Relationships with non-Muslims in Islamic Law
The Qur'an and other Islamic texts are very clear in teaching that there is no equality between Muslims and non-Muslims, and hence no basis for a relationship of peers. Muhammad himself describes unbelievers as "perverted transgressors", the "worst of creatures", "unloved by Allah", and destined for eternal torture in Hell. Thus, by the Qur'an's most literal interpretation, there is little sense in befriending these "creatures" of such inferiority.
Jews and Christians
The Qur'an specifically prohibits the friendship of the People of the Book (Jews and Christians).
Muslim apologists, who are often embarrassed by this verse, provide an interpretation that deviates substantially from the literal meaning. The Arabic word Awliyā' (أولياء "friend") is legitimately also translated as "protector" or "guardian". Therefore, apologists claim that this verse refers to a Muslim's allegiance to an unbelieving government.
Yet modern day Islamic governments are often dependent on the alliances of predominantly non-Muslim nations, ensuring that this interpretation provides little more convenience. Furthermore, the verse itself appears to distinguish between "friend" and "protector", commanding Muslims to exclude disbelievers as both. Muslim apologists will therefore continue to rationalize the verse with interpretations drifting further from intuitive understanding.
Furthermore, the Islamic phrase walīyu 'llāh (ولي الله), means 'friend of God'. To say walīyu 'llāh means “protector of God”, would constitute blasphemy in Islam. The word Al-Waliyu is also one of the 99 names of Allah.
The exclusion of disbelievers is not limited to disbelieving peers, but extends to non-Muslim family members.
Even praying for their forgiveness in the afterlife is forbidden.
- "Ye are the best of peoples, evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in Allah. If only the People of the Book had faith, it were best for them: among them are some who have faith, but most of them are perverted transgressors." - Quran 3:110
- "Those who reject (Truth), among the People of the Book and among the Polytheists, will be in Hell-Fire, to dwell therein (for aye). They are the worst of creatures." - Quran 98:6
- "That He may reward those who believe and work righteous deeds, out of his Bounty. For He loves not those who reject Faith." - Quran 30:45
- "Those who reject Faith,- neither their possessions nor their (numerous) progeny will avail them aught against Allah: They are themselves but fuel for the Fire." - Quran 3:10
- "Walī (a., pl. awliyā;)", Encyclopaedia of Islam