The Farewell Sermon
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The Farewell Sermon (خطبة الوداع, Khuṭbatu l-Wadā') is purported to be the Prophet Muhammad's final sermon to his followers before his death in 632 CE. However like most elements of the Islamic tradition our sources for this are extremely late, in this case At-Tabari writing in the late 800's CE about an event which is purported to have taken place in 632 CE. The mention of "the Sunnah of the prophet" is clearly apycrophal, as Patricia Crone has shown in God's caliph, since such a concept did not exist in actual khalifal/Islamic jurisprudence until well into the Abbassid period. The entirety of the supposed speech shows up in Tabari, but other sources in the hadith repeat what appear to be its most salient point, reminding men to treat their wives well (like their pack animals) but echoing Qur'an 4:34 in commanding their forceful separation and beating in the case of disobedience. The command to beat disobedient wives appeared to be the main classical take-away from the speech, and it should be noted that a more recent retelling of the speech which omits this injunction is a recent fabrication and not part of the attested classical tradition.
Text of Farewell Sermon
Now then, O people, you have a right over your wives and they have a right over you. You have [the right] that they should not cause anyone of whom you dislike to tread on your beds; and that they should not commit any open indecency. If they do, then Allah permits you to shut them in separate rooms and to beat them, but not severely. If they abstain from [evil], they have the right to their food and clothing in accordance with the custom. Treat women well, for they are [like] domestic animals with you and do not possess anything for themselves. You have taken them only as a trust from Allah, and you have made the enjoyment of their persons lawful by the word of Allah, so understand and listen to my words, O people. I have conveyed the Message, and have left you with something which, if you hold fast to it, you will never go astray; that is, the Book of Allah and the sunnah of his Prophet. Listen to my words, O people, for I have conveyed the Message and understand [it]. Know for certain that every Muslim is a brother of another Muslim, and that all Muslims are brethren. It is not lawful for a person [to take] from his brother except that which he has given him willingly, so do not wrong yourselves. O Allah, have I not conveyed the message?
- Fraudulent Translation of Muhammad's 'Last Sermon' to Make It Egalitarian - Islam Watch (archived), http://www.islam-watch.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=134:fraudulent-translation-of-muhammad-last-sermon-egalitarian&catid=89:other-authors&Itemid=58
- The Farewell Sermon - Blog post discussing the "sources" provided for the alternative Farewell Sermon (archived), http://bjhollingum.blogspot.com/2010/05/farewell-sermon.html
- Muhammad's Last Sermon - Staring At The View (archived), http://staringattheview.blogspot.com/2013/07/muhammads-last-sermon.html