WikiIslam:Sandbox/Məhəmməd tərəfindən sifariş və yaxud dəstəklənən qətllər

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Ərəbistan və İslami işğallar tarixi boyu sui-qəsdlər siyasi və dini məqsdələrə çatmaq üçün vacib rol oynamışdır.İngilis dilində sui-qəsd mənasını verən "assassin" sözü ərəb "[1] dilindən keçmədir.

Aşağıdakı siyahı Məhəmməd peyğəmbər tərəfindən sifariş edilən və ya dəstəklənən sui-qəsdlər,onların nəticələri və səbəblərindən ibarətdir

Qətllərin siyahısı


      Məhəmməd tərəfindən sifariş edilən       Məhəmməd tərəfindən dəstəklənən lakin sifariş edilməyən       Qadın və ya uşaq       Mürtədlər
      Şeir yazmaq və oxumağa görə       Təhqirə görə       Faiz qazancına görə


Ad Tarix Qətli dəstəkləməsinin və ya sifariş etməsinin səbəblərii Nəticə Əsas,etibarlı mənbələr
1 Əsma bint Mərvan Yanvar 624[2] Əsma bint Mərvanı şeirləri ilə Məhəmmədə qarşı gəldiyi və digərlərini də buna təhrik etdiyi üçün[3][4][2]

Əsma bint Mərvan öldürüldü[2][5]

  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah[6]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[3]
2 Əbu Afaq Fevral 624[7] Yəhudi şair Əbu Afaqı şeirləri ilə Məhəmmədə qarşı gəldiyi üçün[4][6][7][8]

Əbu Afaq öldürüldü[7][6][4]

  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah[9]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[10]
3 Əl Nadir ibn əl-Həris Bədr döyüşündən sonra
Mart 624[11]
Mübarəkpuriyə görə, Əl Nadir Bədr savaşında tutulmuşdu .Bu hadisədən sonra Əl Nadirin edam edilməsi üçün Quran ayəsi nazil oldu,o öz qəbiləsi tərəfindən pul verib azad idilməsinə icazə verilməyən 2 şəxsdən biri idi, çünki o Məhəmməd peyğəmbəri tənqid edən şeir və hekayələr yazırdı[11][12]

Nadir bin Həris İmam Əli tərəfindən edam edildi[11][12]

4 Uqba bin Əbu Muayt Bədr döyüşündən sonra
Mart 624 [11]
Uqba bin Əbu Muayt Bədr savaşında tutulmuşdu lakin o,pulla verib azad edilmə əvəzinə edam olundu,çünki o,Məhəmmədin üstünə ölü heyvanın içalatını atmışdı və Məhəmməd namaz qılanda onun bağırsağını Məhəmmədin boğazına bağlamışdı[11][12]

Uqba bin Əbu Muaytın başı Asim ibn Tabbit və ya Əli tərəfindən kəsildi[11][12]

  • Sunan Abu Dawud no. 2680 (with commentary from Awnul Mabud 3/12)[14]
  • Sahih Bukhari 1:9:499
  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah[15]
  • Tabari, Volume 9, The last years of the Prophet[16]
5 Kaa'b ibn əl-Əşrəf Sentyabr 624[17][18][19] İbn İşaqa görə, Məhəmməd müridlərinə əl-Əşrəfi öldürməsini əmr etdi çünki "Bədr savaşından sonra Məkkəyə gedib Məhəmmədi tənqid etmişdi.O həmdə Bədr savaşında öldürülən Qureyşli qurbanların ah-naləsinə şərik olan ayələr yazmışdı. Bundan az sonra o Mədinəyə qayıdanda müsəlman qadınların təbiəti haqqında təhqiramiz ayələr yazmışdı".[20][21]

Kaa'b ibn əl-Əşrəf öldürüldü[21]

6 Əbu Rafi ibn Əbi Əl-Huqayiq Dekabr 624[22] Əbu Rafi ibn Əbi Əl-Huqayiqi şeirləri ilə Məhəmmədi lağa qoyduğu və müttəfiqlərin hərbi birliklərinə pul və digər şeylərlə təchizatlandırdıqlarına görə[23][22]

Əbu Rafi öldürüldü[23][22]

7 Xalid ibn Süfyan 625[27] Xalid ibn Süfyanı öldür çünki onun haqqında Mədinəyə hücum etdiyi və Naxla və ya Urana qəbilələrini müsəlmanlara qarşı vuruşmağa təhrik etməsi xəbərləri var[27][28]

Xalid ibn Süfyan öldürüldü[27][28]

  • Musnad Ahmad 3:496[29]
  • Abu Dawud, book 2 no.1244[30]
  • Ibn Hisham, Sirat Rasul Allah[27]
  • Tabari, Volume 9, The last years of the Prophet[31][32]
8 Əbu Əzzah Əmr bin Abdullah əl-Cumahi March 625[33] Əbu Əzzah Əmr bin Abdullah əl-Cumahini müharibə əsiri idi və Həmra əl-Əsədin işğalında tutulmuşdu.Məhəmməd onu azad etmişdi lakin o yenidən ona qarşı vuruşmuşdu [34][35]

Əbu Əzzahın Əli tərəfindən başı kəsildi[34][35]

  • Tabari, Volume 7, The foundation of the community[35]
9 Müaviyə bin əl Muğərah March 625[33] Müaviyə bin əl Muğərah Məhəmməd tərəfindən casus olmaqda ittiham olunmuşdu. O öz əmi oğlusu Osmanın yanına sığınmağa getmişdi,və Osman Müaviyənin Məkkəyə qayıdışını təşkil etmişdi,lakin o Mədinədə çox qaldı.Məhəmməd onun hələ də Mədinədə olduğunu öyrərəndən sonra,peyğəmbər onun tutulub edam olunmasını əmr etdi. [34][36]

Müaviyə bin əl Muğərah tutuldu və edam edildi[34][37]

  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah[37]
10 Al-Harith bin Suwayd al-Ansari Mart 625[33] Kill Al-Harith bin Suwayd[38] because according to some Islamic traditions, Allah revealed Qur'an 3:86-8, which indicated that those who reject Islam after accepting it should be punished.[39] Al-Harith bin Suwayd was a Muslim who fought in the Battle of Uhud and killed some Muslims, he then joined the Quraysh and left Islam. After being threatened with those verses, Al-Harith sent his brother to Muhammad to ask for his forgiveness.[37][40][41]

Conflicting reports

  1. Muhammad allowed his return but then decided to kill him. Al-Harith was beheaded by Uthman[37][40]
  2. Allah revealed Qur'an 3:89 and Al-Harith repented and "became a good Muslim"[41][39]
11 Abu Sufyan 627[42] Amr bin Umayyah al-Damri sent to assassinate Abu Sufyan (Quraysh leader)[43][43]

3 polytheists killed by Muslims[43]

  • Tabari, Volume 7, The foundation of the community[44]
12 Banu Qurayza tribe Fevral–Mart 627[45]

Attack Banu Qurayza because according to Muslim tradition he had been ordered to do so by the angel Gabriel.[46][47][48][49][50][51] One of Muhammad's companions decided that "the men should be killed, the property divided, and the women and children taken as captives". Muhammad approved of the ruling, calling it similar to God's judgment,[49][50][52][53][54] after which all male members of the tribe who had reached puberty were beheaded[47][55]

Muslims: 2 killed[46]
Non-Muslims:

  1. 600-900 beheaded (Tabari, Ibn Hisham)
    [46][47][56]
  2. All Males and 1 woman beheaded
    (Hadith)[57][58]
13 Abdullah ibn Ubayy Dekabr 627[42]
(Banu Müstəliqin işğalı zamanı)[62] )
Kill Abdullah ibn Ubayy, who was accused by Muhammad of slandering his family by spreading false rumors about Aisha (his wife).[63] His son offered to behead him[64][65]

Muhammad calls off assassination and says to Umar "if I had had him (Abdullah bin Ubai) killed, a large number of dignitaries would have furiously hastened to fight for him"[66] Later he reveals a Quran verse forbidding Muslims from attending the funeral of disbelievers and "hypocrites"[67][68]

14 Al-Yusayr ibn Rizam Fevral 628[42] Kill Al-Yusayr ibn Rizam because Muhammad heard that his group was preparing to attack him[69][70]

30 killed by Muslims[69][70]

  • Tirmidhi no. 3923[71]
  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah[72]
15 Eight men from 'Ukil Fevral 628[42] Kill 8 men who came to him and converted to Islam, but then apostatized, killed one Muslim and drove off with Muhammad's camels[73]

Muslims: 1 killed
Non-Muslims: 8 tortured to death[73][74]

16 Rifa’ah bin Qays 629[76][77] To kill Rifa’ah bin Qays, because Muhammad heard they were allegedly enticing the people of Qais to fight him[77]

1 beheaded,[78] 4 women captured by Muslims[79]

  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah[78]
  • Tabari, Volume 8, History of Islam[79]
17 Abdullah bin Khatal Məkkəni fəthi və ya sonrası
(Yanvar 630)[80][81][82]
Kill Abdullah bin Khatal for killing a slave and fleeing, as well and for reciting poems insulting Muhammad[80][81][82]

2 Muslims execute him, after finding him hiding under the curtains of the Ka'aba[80][81][82]

18 Fartana Məkkəni fəthi və ya sonrası
(Yanvar 630)[80][85]
Kill Fartana (a slave girl of Abdullah ibn Khatal), because she used to recite poems insulting Muhammad[80][82]

Fartana is killed[80][82][85]

19 Quraybah Məkkəni fəthi və ya sonrası
(Yanvar 630)[80]
Kill Quraybah (a slave girl of Abdullah ibn Khatal), because she used to recite poems insulting Muhammad[80]

Quraybah converts to Islam and is pardoned[80][84]

20 Huwayrith ibn Nafidh Məkkəni fəthi və ya sonrası
(Yanvar 630)[80]
When Muhammad's daughters were fleeing Medina, he stabbed their camels, causing injuries. He was a poet who "disgraced and abused" Islam[80][82][87]

Huwayrith ibn Nafidh killed[82][87] by Ali[80]

  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah[83]
21 Miqyas ibn Subabah Məkkəni fəthi və ya sonrası
(Yanvar 630)[80]
Miqyas killed a Muslim who accidentally killed his brother, and escaped to Mecca and became an apostate by embracing polytheism[80][82][83][87]

Miqyas killed[80][82][87]

  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah[83]
22 Sarah Məkkəni fəthi və ya sonrası
(Yanvar 630)[80]
Kill Sarah, because Muhammad claimed that she used to molest him while he was in Mecca[80][83]

Conflicting reports:

  1. Ibn Ishaq reports that she embraced Islam but was killed later, during the time of Umar[83]
  2. Tabari reports she was killed[88]
  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah[83]
  • Tabari, Volume 8, History of Islam[88]
23 Harith ibn Hisham Məkkəni fəthi və ya sonrası
(Yanvar 630)[80]
Kill Harith ibn Hisham, reason unknown[80][83]

According to Ibn Sa'd, Zubayr ibn Abi Umayyah and Harith ibn Hisham both sought refuge in a Muslim relatives house, the relative pleaded with Muhammad for mercy, so he pardoned them on the condition they embrace Islam[80][89]

  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah[83]
  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[89]
24 Zubayr ibn Abi Umayyah Məkkəni fəthi və ya sonrası
(Yanvar 630)[80]
Kill Zubayr ibn Abi Umayyah, reason unknown[80][83]

See above result[80][83]

  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah[83]
25 Habbar Ibn al-Aswad bin Ka`b al-`Ansi Məkkəni fəthi və ya sonrası
(Yanvar 630)[80]
Kill Habbar ibn al-Aswad because he was a "liar",[90][91] he claimed he was a Prophet[90]

Habbar ibn al-Aswad killed[90][91]

26 Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl Məkkəni fəthi və ya sonrası
(Yanvar 630)[80]
Kill Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl, bcause he was hostile to Muhammad like his father Abu Jahl[80][83]

Conflicting reports

  1. Ibn Ishaq says, his wife "became a Muslim and asked for immunity for him and the apostle gave it"[83]
  2. Tabari says he was "eliminated"[93]
  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah[83]
  • Tabari, Volume 8, History of Islam[93]
27 Wahshi ibn Harb Məkkəni fəthi və ya sonrası
(Yanvar 630)[80]
Kill Wahshi ibn Harb, for killing Muhammad's uncle during the Battle of Uhud[80]

Wahshi ibn Harb pardoned by Muhammad after he asks for forgiveness and offers to convert to Islam[80][94]

  • Ibn Sa'd, Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2[94]
28 Ka'b ibn Zuhayr ibn Abi Sulama Məkkəni fəthi və ya sonrası
(Yanvar 630)[80]
Assassinate Ka'b ibn Zuhayr ibn Abi Sulama for writing satirical poems about Muhammad[80][95][96][97]

Ibn Ishaq wrote that Muhammad said "Leave him alone, he has become a repentant Muslim after the disposal of his past.", so he was pardoned[96][97]

  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah[97]
29 Al-Harith bin al-Talatil Məkkəni fəthi və ya sonrası
(Yanvar 630)[80]
For mocking Muhammad through poetry[80]

Al-Harith bin al-Talatil is killed by Ali[80][98]

  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah[98]
30 Abdullah ibn Zib'ari Məkkəni fəthi və ya sonrası
(Yanvar 630)[80]
Kill Abdullah ibn Zib'ari, for writing insulting poems about Muhammad[80]

Abdullah ibn Zib'ari repents and converts to Islam, so Muhammad pardoned him[80]

  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah
31 Hubayrah Məkkəni fəthi və ya sonrası
(Yanvar 630)[80]
Kill Hubayrah, for mocking Muhammad through poetry[80]

Tabari Volume 39 states, Hubayrah "ran away when Mecca was conquered, and died in Najran as an infidel"[80]

  • Tabari, Volume 39, Biographies of the Prophet's companions and their successors[99]
32 Hind bint Utbah Məkkəni fəthi və ya sonrası
(Yanvar 630)[80]
Kill Hind bint Utbah (wife of Abu Sufyan) for cutting out the heart of Muhammad's uncle Hamza after he died, during the Battle of Uhud[80]

Tabari said, Hind "swore allegiance and became a Muslim.",[100] she was pardoned by Muhammad[80]

33 Amr ibn Jihash (convert to Islam)[101] Banu Nadirin işğalı zamanı[101]
(Avqust 625)[102]
According to Ibn Kathir and Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad said to Yamin bim Umayr, about Amr ibn Jash "Have you seen the way your cousin has treated me and what he proposed to do?"[103][101] Muhammad accused him of trying to assassinate him[104]

Amr ibn Jihash is assassinated after a Muslim offers a reward for his killing[101]

  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah[103]
34 King or Prince of Dumatul Jandal Oktyabr 630[105] Attack the chief of Duma for Jizyah and booty[106][107]

1 killed, 2 taken captive[108]

35 Umaiya bin Khalaf Abi Safwan Bilinmir Kill Umaiya bin Khalaf, Muhammad's reason is unknown.[110] But Bilal wanted to kill him for torturing him[111]

Umaiya bin Khalaf killed by Bilal[110][111]

36 Blind man's wife/concubine Bilinmir Muhammad supported this killing because the women insulted him[112][113]

Blind Muslim kills his wife/concubine[112][113]

37 Ibn Sunayna Bilinmir Muhammad reportedly ordered his followers to "kill any Jew that falls into your power", Muhayissa heard this and went out to kill Ibn Sunayna (a Jew)[114][115]

Ibn Sunayna killed by Muhayissa[114][115]

38 Abdullah ibn Sa‘ad Bilinmir Kill Abdullah ibn Sa‘ad, because he became and apostate (left Islam) and fled to Mecca. He also claimed that he was the one who wrote the Qur'an and started to mock Muhammad, which made him angry[117]

A misunderstanding leads to his pardoning. Abdullah ibn Sa‘ad was brought in front of Muhammad and offered his loyalty, Muhammad upheld his hand to indicate that his followers should kill him, but the Muslims thought he pardoned him.[117] He said "Was not there a wise man among you who would stand up to him when he saw that I had withheld my hand from accepting his allegiance, and kill him?"[118]

39 Ibn an-Nawwahah Bilinmir According to Ibn Kathir, Muhammad once said about Ibn an-Nawwahah "I would have cut off your head, if it was not that emissaries are not killed" because he claimed Musaylimah was a Prophet, so Abdullah ibn Masud killed Ibn an-Nawwahah when he was no longer an emissary[119][120]

Abdullah ibn Masud beheads Ibn an-Nawwahah[119][120]

40 Kor yəhudi Bilinmir Muhammad's followers kill a blind Jew for throwing dust at his face[122][123]

Blind Jew killed by Sa'd ibn Zayd[122][123]

  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah[124]
  • Tabari, Volume 7, The foundation of the community[123]
41 Adsız casus Bilinmir Məhəmmədin casus olduğundan şübhələndiyi adamı öldür[125][126]

Salama bin Əl Əkva həmin şəxsi təqib edir və onu öldürür[125][126]

42 Aslam qəbiləsindən olan adam Bilinmir Aslam qəbiləsindən olan adamı zinaya görə öldür[127][128]

Aslam qəbiləsindən olan adam daşqalaq edilərək öldürüldü[127][128]

43 Kinana ibn əl-Rabi İyul 628[129] Kinana ibn əl-Rabiyə gizlətdiyi xəzinənin yerini tapmaq üçün işgəncə ver[130][131]

Kinana ibn əl-Rabinin başı kəsildi[130][131]

  • Ibn Hisham & Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah[132]



Həmçinin bax

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Translations

Xarici keçidlər (İngilis)

Əsas mənbələr

İstinadlar

  1. McCarthy, Kevin M., American Speech, Volume 48, pp. 77–83
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 William Muir, The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder and co, p. 130, 1861, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=YDwBAAAAQAAJ&pg=front 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "SARIYYAH OF `UMAYR IBN `ADI. Then (occurred) the sariyyah of `Umayr ibn `Adi Ibn Kharashah al-Khatmi against `Asma' Bint Marwan, of Banu Umayyah Ibn Zayd, when five nights had remained from the month of Ramadan, in the beginning of the nineteenth month from the hijrah of the apostle of Allah.". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 35. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&q 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Ellison Banks Findly. Women, religion, and social change. NewYork: SUNY Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-88706-069-2, 1985. 
  5. Ibn Hisham, Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator), The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, p. 210.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Ibn Hisham, Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator), The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, pp. 675-676.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 William Muir, The life of Mahomet, Smith, Elder and co, p. 133, 1861, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=YDwBAAAAQAAJ&pg=front 
  8. De Mahdi Rizqullah Ahmad, Darussalam, A Biography of the Prophet of Islam (Vol 1 & 2), p. 433.
  9. Ibn Hisham, Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator), The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, p. 675.
  10. "Then occurred the "sariyyah" of Salim Ibn Umayr al-Amri against Abu Afak, the Jew, in [the month of] Shawwal in the beginning of the twentieth month from the hijrah" - Sa'd, Ibn (1967). Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 31.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 Safi ur Rahman Al Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, p. 274.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal, Ismaʼil R. Al-Faruqi, The life of Muḥammad: Volume 1976, Part 2, p. 223.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Ibn Hisham, Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator), The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, pp. 162-163.
  14. Safi ur Rahman Al Mubarakpuri, The sealed nectar: biography of the Noble Prophet, p. 274 (footnote 1).
  15. Ibn Hisham, Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator), The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, p. 308.
  16. Al Tabari, Isma'il Qurban Husayn (translator), The last years of the Prophet, State University of New York Press, p. 121, ISBN 978-0887066917, 25 Sep 1990, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=XxG8BsHNw-MC&pg=PA121  (online)
  17. "SARIYYAH FOR SLAYING KA'B IBN AL-ASHRAF Then (occurred) the sariyyah for slaying Ka'b Ibn al-Ashraf, the Jew. It took place on 14 Rabi' al-Awwal (4. September AC 624))". Sa'd, Ibn. Kitab al-tabaqat al-kabir, Volume 2. Pakistan Historical Society. p. 35. ASIN B0007JAWMK, 1967. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=_vnXAAAAMAAJ&q 
  18. Montgomery Watt, W.. P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. ed,. Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  19. Stillman, Norman. The Jews of Arab Lands: A History and Source Book. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. p. 13, 1979.  ISBN 0827601166 p. 13.
  20. Uri Rubin, The Assassination of Kaʿb b. al-Ashraf, Oriens, Vol. 32. (1990), pp. 65-71.
  21. 21.0 21.1 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp.151-153. (online)
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 William Muir, The life of Mahomet and history of Islam to the era of the Hegira, Volume 4, p. 14
  23. 23.0 23.1 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, p. 204. (online)
  24. Mubarakpuri, Saifur Rahman Al, The Sealed Nectar, Darussalam Publications, p. 204, 2005, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=-ppPqzawIrIC&printsec=frontcover 
  25. Ibn Hisham, Ibn Ishaq, Alfred Guillaume (translator), The life of Muhammad: a translation of Isḥāq's Sīrat rasūl Allāh, p. 482. "THE KILLING OF SALLAM IBN ABU'L-HUQAYQ"
  26. Tabari, Al, The foundation of the community, State University of New York Press, p. 100, ISBN 978-0887063442, 2008, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ctvk-fdtklYC&pg=PA100 
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar, pp. 186-187. (online)
  28. 28.0 28.1 Gabriel, Richard A., Muhammad, Islam's first great general, University of Oklahoma Press, p. 126, ISBN 9780806138602, 2008, http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=nadbe2XP2o4C&pg=PA126 
  29. Sunnah.org, says Ahmad 3:496, al-Waqidi 2:533, archive
  30. Abu Dawud 2:1244, hadithcollection.com (archive)
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