, wear belts around our waist, refrain from erecting crosses on the outside of our churches and demonstrating them and our books in public in Muslim fairways and markets. We will not sound the bells of our churches, except discretely, or raise our voices while reciting our holy books inside our churches in the presence of Muslims, nor raise our voices [with prayer] at our funerals, or light torches in funeral processions in the fairways of Muslims, or in their markets. We will not bury our dead next to Muslim dead, or buy servants who were captured by Muslims. We will be guides for Muslims and refrain from breaching privacy in their homes.' When I gave this document to `Umar, he added to it, `We will not beat any Muslim. These are the conditions that we set against ourselves and followers to our religion in return for safety and protection. If we break any of these promises that we set for your benefit against ourselves, then our Dhimmah (promise of protection) is broken and you are allowed to do with us what you are allowed of people of defiance and rebellion.
Tafsir of Ibn Kathir on Qur'an 9:29

Fiqh Around the Institution of the Dhimma

The Dhimma revolved around the payment of the Jizyah, which was both a source of income for the Muslims of the Islamic state and a source of humiliation and subjection for the conquered dhimmi people. Islamic scholar Abu Yusuf outlines the reason for this:

The wali [governor of a province] is not allowed to exempt any Christian, Jew,

Magian [Zoroastrian], Sabean, or Samaritan from paying the tax, and no one can obtain a partial reduction. It is illegal for one to be exempted and another not, because their lives and possessions art: spared only on

account of the payment of the poll tax, which serves in lieu of the kharaj related to their possessions. [p. 189]
Abu Yusuf, quoted in Bat Ye'or From Jihad to Dhimmitude:The Decline of Eastern Christianity Under Islam

The "protection" afforded to the dhimmis was conditional upon the payment of the jizya. As such the dhimmi was required to carry the receipt of his jizya on his person at all times, lest a Muslim demand to see proof of his "protection." Abu Yusuf outlines how this was to be accomplished

Concerning the Costume and Appearance of the Tributaries Furthermore, you must set a seal upon their necks when the poll tax is collected and until all have been passed in review, though these seals may later be broken at their request, as did Uthman b. Hunayf.
Abu Yusuf, quoted in Bat Ye'or From Jihad to Dhimmitude:The Decline of Eastern Christianity Under Islam

At other periods in Islamic history, the Dhimmi was also allowed to carry the receipt in paper form on their person.

Abu Yusuf further outlines the strictures of the pact of the dhimma:

You have succeeded in ordering that none of them should have the freedom to resemble a Muslim by his dress, his mount, or his appearance; that all should wear a belt <zunnar> at the waist similar to a coarse string, which each must knot in the middle; that their bonnets be quilted; that their saddles carry, instead of a pommel, a piece of wood like a pomegranate; that their footwear be furnished with double straps. That they avoid coming face to face with Muslims; that their womenfolk do not ride on padded saddles; that they do not build new synagogues or churches within the town and restrict themselves to using, as places of worship, those which existed at the time of the treaty that transformed them into tributaries, and which were left to them without having been demolished; the same applies to the funeral pyres [of the Zoroastrians]. It is tolerated for them to live in the main towns, to buy and sell in Muslim markets, but selling neither wine nor pigs, and without displaying crosses in the main towns; but their headgear should be long and coarse. Consequently, command your representatives to oblige the tributaries to respect these requirements in their appearance, as Umar
Abu Yusuf, quoted in Bat Ye'or From Jihad to Dhimmitude:The Decline of Eastern Christianity Under Islam

Legal Theory and Framework

The main operative theory of the dhimma derives from the concept of jihad. Until the entire world is conquered for the religion of Allah, the blood and treasury of every infidel on earth is lawful to be taken by the Muslim ummah. The dhimma is a pact of "protection" between the Muslim state and the non-Muslim. In return for fay, jizya and kharaaj the Muslim state ceases the state of jihad upon the dhimmi and allows him to keep his family, safety and some of his property. The pact comes with many strings attached though: the stipulations of the dhimma entail many restrictions upon the life and freedoms of the dhimmi which are designed to protect and promote the Islamic religion.

Jizya, Kharaj and Fay

The classic trifecta of options that the jihadist presents to the enemies of Islam (conversion, death, or paying the jizya), were attributed to Muhammad but first offered to infidel people's in Iraq by the brilliant jihad general Khalid bin Al-Walid, the "Sword of God." The jizya is the operative legal condition of the dhimma; so long as the dhimmis pay it as the Qur'an says "saaghirun" (صاغرون) (surat 9, At-Tauba, verse 29), that is "subdued/in a position of submission", they are afforded the protections of the dhimmah. In order that they might feel "subdued", jurists have traditionally ruled that the tax must be rendered with the dhimmi kneeling in a submissive position, receiving ritual blows on both sides of his head, and in other ways suffering indignities meant to remind him of his lowly position.

Slavery

The dhimmi is by definition not a slave; despite his ostensibly free status though, dhimmis were historically often subject to the collection of corvees or forced labor. In addition to this, later Islamic practices of recruitment of children from amongst the dhimmi populations such as the Turkish devshirme more or less amounted to a form of slavery. In many ways the believing slave was often superior in social position to the ostensibly free dhimmi; multiple Islamic dynasties such as the Mamluks in Egypt found their origin in Muslim slave warriors, but dhimmis were always limited in what they could accomplish and how far they could rise in Muslim states.

Rights and Role of the Dhimmi Clergy

The jurists established strict rules for the interactions between the Muslim ummah and the dhimmi populations, and these rules designated the clergy as the intermediary through which Muslim emirs would rule their cowed dhimmi subjects. As such Muslim authorities took great interest in the elections of Christian and Jewish clergy to their offices, often favoring one party or the other, and as a consequence many favored Christian clergy were the willing agents of the dhimma's humiliation and exploitation of their flocks.

Historical Implementation

Implementation varied from Muslim state to Muslim state. The weakness of Muslim and instability of Muslim states often prompted the intensification of the persecution of the dhimmis. There was often tension between the emirs of Muslim states who wished to lighten the burden of the dhimmah on their dhimmah subjects in the interest of economic objectives and later to appease the powerful European Christian states which came to dominate them, and the Ulema who generally agitated for more faithful and stricter implementation of the strictures of the dhimmah.

Dhimmitude

Scholar Bat Ye'or see the social rules, restrictions, and customs originating in and evolving from the dhimmah as producing a state of what she calls Dhimmitude in the subject peoples. This fearful state was characterized by obedience to the dhimmis' Muslim masters, acceptance of the assumptions underlying the dhimmah (about such things as the superiority of Islam), behavior which sought to mollify and please the dhimmis' Muslim masters, and inter-dhimmi rivalry, bigotry and even bloodshed aimed at securing a more favored position vis-a-vis the Muslim ummah. In her book Understanding Dhimmitude she offers the following characteristics of Dhimmitude:

The main characteristics of the dhimmi condition brought by this situation are: in the legal domain:

a) the Islamic notion of protection; b) the notion of toleration;

in the economic domain: the notion of fay (booty); and in the social domain: the notion of vilification.
Ye'or, Bat Understanding Dhimmitude RVP Publishers, New York, New York, USA, 2013, 95

By Islamic protection, she refers to the operative theory of Jihad in Islamic Law. All people of the earth live in two realms: Dar al-Harb and Dar al-Islam (the Abodes of War and Peace). The residents of the Abode of War, Dar-al-Harb, are the harbis. Their blood is legal for the Muslims; that is they are allowed to kill them wherever they find them. This is natural state of the world according to the fuquha'. The dhimma, a cessation of this state, this constitutes protection from this never ending jihad. Instead of their Shirk being stomped out by force, their erroneous religions are allowed, graciously, to exist by the Muslims. As such, they ought in fact to be grateful for the dhimma. This "right" granted by the dhimma is the right to life, which is contingent on the payment of the Jizyah poll tax. Most of the jurists agree that failure to this tax must result in the continuation of the state of jihad upon the dhimmi, that is in his death [9]:

The wali [governor of a province] is not allowed to exempt any Christian, Jew, Magean, Sabaen, or Samaritan from paying the tax, and no one can obtain a partial reduction. It is illegal for one to be exempted and another not, for their lives and belongings are spared only because of payment of the poll tax. [. . .]3
Abu Yusuf Ya’kub, 189, Le Livre de l’Impôt Foncier (Kitab al-Kharadj), trans. and annotated by E. Fagnan (Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1921), English quotation in Ye’or, The Dhimmi, 168.

By fay she uses the Arabic word (فيء) fay' which means the booty of war. According to the rules of jihad, the imam (leader) of the Muslims is to keep the fay has a waqf (وقف) or collective trust of the entirety of the Ummah (the community of Muslims). In accordance with these rules, the conquered people, their wealth, their women and children, their land, their property, and the fruit of their labor constitute the communal fay of the Muslim ummah or national communi9ty. The dhimma is this a structured way of leveraging this communal property according to the 8th century Muslim jurist Abu Yusu :

But I thought that we had nothing more to conquer after the land of Kesra [Persia], whose riches, land, and people Allah has given us. I have divided the personal possessions among those that conquered them after having subtracted a fifth, which under my supervision was used for the purpose for which it was intended. I thought it necessary to reserve the land and its inhabitants, and levy from the latter the kharaj by virtue of their land, and the capitation [jizya] as a personal tax on every head, this poll tax making up a fay in favor of the Muslims who have fought there, of their children and of their heirs.
Abu Yusuf Ya’kub, 189, Le Livre de l’Impôt Foncier (Kitab al-Kharadj), trans. and annotated by E. Fagnan (Paris: Paul Geuthner, 1921), English quotation in Ye’or, The Dhimmi 165

The 11th century jurist Ibn Hazm elaborates:

God has established the infidel's ownership of their property only for the institution of booty for Muslims.
“La Guerre Sainte, selon Ibn Hazm de Cordoue,” in Etudes d’Orientalisme dédiées à la mémoire de Lévi-Provençal, Vol. II, (Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose, 1962), 457 English translation from Ye'or, Islam and Dhimmitude, 429, n. 32.

The dhimmis are not to be reduced to slavery, but their economic output is to be harvested by the Muslims through the jizyah and the kharaaj and the other taxes and duties imposed on them, as well as through corvees or forced labor.

By vilification, Ye'or refers to the rituals, rules, laws, and regulations of the dhimma which are meant to humiliate the dhimmi and his religion, thus Ye'or brings the examples of the legal status of dhimmis vis-a-vis Muslims in the Islamic polity. Dhimmis were not allowed to hit or strike a Muslim, even in defense, and even in situations where their life was threatened by the Muslim; furthermore, in cases of criminal import, their testimony was inadmissible in Muslim courts[10]; in fact in such cases dhimmis were often forced to buy the testimony of Muslims for the sake of their defense [11]. The requirement that dhimmis be struck about the neck and head when rendering the jizaya were also part of this vilification. These stipulations were meant to humiliate and vilify the conquered people, thus pushing them inexorably to convert to Islam throughout the ages.

See Also

External Links

References

  1. [1] - Islam Q&A (Archived), Fatwa No. 34770
  2. Rudolph Peters. Jihad: A History in Documents. Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-55876-608-2. OCLC 1000108084, 2016. https://books.google.com/books?id=q45hjwEACAAJ. 
  3. Littman, G., 1985. The Dhimmi. 1st ed. Rutherford [N.J.]: Fairleigh Dickinson Univ. Pr., 44
  4. Spencer, Robert. The History of Jihad: From Muhammad to ISIS (p. 42). Bombardier Books. Kindle Edition
  5. Spencer, Robert. The History of Jihad: From Muhammad to ISIS (p. 49). Bombardier Books. Kindle Edition.
  6. G. LEVI DELLA ViDA-fM. BONNER, "Umar," in The Encyclopedia Islam, ed. Philip Mattar, 1st ed., vol. 10 (Leiden: Brill The Netherlands, 2000), 819.
  7. [2] - Internet Jewish History Sourcebook (Archived), October 8, 2021
  8. [3] - AINA (Archived, 8 October, 2021
  9. Ye'or, Bat Understanding Dhimmitude RVP Publishers, New York, New York, USA, 2013, 95-96
  10. Ye'or, Bat Understanding Dhimmitude RVP Publishers, New York, New York, USA, 2013, 95
  11. Ye'or, Bat The Dhimmi Associated University Press, Cranbury, New Jersey, USA, 1985, 56