Difference between revisions of "Shi'ism"

From WikiIslam, the online resource on Islam
Jump to navigation Jump to search
[unchecked revision][checked revision]
m
m (Reverted edits by Overseer (talk) to last revision by Sahab)
Line 1: Line 1:
The '''Shia''' ( ''Shīʿah''), or the '''Shiites''', represent the second largest [[Islamic schools and branches|denomination]] of [[Islam]]. with an estimated 50% of the total Muslim population.
+
'''Shi‘ites''' (or ''Shi‘as'') are adherents of ''Shi‘ite Islam'' (also referred to as ''Shi‘a Islam'' or ''Shi‘ism''), and make up the second largest sect of [[Islam]] with an estimated 10-20% of the total Muslim population.<ref>[http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/comparison_charts/islamic_sects.htm Comparison of Sunni and Shia Islam] - ReligionFacts</ref><ref>[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/540503/Shiite Shīʿite] - Encyclopædia Britannica Online (2010)</ref><ref>[http://pewforum.org/Muslim/Mapping-the-Global-Muslim-Population%286%29.aspx Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World’s Muslim Population] - Pew Research Center, October 7, 2009</ref><ref>Tracy Miller - [http://pewforum.org/newassets/images/reports/Muslimpopulation/Muslimpopulation.pdf Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population] - Pew Research Center, October 2009</ref><ref>[https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2122.html The World Factbook]</ref>
  
Adherents of Shia Islam are called '''Shias''' or the '''Shi'a''' as a collective or '''Shi'i''' individually.<ref>''Shi'a'' is an alternative spelling of ''Shia'', and ''Shi'ite'' of ''Shiite''. In subsequent sections, the spellings ''Shia'' and ''Shiite'' are adopted for consistency, except where the alternative spelling is in the title of a reference.</ref> ''Shi'a'' is the short form of the historic phrase ''Shīʻatu ʻAlī'' meaning "followers", "faction" or "party" of [[Muhammad]]'s son-in-law and cousin [[Ali]], whom the Shia believe to be Muhammad's successor in the [[Caliphate]]. [[Twelver Shia]] (''Ithnā'ashariyyah'') is the largest branch of Shia Islam, and the term Shia Muslim is often taken to refer to Twelvers by default. {{as of|2009}} Shia Muslims constituted 10-13% of the world's Muslim population, Shias comprised 11-14% of the Muslim population in the Middle East-North Africa region, and between 68% and 80% of Shias lived in four countries: Iran, Pakistan, India and Iraq.<ref name=PEW2009>{{cite web|title=Mapping the Global Muslim Population|url=http://www.pewforum.org/2009/10/07/mapping-the-global-muslim-population/|accessdate=10 December 2014}}</ref>
+
The historic background of the [[Sunni]]–Shi'ite split lies in the schism that occurred when the Islamic prophet [[Muhammad]] died in the year 632 AD, leading to a dispute over succession to Muhammad as a [[caliph]] of the Islamic community spread across various parts of the world which led to the Battle of Siffin.  
  
Shia Islam is based on the [[Quran]] and the message of the [[Prophets in Islam|Islamic prophet]] [[Muhammad]] attested in [[hadith]] recorded by the Shia, and certain books deemed sacred to the Shia ([[Nahj al-Balagha]]).<ref name="Esposito, John 2002. p. 40">Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam." Oxford University Press, 2002 | ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p. 40</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t125/e2189?_hi=26&_pos=238 |title=From the article on Shii Islam in Oxford Islamic Studies Online |publisher=Oxfordislamicstudies.com |accessdate=2011-05-04}}</ref> Shia consider Ali to have been divinely appointed as the successor to Muhammad, and as the first [[Imamah (Shia doctrine)|Imam]]. The Shia also extend this "Imami" doctrine to Muhammad's family, the ''[[Ahl al-Bayt]]'' ("the People of the House"), and certain individuals among his descendants, known as ''Imams'', who they believe possess special spiritual and political authority over the community, infallibility, and other divinely-ordained traits.<ref name=franc46>{{cite web|url=http://www.al-islam.org/principles-shiite-creed-ayatullah-ibrahim-amini/lesson-13-imams-traits|title=Lesson 13: Imam’s Traits|work=Al-Islam.org}}</ref> Although there are myriad Shia subsects, modern Shia Islam has been divided into three main groupings: [[Twelver]]s, [[Ismailism|Ismaili]]s and [[Zaidiyyah|Zaidi]]s with  [[Twelver Shia]] being the largest and most influential group among Shia.<ref>Tabataba'i (1979), p. 76</ref><ref>God's rule: the politics of world religions - Page 146, Jacob Neusner - 2003</ref><ref name="Britannica">{{cite web |url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/540503/Shiite |title=Shīʿite |work= |publisher=[[Encyclopædia Britannica]] Online |year=2010 |accessdate=2010-08-25}}</ref><ref>Esposito, John. "What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam," Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-515713-0. p.40</ref>
+
According to this Shi'ite view, Ali as the successor of Muhammad, not only ruled over the community in [[justice]], but also interpreted the [[Shari'ah law]] and its esoteric meaning. Hence he was regarded as being free from error and sin (infallible), and appointed by [[Allah]] by divine decree (nass) to be the first Imam. Shi'ites combine five [[Salah|prayers]] into three prayer times; morning, afternoon and night. So, technically, they still partake in the same number of prayers a day as their Sunni counterparts.
 +
 
 +
Shi'ites, as with the Sunnis, also follow the Qur'an and [[Sunnah]]. Shi'ites have their own form of [[hadith]] largely based on sermons by Ali, ''Al-Kafi'' and ''Nahj al-Balagha'' being seen as the most reliable.<ref>[http://www.ahya.org/amm/modules.php?name=Sections&op=viewarticle&artid=72 Al Kafi - The Bukhari of Shi'ism] - AHYA</ref> Shi'ite [[fiqh]] (according to a fatwa by Al-Azhar, the most respected authority in Sunni Islam)<ref>[http://www.al-islam.org/encyclopedia/chapter1b/14.html al-Azhar Verdict on the Shia] - Shi'ite Encyclopedia v2.0, Al-islam</ref> is accepted as a fifth [[Madh'hab|school of Islamic thought]].
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==

Revision as of 16:32, 9 June 2015

Shi‘ites (or Shi‘as) are adherents of Shi‘ite Islam (also referred to as Shi‘a Islam or Shi‘ism), and make up the second largest sect of Islam with an estimated 10-20% of the total Muslim population.[1][2][3][4][5]

The historic background of the Sunni–Shi'ite split lies in the schism that occurred when the Islamic prophet Muhammad died in the year 632 AD, leading to a dispute over succession to Muhammad as a caliph of the Islamic community spread across various parts of the world which led to the Battle of Siffin.

According to this Shi'ite view, Ali as the successor of Muhammad, not only ruled over the community in justice, but also interpreted the Shari'ah law and its esoteric meaning. Hence he was regarded as being free from error and sin (infallible), and appointed by Allah by divine decree (nass) to be the first Imam. Shi'ites combine five prayers into three prayer times; morning, afternoon and night. So, technically, they still partake in the same number of prayers a day as their Sunni counterparts.

Shi'ites, as with the Sunnis, also follow the Qur'an and Sunnah. Shi'ites have their own form of hadith largely based on sermons by Ali, Al-Kafi and Nahj al-Balagha being seen as the most reliable.[6] Shi'ite fiqh (according to a fatwa by Al-Azhar, the most respected authority in Sunni Islam)[7] is accepted as a fifth school of Islamic thought.

See Also

  • Sunni
  • Shi'ites - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Shi'ites

References