Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Homosexuality

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Qur'an[edit]

If two men among you are guilty of lewdness, punish them both. If they repent and amend, Leave them alone; for Allah is Oft-returning, Most Merciful.
Qur'an 4:16 (also see Tafsirs of this verse below)
We also (sent) Lut: He said to his people: "Do ye commit lewdness such as no people in creation (ever) committed before you? For ye practise your lusts on men in preference to women : ye are indeed a people transgressing beyond bounds. And his people gave no answer but this: they said, "Drive them out of your city: these are indeed men who want to be clean and pure!" But we saved him and his family, except his wife: she was of those who legged behind. And we rained down on them a shower (of brimstone): Then see what was the end of those who indulged in sin and crime!
"Of all the creatures in the world, will ye approach males, And leave those whom Allah has created for you to be your mates? Nay, ye are a people transgressing (all limits)!" They said: "If thou desist not, O Lut! thou wilt assuredly be cast out!" He said: "I do detest your doings. O my Lord! deliver me and my family from such things as they do!" So We delivered him and his family,- all Except an old woman who lingered behind. Then afterward We destroyed the others. We rained down on them a shower (of brimstone): and evil was the shower on those who were admonished (but heeded not)!
(We also sent) Lut (as a messenger): behold, He said to his people, "Do ye do what is shameful though ye see (its iniquity)? Would ye really approach men in your lusts rather than women? Nay, ye are a people (grossly) ignorant! But his people gave no other answer but this: they said, "Drive out the followers of Lut from your city: these are indeed men who want to be clean and pure!" Then We saved him and his household save his wife; We destined her to be of those who stayed behind. And We rained down on them a shower (of brimstone): and evil was the shower on those who were admonished (but heeded not)!
And (remember) Lut: behold, he said to his people: "Ye do commit lewdness, such as no people in Creation (ever) committed before you. "Do ye indeed approach men, and cut off the highway?- and practise wickedness (even) in your councils?" But his people gave no answer but this: they said: "Bring us the Wrath of Allah if thou tellest the truth." He said: "O my Lord! help Thou me against people who do mischief!" When Our Messengers came to Abraham with the good news, they said: "We are indeed going to destroy the people of this township: for truly they are (addicted to) crime."

Hadith[edit]

Sahih Bukhari[edit]

Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: The Prophet cursed effeminate men; those men who are in the similitude (assume the manners of women) and those women who assume the manners of men, and he said, "Turn them out of your houses." The Prophet turned out such-and-such man, and 'Umar turned out such-and-such woman.
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: The Prophet cursed effeminate men and those women who assume the similitude (manners) of men. He also said, "Turn them out of your houses." He turned out such-and-such person out, and 'Umar turned out such-and-such person.

Abu Dawud[edit]

Narated By Abdullah ibn Abbas : The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: If you find anyone doing as Lot's people did, kill the one who does it, and the one to whom it is done.
Narated By Abdullah ibn Abbas : If a man who is not married is seized committing sodomy, he will be stoned to death.
Narrated AbuSa'id al-Khudri: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: A man should not look at the private parts of another man, and a woman should not look at the private parts of another woman. A man should not lie with another man without wearing lower garment under one cover; and a woman should not be lie with another woman without wearing lower garment under one cover.
Narrated AbuHurayrah: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: A man should not lie with another man and a woman should not lie with another woman without covering their private parts except a child or a father. He also mentioned a third thing which I forgot.
AbuDawud said: From here I remembered this tradition from Mu'ammil and Musa: Beware! No man should lie with another man, no woman should lie with another woman except with one's child or father. He also mentioned a third which I have forgotten...
Narrated AbuHurayrah: The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) cursed the man who dressed like a woman and the woman who dressed like a man.
Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin: Ibn AbuMulaykah told that when someone remarked to Aisha that a woman was wearing sandals, she replied: The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) cursed mannish women.

Al Tirmidhi[edit]

Whoever is found conducting himself in the manner of the people of Lot, kill the doer and the receiver.
Tirmidhi 1:152
It was narrated by Jaabir (may Allah be pleased with him): "The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: 'There is nothing I fear for my ummah more than the deed of the people of Loot.'"
Tirmidhi 1457

Ibn Majah[edit]

It was narrated from Abu Hurairah: that the Messenger of Allah cursed women who imitate men and men who imitate women. (Sahih)
It was narrated from Ibn 'Abbas: that the Prophet cursed men who imitate women and woman who imitate men. (Sahih)
It was narrated from Ibn`Abbas that the Messenger of Allah said: “Whoever you find doing the action of the people of Lut, kill the one who does it, and the one to whom it is done.” (Hasan)
It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said concerning those who do the action of the people of Lut: “Stone the upper and the lower, stone them both.” (Hasan)

Al Muwatta[edit]

Malik related to me that he asked Ibn Shihab about someone who committed sodomy. Ibn Shihab said, "He is to be stoned, whether or not he is muhsan."

Miscellaneous[edit]

It was narrated that Ibn Abbaas said: “The Prophet Muhammed (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: "... cursed is the one who has intercourse with an animal, cursed is the one who does the action of the people of Loot."
Narrated by Ahmad, 1878: Classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’, no. 5891
Ibn Abbas and Abu Huraira reported God's messenger as saying, 'Accursed is he who does what Lot's people did.' In a version...on the authority of Ibn Abbas it says that Ali [Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law] had two people “burned” and that Abu Bakr [Muhammad's chief companion] had a wall thrown down on them.
Mishkat, vol. 1, p. 765, Prescribed Punishments

Scholars[edit]

Classical Views[edit]

[وَاللَّذَانَ يَأْتِيَـنِهَا مِنكُمْ فَـَاذُوهُمَا]

(And the two persons among you who commit illegal sexual intercourse, punish them both.) Ibn `Abbas and Sa`id bin Jubayr said that this punishment includes cursing, shaming them and beating them with sandals. This was the ruling until Allah abrogated it with flogging or stoning, as we stated. Mujahid said, "It was revealed about the case of two men who do it. As if he was referring to the actions of the people of Lut, and Allah knows best. The collectors of Sunan recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

«مَنْ رَأَيْتُمُوهُ يَعْمَلُ عَمَلَ قَوْمِ لُوطٍ، فَاقْتُلُوا الْفَاعِلَ وَالْمَفْعُولَ بِه»

(Whoever you catch committing the act of the people of Lut (homosexuality), then kill both parties to the act.)
[أَتَأْتُونَ الْفَـحِشَةَ مَا سَبَقَكُمْ بِهَا مِنْ أَحَدٍ مِّن الْعَـلَمِينَ]

إِنَّكُمْ لَتَأْتُونَ الرّجَالَ شَهْوَةً مّن دُونِ النّسَآء]

("Do you commit lewdness such as none preceding you has committed in all of the nations Verily, you practice your lusts on men instead of women.") meaning, you left women whom Allah created for you and instead had sex with men Indeed, this behavior is evil and ignorant because you have placed things in their improper places.
Both of them – fornication and homosexuality – involve immorality that goes against the wisdom of Allaah’s creation and commandment. For homosexuality involves innumerable evil and harms, and the one to whom it is done would be better off being killed than having this done to him, because after that he will become so evil and so corrupt that there can be no hope of his being reformed, and all good is lost for him, and he will no longer feel any shame before Allaah or before His creation. The semen of the one who did that to him will act as a poison on his body and soul. The scholars differed as to whether the one to whom it is done will ever enter Paradise. There are two opinions which I heard Shaykh al-Islam (may Allaah have mercy on him) narrate.”
Ibn al-Qayyim: Ad-Dā'i wa Dawā, p. 115

Modern Views[edit]

The crime of homosexuality is one of the greatest of crimes, the worst of sins and the most abhorrent of deeds, and Allaah punished those who did it in a way that He did not punish other nations. It is indicative of violation of the fitrah, total misguidance, weak intellect and lack of religious commitment, and it is a sign of doom and deprivation of the mercy of Allaah. We ask Allaah to keep us safe and sound.
The punishment for homosexuality
Islam Q&A, Fatwa No. 38622
The spread of homosexuality has caused man diseases which neither the east nor the west can deny exist because of them. Even if the only result of this perversion was AIDS – which attacks the immune system in humans – that would be enough.
Why does Islam forbid lesbianism and homosexuality?
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid, Islam Q&A, Fatwa No. 10050
Praise be to Allaah.

Undoubtedly the sin of homosexuality is one of the worst sins; indeed, it is one of the major sins (kabaa’ir) that Allaah has forbidden. Allaah destroyed the people of Loot (peace be upon him) with the most terrifying kinds of punishment because they persisted in their sin and made this evil action commonplace and acceptable among themselves. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): [Quotes Qur'an 11:82-83, Qur'an 11:83, and Qur'an 54:37]

[...]

Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

It was reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Kill the one who does it and the one to whom it is done.” (Reported by the four authors of Sunan. Its isnaad is saheeh. At-Tirmidhi said it is a hasan hadeeth).

Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq judged in accordance with this, and he wrote instructions to this effect to Khaalid, after consulting with the Sahaabah. ‘Ali was the strictest of them with regard to that. Ibn al-Qasaar and our shaykh said: the Sahaabah agreed that [the person who does homosexual acts] should be killed, but they differed as to how he should be killed. Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq said that he should be thrown down from a cliff. ‘Ali (may Allaah be pleased with him) said that a wall should be made to collapse on him. Ibn ‘Abbaas said, they should be killed by stoning. This shows that there was consensus among them that [the person who does homosexual acts] should be killed, but they differed as to how he should be executed. This is similar to the ruling of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) concerning the person who has intercourse with a woman who is his mahram [incest], because in both cases intercourse is not permitted under any circumstances. Hence the connection was made in the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) who reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Whoever you find doing the deed of the people of Loot, kill them.” And it was also reported that he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever has intercourse with a woman who is his mahram, kill him.” And according to another hadeeth with the same isnaad, “Whoever has intercourse with an animal, kill him and kill the animal with him.” (Narrated by Ahmad, 2420; Abu Dawood, 4464; al-Tirmidhi, 1454; al-Haakim, 4/355).

This ruling is in accordance with the ruling of sharee’ah, because the worse the haraam action is, the more severe the punishment for it. Having intercourse in a manner that is not permissible under any circumstances is worse than having intercourse in a manner which may be permitted in some circumstances, so its punishment is more severe. This was stated by Ahmad in one of the two reports narrated from him. (Zaad al-Ma’aad, part 5, p. 40-41).

The same applies to the sin of lesbianism. There is no doubt among the fuqahaa’ that lesbianism is haraam and is a major sin, as stated by al-Haafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allaah have mercy on him). (Al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah, part 24, p. 251).

With regard to the specific type of punishment mentioned in the question – stoning to death – this kind of punishment is for the adulterer who is married. The shar’i punishment for the crime of homosexuality is execution – by the sword, according to the most correct view – as was narrated in the discussion above about the differences among the scholars as to how this execution should be carried out. As far as lesbianism is concerned, there is no hadd for it, but it is subject to ta’zeer [unspecified punishment to be determined at the discretion of the qaadi]. (al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah, part 24, p. 253).
Homosexuality is one of the worst crimes against creation, nature, religion and human existence. Its implications on the individuals and the society at large are manifold. Dr Muhammed, in his book entitled “Islam and Medicine” lists these implications to include:

(1) Aversion for women. Those who practise homosexuality usually don’t have desire for women. This negates one of the essence of marriage, procreation, which can only occur through cohabitation between men and women. Where individuals are compelled to have same sex wives or husbands, such people are deprived of love, mercy and tranquillity, which are the targets of marriage.

(2) Negative impacts on the nerves. This habit is injurious to the soul as it impacts negatively on the soul. This results into attack of psychological reflex in the character of the individual. He thinks that he ought not to have been created as a male. That is why you see gays dressing like women, especially those who occupy the portion of ‘wives’ in this animalistic tendency.

(3) Negative impacts on the brain. It causes great disorder in the equilibrium level of human intellect. His perception of issue is thus affected. There is a strong relationship between homosexuality and the proper function of the brain.
Homosexuality: The Islamic viewpoint
Imam Sirajudeen Bakrin, Nigerian Tribune, December 30, 2011
... fight against homosexual act is not only religious, it is a natural obligation on lovers of human dignity and human rights activists.

A look at the nature of man exposes him as being disposed to varying indications. Some of these indication are good, while others are evil, bad and injurious to human existence. Therefore, there is the need for a restriction to human defiance which can result from bad inclination as it affects the society negatively.

Allah has narrated to us the story of Prophet Lut and his people and the punishment meted to them when they first came with this evil act. The Quran says. “And remember Lut, when he said to his people.

‘Do you commit the worst sin such as none preceding you has committed in the Alamin (mankind and .....) Verily, you practise your lusts on man instead of women. Nay, but you are a people transgressing beyond bounds by committing great sins. And the answer of his people was only that they said ‘Drive them out of your town, these are indeed men who want to be pure from sins. Then, we saved him and his family except his wife, she was of those who remained behind in the torment. And we rained down on them a rain of stones. Then see what was the end of the Mujrimun (sinners)” (Suratul A’raf: 80-84).

In suratul Hud, Allah says: “So when our commandment came, we turned the towns of Sodom upside down and rained on them stones of baked day piled up. Marked from your lord and they are not ever far from the Zalimun (evil doers)” (Hud: 82-83).

From the aforementioned verses of the Quran, it is obvious that Allah destroyed the first set of people to embark on this act by turning their towns upside down while they were thereafter pelted with stones.

Since this act is one of the most criminal acts in Islam, equally its punishment is one of the greatest. All Muslim scholars agreed that death is the basic judgement such individuals deserve. This is in line with the saying of Prophet Muhammad as reported by Ibn Abbas: “If anyone is caught committing the act of the people of Lut, kill both the committer and the person with whom the act is committed” (Abu Dawud).

However, there is a divergence of opinions on the methodology to be used in executing the punishment. While some scholars such as Abu bakr [the first Rightly-Guided Caliph] and Ali [Muhammad's son-in-law and the fourth Rightly-Guided Caliph ] were of the view that such a person should be beheaded and set on fire thereafter, Umar [the second Rightly-Guided Caliph] and Uthman [the third Rightly-Guided Caliph] thought the wall should be fell on him. To Ibn Abbas [Muhammad's cousin], he should be taken to the tallest building in the town, thrown upside down while some men stand on the ground waiting to meet him with stone in replication of the destruction done to the people of Lut by Allah.
Homosexuality: The Islamic viewpoint (2)
Imam Sirajudeen Bakrin, Nigerian Tribune, December 30, 2011

Commentaries[edit]

Tafsir Al-Jalalayn[edit]

And when two of you (read wa’lladhāni or wa’lladhānni) men, commit it, that is, a lewd act, adultery or homosexual intercourse, punish them both, with insults and beatings with sandals; but if they repent, of this [lewd act], and make amends, through [good] action, then leave them be, and do not harm them. God ever turns [relenting], to those who repent, and is Merciful, to them. This [verse] is abrogated by the prescribed punishment if adultery is meant [by the lewd act], and similarly if homosexual intercourse is meant, according to al-Shāfi‘ī; but according to him, the person who is the object of the [penetrative] act is not stoned, even if he be married; rather, he is flogged and banished. Judging by the dual person pronoun, it seems more obvious that homosexual fornication is meant [by this verse], even though the former [sc. al-Shāfi‘ī] was of the opinion that it referred to an adulterer and an adulteress; but this [opinion of his] may be countered by the fact that [the reference to] the two [men] becomes clear on account of the particle min being attached to a masculine pronoun [minkum, ‘of you’], and by the fact that they suffer the same punishment, [both effect the action of] repentance and [are both granted] that they be left alone [thereafter], [all of] which applies specifically to men, given that for women detention is stipulated, as was stated before.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir[edit]

(And the two persons among you who commit illegal sexual intercourse, punish them both.) Ibn `Abbas and Sa`id bin Jubayr said that this punishment includes cursing, shaming them and beating them with sandals. This was the ruling until Allah abrogated it with flogging or stoning, as we stated. Mujahid said, "It was revealed about the case of two men who do it. As if he was referring to the actions of the people of Lut, and Allah knows best.

Related Issues[edit]

Anal sex is strictly forbidden, even between heterosexual married couples.

Narrated AbuHurayrah: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: He who has intercourse with his wife through her anus is accursed.
It was narrated from Khuzaimah bin Thabit: that the Messenger of Allah said: “Allah is not too shy to tell the truth,” three times. ” Do not have intercourse with women in their buttocks.” (Sahih)
It was narrated from Abu Hurairah: that the Prophet said: “Allah will not look at a man who has intercourse with his wife in her buttocks.” (Sahih)
The Holy Prophet said, “Anyone who goes to a soothe sayer and believes in him or enters a women in the anus has rejected faith in what was revealed unto Muhammad.”[1]
Musnad Ahmed Vol. 1, P. 86
Khuzaymah Ibn Thabit (may Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Allah is not too shy to tell you the truth: Do not have sex with your wives in the anus."[2]
Ahmad, 5/213
SODOMIZING ONE'S WIFE

p75.20 The Prophet (Allah Bless him and give him peace) said,

"He who sodomizes a woman is accursed."
Reliance of the Traveller: A Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law
Ahmad ibn Naqib al-Misri, Edited and Translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller
This page is featured in the core article, Islam and Homosexuality which serves as a starting point for anyone wishing to learn more about this topic Core part.png

See Also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Referenced by Shaikh Abdullah Faisal in "100 Fabricated Hadiths" Pg. 85, as sahih.
  2. Fatwa: Islamic Ruling on Anal Sex - IslamOnline, February 22, 2010