Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Alcohol

From WikiIslam, the online resource on Islam
Jump to: navigation, search
Islamic Theology
Qur'an, Hadith and Sunnah
Corruption of the Qur'an
Satanic VersesPrevious Scriptures
Muhammad
BriberyCross-Dressing‎Deception
HypocrisyLyingPlundering
PrivilegeViolenceMass Murder
TerrorismTortureWarmongering
WivesWhite ComplexionDeath
Women
Al-'AzlBeautyFGMHijabHonor Killing
MahrRapeViolenceWife Beating
Jihad
Pacifism Promoted
Defensive Fighting Permitted then Mandated
Offensive Fighting Mandated
Fighting KuffarMiscellaneous Verses
Peaceful MuslimsJihadists
Forced ConversionScholars on Jihad
Non-Muslims
ApostatesAtheistsChristians & Jews
CharacteristicsFriendshipDamned to Hell
Miscellaneous
AishaAlcoholAmputationAnimals
Banu QurayzaCosmologyCreation
DhimmitudeForbidden ThingsHomosexuality
HeavenHellHygieneJizyahLying
MischiefMusicPedophiliaPictures
PredestinationPunishmentsRacismSexuality
SlaveryStoningToilet EtiquetteUrine
Witchcraft‎ZakatIslamic Silliness

Several critics of Islam have claimed that alcohol is a permitted substance. A reading of the relevant surahs, hadith and tafsir texts show this claim to be in error.

Qur'an[edit]

Verses concerning alcohol arranged in chronological order.

They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. Say: "In them is great sin, and some profit, for men; but the sin is greater than the profit." They ask thee how much they are to spend; Say: "What is beyond your needs." Thus doth Allah Make clear to you His Signs: In order that ye may consider-
O ye who believe! Approach not prayers with a mind befogged, until ye can understand all that ye say,- nor in a state of ceremonial impurity (Except when travelling on the road), until after washing your whole body. If ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands. For Allah doth blot out sins and forgive again and again.
(Here is) a Parable of the Garden which the righteous are promised: in it are rivers of water incorruptible; rivers of milk of which the taste never changes; rivers of wine, a joy to those who drink; and rivers of honey pure and clear. In it there are for them all kinds of fruits; and Grace from their Lord. (Can those in such Bliss) be compared to such as shall dwell for ever in the Fire, and be given, to drink, boiling water, so that it cuts up their bowels (to pieces)?
And in the earth are tracts (diverse though) neighbouring, and gardens of vines and fields sown with corn, and palm trees - growing out of single roots or otherwise: watered with the same water, yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat. Behold, verily in these things there are signs for those who understand!
O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones, and (divination by) arrows, are an abomination,- of Satan's handwork: eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper. Satan's plan is (but) to excite enmity and hatred between you, with intoxicants and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah, and from prayer: will ye not then abstain?
Qur'an 5:90-91

Hadith[edit]

Sahih Bukhari[edit]

Narrated Ibn Umar: (The Verse of) prohibiting alcoholic drinks was revealed when there were in Medina five kinds of (alcoholic) drinks none of which was produced from grapes.
Narrated Aisha: The Prophet said, "All drinks that produce intoxication are Haram (forbidden to drink).
Narrated Anas: While I was serving Abu Talha. Abu Dujana and Abu Suhail bin Al-Baida' with a drink made from a mixture of unripe and ripe dates, alcoholic drinks, were made unlawful, whereupon I threw it away, and I was their butler and the youngest of them, and we used to consider that drink as an alcoholic drink in those days
Narrated Abu Al-Juwairiyya: I asked Ibn 'Abbas about Al-Badhaq. He said, "Muhammad prohibited alcoholic drinks before It was called Al-Badhaq (by saying), 'Any drink that intoxicates is unlawful.' I said, 'What about good lawful drinks?' He said,'Apart from what is lawful and good, all other things are unlawful and not good (unclean Al-Khabith).
Narrated Ibn 'Umar: 'Umar delivered a sermon on the pulpit of Allah's Apostle, saying, "Alcoholic drinks were prohibited by Divine Order, and these drinks used to be prepared from five things, i.e., grapes, dates, wheat, barley and honey. Alcoholic drink is that, that disturbs the mind." 'Umar added, "I wish Allah's Apostle had not left us before he had given us definite verdicts concerning three matters, i.e., how much a grandfather may inherit (of his grandson), the inheritance of Al-Kalala (the deceased person among whose heirs there is no father or son), and various types of Riba(1 ) (usury) ."
Narrated Anas: I was waiting on my uncles, serving them with an alcoholic drink prepared from dates, and I was the youngest of them. (Suddenly) it was said that alcoholic drinks had been prohibited. So they said (to me), 'Throw it away." And I threw it away The sub-narrator said: I asked Anas what their drink was (made from), He replied, "(From) ripe dates and unripe dates."
Narrated Ibn 'Umar: 'Umar stood up on the pulpit and said, "Now then, prohibition of alcoholic drinks have been revealed, and these drinks are prepared from five things, i.e.. grapes, dates, honey, wheat or barley And an alcoholic drink is that, that disturbs the mind.
Narrated 'Aisha: Allah's Apostle was asked about Al-Bit. He said, "All drinks that intoxicate are unlawful (to drink.)
Narrated Abu 'Amir or Abu Malik Al-Ash'ari: that he heard the Prophet saying, "From among my followers there will be some people who will consider illegal sexual intercourse, the wearing of silk, the drinking of alcoholic drinks and the use of musical instruments, as lawful. And there will be some people who will stay near the side of a mountain and in the evening their shepherd will come to them with their sheep and ask them for something, but they will say to him, 'Return to us tomorrow.' Allah will destroy them during the night and will let the mountain fall on them, and He will transform the rest of them into monkeys and pigs and they will remain so till the Day of Resurrection."
Narrated Anas bin Malik: Alcoholic drinks were prohibited. At that time these drinks used to be prepared from unripe and ripe dates.
Narrated Anas: The alcoholic drink which was spilled was Al-Fadikh. I used to offer alcoholic drinks to the people at the residence of Abu Talha. Then the order of prohibiting Alcoholic drinks was revealed, and the Prophet ordered somebody to announce that: Abu Talha said to me, "Go out and see what this voice (this announcement ) is." I went out and (on coming back) said, "This is somebody announcing that alcoholic beverages have been prohibited." Abu Talha said to me, "Go and spill it (i.e. the wine)," Then it (alcoholic drinks) was seen flowing through the streets of Medina. At that time the wine was Al-Fadikh. The people said, "Some people (Muslims) were killed (during the battle of Uhud) while wine was in their stomachs." So Allah revealed: "On those who believe and do good deeds there is no blame for what they ate (in the past)." (5.93)
Narrated Anas bin Malik: We had no alcoholic drink except that which was produced from dates and which you call Fadikh. While I was standing offering drinks to Abu Talh and so-and-so and so-and-so, a man cam and said, "Has the news reached you? They said, "What is that?" He said. "Alcoholic drinks have been prohibited. They said, "Spill (the contents of these pots, O Anas! "Then they neither asked about it (alcoholic drinks) nor returned it after the news from that man.
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "An adulterer, at the time he is committing illegal sexual intercourse is not a believer; and a person, at the time of drinking an alcoholic drink is not a believer; and a thief, at the time of stealing, is not a believer." Ibn Shihab said: 'Abdul Malik bin Abi Bakr bin 'Abdur-Rahman bin Al- Harith bin Hisham told me that Abu Bakr used to narrate that narration to him on the authority of Abu Huraira. He used to add that Abu Bakr used to mention, besides the above cases, "And he who robs (takes illegally something by force) while the people are looking at him, is not a believer at the time he is robbing (taking)
Narrated Ibn 'Umar: Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever drinks alcoholic drinks in the world and does not repent (before dying), will be deprived of it in the Hereafter."
Narrated Anas bin Malik: I was serving Abu 'Ubaida, Abu Talha and Ubai bin Ka'b with a drink prepared from ripe and unripe dates. Then somebody came to them and said, "Alcoholic drinks have been prohibited." (On hearing that) Abu Talha said, "Get up. O Anas, and pour (throw) it out! So I poured (threw) it out.
Narrated Anas: While I was waiting on my uncles and serving them with (wine prepared from) dates----and I was the youngest of them----it was said, "Alcoholic drinks have been prohibited." So they said (to me), "Throw it away." So I threw it away.
Narrated Abi Burda: That Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari said that the Prophet had sent him to Yemen and he asked the Prophet about certain (alcoholic) drink which used to be prepared there The Prophet said, "What are they?" Abu Musa said, "Al-Bit' and Al-Mizr?" He said, "Al-Bit is an alcoholic drink made from honey; and Al-Mizr is an alcoholic drink made from barley." The Prophet said, "All intoxicants are prohibited."
Narrated Abu Musa: that when Allah's Apostle sent him and Mu'adh bin Jabal to Yemen, he said to them, "Facilitate things for the people (treat the people in the most agreeable way), and do not make things difficult for them, and give them glad tidings, and let them not have aversion (i.e. to make the people hate good deeds) and you should both work in cooperation and mutual understanding, obey each other." Abu Musa said, "O Allah's Apostle! We are in a land in which a drink named Al Bit' is prepared from honey, and another drink named Al-Mizr is prepared from barley." On that, Allah's Apostle said, "All intoxicants (i.e. all alcoholic drinks) are prohibited."
Narrated Ibn Umar: I heard 'Umar while he was on the pulpit of the Prophet saying, "Now then O people! The revelation about the prohibition of alcoholic drinks was revealed; and alcoholic drinks are extracted from five things: Grapes, dates, honey, wheat and barley. And the alcoholic drink is that which confuses and stupefies the mind."
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "When an adulterer commits illegal sexual intercourse, then he is not a believer at the time, he is doing it, and when a drinker of an alcoholic liquor drinks it, then he is not a believer at the time of drinking it, and when a thief steals, then he is not a believer at the time of stealing, and when a robber robs, and the people look at him, then he is not a believer at the time of doing robbery.
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "When an adulterer commits illegal sexual intercourse, then he is not a believer at the time he is doing it; and when somebody drinks an alcoholic drink, then he is not believer at the time of drinking, and when a thief steals, he is not a believer at the time when he is stealing; and when a robber robs and the people look at him, then he is not a believer at the time of doing it." Abu Huraira in another narration, narrated the same from the Prophet with the exclusion of robbery.
Narrated 'Ikrima from Ibn 'Abbas: Allah's Apostles said, "When a slave (of Allah) commits illegal sexual intercourse, he is not a believer at the time of committing it; and if he steals, he is not a believer at the time of stealing; and if he drinks an alcoholic drink, then he is not a believer at the time of drinking it; and he is not a believer when he commits a murder," 'Ikrima said: I asked Ibn Abbas, "How is faith taken away from him?" He said, Like this," by clasping his hands and then separating them, and added, "But if he repents, faith returns to him like this, by clasping his hands again.
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "The one who commits an illegal sexual intercourse is not a believer at the time of committing illegal sexual intercourse and a thief is not a believer at the time of committing theft and a drinker of alcoholic drink is not a believer at the time of drinking. Yet, (the gate of) repentance is open thereafter."
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: The delegates of 'Abdul Qais came to Allah's Apostle and said, "The pagans of the tribe of Mudar intervene between you and us therefore we cannot come to you except in the Holy months. So please order us to do something good (Religious deeds) by which we may enter Paradise (by acting on them) and we may inform our people whom we have left behind to observe it." The Prophet said, "I order you to do four things and forbid you from four things: I order you to believe in Allah. Do you know what is meant by belief in Allah? It is to testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, to offer prayers perfectly, to give Zakat, and to give Al-Khumus (one-fifth of the war booty) (in Allah's Cause). And I forbid you four things, (i.e., Do not drink alcoholic drinks) Ad-Dubba, An-Naqir, (pitched water skins), Az-Zuruf, Al-Muzaffat and Al--Hantam (names of utensils used for the preparation of alcoholic drinks)." (See Hadith No. 50, Vol. 1)
Narrated Anas: "Alcoholic drinks were prohibited at the time we could rarely find wine made from grapes in Medina, for most of our liquors were made from unripe and ripe dates.
Narrated Ibn 'Umar: "Alcoholic drinks were prohibited (by Allah) when there was nothing of it (special kind of wine) in Medina.
Narrated Anas: I was the butler of the people in the house of Abu Talha, and in those days drinks were prepared from dates. Allah's Apostle ordered somebody to announce that alcoholic drinks had been prohibited. Abu Talha ordered me to go out and spill the wine. I went out and spilled it, and it flowed in the streets of Medina. Some people said, "Some people were killed and wine was still in their stomachs." On that the Divine revelation came:-- "On those who believe And do good deeds There is no blame For what they ate (in the past)." (5.93)
Narrated Abu Burda: The Prophet sent my father and Mu'adh bin Jabal to Yemen and said (to them), "Make things easy for the people and do not put hurdles in their way, and give them glad tiding, and don't let them have aversion (i.e. to make people to hate good deeds) and you both should work in cooperation and mutual understanding" Abu Musa said to Allah's Apostle, "In our country a special alcoholic drink called Al-Bit', is prepared (for drinking)." The Prophet said, "Every intoxicant is prohibited. "
Narrated Anas bin Malik: I used to offer drinks prepared from infused dates to Abu Talha Al-Ansari, Abu 'Ubada bin Al Jarrah and Ubai bin Ka'b. Then a person came to them and said, "All alcoholic drinks have been prohibited." Abii Talha then said, "O Anas! Get up and break all these jars." So I got up and took a mortar belonging to us, and hit the jars with its lower part till they broke.
Narrated Abu Huraira: On the night Allah's Apostle was taken on a night journey (Miraj) two cups, one containing wine and the other milk, were presented to him at Jerusalem. He looked at it and took the cup of milk. Gabriel said, "Praise be to Allah Who guided you to Al-Fitra (the right path); if you had taken (the cup of) wine, your nation would have gone astray."
Narrated Jabir bin 'Abdullah: That he heard Allah's Apostle saying in the year of the Conquest (of Mecca) while he was in Mecca, "Allah and His Apostle have made the selling of wine (i.e. alcoholic drinks) unlawful."

Sahih Muslim[edit]

Anas b. Malik reported I was serving wine to Abu Talha, and Abu Dujana. and Mu'adh b. jabal admidst a group of Ansar when a visitor came to us and said There is a fresh news; the (verses) concerning the prohibition of liquor have been revealed. So we spilt it on that day; and it was a mixture of dry dates and fresh dates. Anas b. Malik said: While Khamr was declared unlawful, the common liquor of theirs was then a mixture of dry dates and fresh dates.
Anas b. Malik reported: Allah revealed the verse in which Allah prohibited the use of liquor. In those days no other liquor was drunk but that prepared from dates.
Narrated by Jabir ibn Abdullah Allah`s Messenger (saws) said: “Every intoxicant is haraam! Verily Allah, the Exalted and Majestic, made a covenant to those who drank intoxicants to make them drink ‘Tinat al-Khabal’. The companions asked: “Allah`s Messenger, what is ‘Tinat al-Khabal?’” He (saws) said: “It is the sweat of the denizens of Hell, or the discharge of the denizens of Hell.”
Anas b. Malik reported that a person who had drink wine was brought to Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him). He gave him forty stripes with two lashes. Abu Bakr also did that, but when Umar (assumed the responsibilities) of the Caliphate, he consulted people and Abd al-Rahman said: The mildest punishment (for drinking) is eighty (stripes) and 'Umar their prescribed this punishment.
This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Anas through another chain of transmitters.
Anas b. Malik reported that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) gave a beating with palm branches and shoes, and that Abu Bakr gave forty lashes. When Umar (became the Commander of the Faithful) and the people went near to pastures and towns, he said (to the Companions of the Holy Prophet). What is your opinion about lashing for drinking? Thereupon Abd al-Rahman b. Auf said: My opinion is that you fix it as the mildest punishment. Then 'Umar inflicted eighty stripes.
This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Hisham with the same chain of transmitters.
Anas reported that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) used to strike forty times with shoes and palm branches (in case of drinking of) wine. The rest of the hadith is the same and there is no mention of pastures and towns.
Hudain b. al-Mundhir Abu Sasan reported: I saw that Walid was brought to Uthmin b. 'Affan as he had prayed two rak'ahs of the dawn prayer, and then he said: I make an increase for you. And two men bore witness against him. One of them was Humran who said that he had drunk wine. The second one gave witness that he had seen him vomiting. Uthman said: He would not have vomited (wine) unless he had drunk it. He said: 'Ali, stand up and lash him. 'Ali said: Hasan, stand up and lash him. Thereupon Hasan said: Let him suffer the heat (of Caliphate) who has enjoyed its coolness. ('Ali felt annoyed at this remark) and he said: 'Abdullah b. Ja'far, stand up and flog him, and he began to flog him and 'Ali counted the stripes until these were forty. He (Hadrat 'Ali) said: Stop now, and then said: Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) gave forty stripes, and Abu Bakr also gave forty stripes, and Umar gave eighty stripes, and all these fall under the category of the Sunnab, but this one (forty stripes) is dearer to me.
'Abdullah (b. Mas'ud) reported: I was in Hims when some of the people asked me to recite the Qur'an to them. So I recited Surah Yusuf to them. One of the persons among the people said: By Allah, this is not how it has been sent down. I said: Woe upon you! By Allah, I recited it to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and he said to me: You have (recited) it well. I was talking with him (the man who objected to my recitation) that I sensed the smell of wine from him. So I said to him. Do you drink wine and belie the Book (of Allah)? You would not depart till I would whip you. So I lashed him according to the prescribed punishment (for the offence of drinking wine).
Ibn Buraida, on the authority of his father, reported Allah's Messenger (may Peace be upon him) as saying: I had forbidden you from the drinking (and preparation of) Nabidh in the vessels made out of leather, but (now) you may drink in all vessels, but you do not drink an intoxicant.
'Abdullah b. Buraida, on the authority of his father, reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: I had forbidden you from the preparation of Nabidh except in a waterskin. But now you may drink in all vessels, but do not drink what is intoxicant.
Ibn 'Umar reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Every intoxicant is Khamr and every intoxicant is forbidden. He who drinks wine in this world and dies while he is addicted to it, not having repented, will not be given a drink in the Hereafter.
Anas b. Malik is reported to have said that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) had forbidden to mixture fresh dates and unripe dates and then drinking (the wine prepared out of it), and that was their common intoxicant when liquor was prohibited.
Anas b. Malik reported: I was serving drink to Abu 'Ubaida b. jarrah, Abu Talha and Ubayy b. Ka'b prepared from unripe dates and fresh dates when a visitor came and he said: Verily liquor has been prohibited. Thereupon, Abu Talha said: Anas, stand up and break this pitcher. I stool up and (took hold) of a pointed stone and struck the pitcher with its lower part until it broke into pieces.
Ibn Buraida, on the authority of his father, reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: I had forbidden you (from the preparation of Nabidh) and drinking it in certain vessels, (but now you may do so if you like) for it is not vessels or a vessel that makes a thing lawful or unlawful. It is every intoxicant that is unlawful.
'A'isha reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) was asked about Bit, whereupon he said: Every drink that causes intoxication is forbidden.
This hadith has been reported on the authority of Zuhri with this chain of transmitters but in the hadith transmitted on the authority of Sufyan and Salih (these words are not found)" she was asked about Bit". (These words are found in the hadith) transmitted on the authority of Ma'mar and in the hadith transmitted on the authority of Salih (only these words are found) that she (Hadrat 'A'isha) had heard Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) say: Every intoxicating drink is forbidden.
Ibn 'Umar reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who drank wine in this world will not be provided with pure drink in the Hereafter, except in case he repents.
Anas reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) was asked about the use of Khamr from which vinegar is prepared. He said: No (it is prohibited).
'Abd al-Aziz b. Suhaib reported: They (some persons) asked Anas b. Malik, about Fadikh (that is, a wine prepared from fresh dates), whereupon he said: There was no liquor with us except this Fadikih of yours. It was only this Fadikh that I had been serving to Abu Talha and Abu Ayyub and some persons from amongst the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) in our house. When a person came and said: Has the news reached you? We said, No. He said: Verily liquor has been declared forbidden. Thereupon, Abd Talha said: Anas, spill these large pitchers. He (the narrator) said: They then never reverted to it, nor even asked about this after the announcement by that person.
Abu Huraira reported that the Messenger of Allah observed: The fornicator who fornicates is not a believer so long as he commits it and no thief who steals is a believer as long as he commits theft, and no drunkard who drinks wine is a believer as long as he drinks it. 'Abdul-Malik b. Abi Bakr' narrated this on the authority of Abu Bakr b. Abdur-Rahman b. Harith and then said: Abu Huraira made this addition: No plunderer who plunders a valuable thing that attracts the attention of people is a believer so long as he commits this act.
It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira: A fornicator who fornicates is not a believer as long as he commits fornication, and no one who steals is a believer as long as he commits theft, and no one who drinks wine is a believer as long as he drinks it, and repentance may be accepted after that.
Ibn Buraida reported on the authority of his father that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: I forbade you to visit graves, but you may now visit them; I forbade you to eat the flesh of sacrificial animals after three days, but you way now keep it as along as you feel inclined; and I forbade you nabidh except in a water-skin, you may drink it from all kinds of water-skins, but you must not drink anything intoxicating.
Abdullah b. Buraida reported on the authority of his father that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said this: I prohibited you from visiting the graves, but (now) you may visit them, and I prohibited you (from eating) the flesh of sacrific- ed animals beyond three days, but now keep it as long as you like. I prohibited you from the use of Nabidh except (that preoared) in dry waterskins. Now drink (Nabidh prepared in any utensil), but do not drink when it becomes intoxicant.
Anas b. Malik reported: I was standing amongst the uncles of my tribe serving them Fadikh while I was the youngest of them, when a person came and said: Verily the use of liqour has been prohibited. They said: Anas, spill it away. So I spilt it. He (one of the narrators. Sulaiman Taimi) said that he asked Anas what that was (the Fadikh). He said: It had been prepared from unripe and ripe dates. Abu Bakr b. Anas said: It was their liquor in those days. Sulaiman said: A person narrated it to me from Anas b. Malik that he had said so.
Wa'il al-Hadrami reported that Tariq b. Suwaid a-Ju'fi asked Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) about liquor. He forbade (its use) and he expressed hatred that it should be prepared. He (Tariq) said: I prepare it as a medicine, whereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: It is no medicine, but an ailment.
Ibn 'Umar, through another chain of transmitters; reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: Every intoxicant is Khamr and every intoxicant is forbidden.
'A'isha reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) was asked about it, whereupon he said that everything that causes intoxication is forbidden.
Abu Musa reported: Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) sent me and Mu'adh b. Jabal to Yemen. I said: Allah's Messenger, there is prepared in our land a wine out of barley which is known as Mizr (beer of our times) and a wine from honey which is known as Bit, (are these also forbidden? ), whereupon he said: Every intoxicant is forbidden.
Nafi' reported Ibn 'Umar as saying: I do not know this but from Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) who said: Every intoxicant is Khamr and every Khamr is forbidden.

Abu Dawud[edit]

Narrated Abdullah ibn Umar: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Allah has cursed wine, its drinker, its server, its seller, its buyer, its presser, the one for whom it is pressed, the one who conveys it, and the one to whom it is conveyed.
Narrated Mu'awiyah ibn AbuSufyan: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: If they (the people) drink wine, flog them, again if they drink it, flog them. Again if they drink it, kill them.
Narrated AbdurRahman ibn Azhar:

I saw the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) on the morning of the conquest of Mecca when I was a young boy. He was walking among the people, seeking the camp of Khalid ibn al-Walid. A man who had drunk wine was brought (before him) and he ordered them (to beat him). So they beat him with what they had in their hands. Some struck him with whips, some with sticks and some with sandals. The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) threw some dust on his face.

When a man who had drunk wine was brought before AbuBakr, he asked them (i.e. the people) about the number of beatings which they gave him. They numbered it forty. So AbuBakr gave him forty lashes...
Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib:

Hudayn ibn al-Mundhir ar-Ruqashi, who was AbuSasan, said: I was present with Uthman ibn Affan when al-Walid ibn Uqbah was brought to him. Humran and another man bore witness against him (for drinking wine). One of them testified that he had seen him drinking wine, and the other testified that he had seen him vomiting it.

Uthman said: He could not vomit it, unless he did not drink it. He said to Ali: Inflict the prescribed punishment on him. Ali said to al-Hasan: Inflict the prescribed punishment on him.

Al-Hasan said: He who has enjoyed its pleasure should also bear its burden. So Ali said to Abdullah ibn Ja'far: Inflict the prescribed punishment on him. He took a whip and struck him with it while Ali was counting.

When he reached (struck) forty (lashes), he said: It is sufficient. The Prophet (peace be upon him) gave forty lashes. I think he also said: "And AbuBakr gave forty lashes, and Uthman eighty. This is all sunnah (standard practice). And this is dearer to me."
Narrated Jabir ibn Abdullah: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: If a large amount of anything causes intoxication, a small amount of it is prohibited.
Narrated Abdullah Ibn Abbas:

The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said: Every intoxicant is khamr (wine) and every intoxicant is forbidden. If anyone drinks wine, Allah will not accept prayer from him for forty days, but if he repents, Allah will accept his repentance. If he repeats it a fourth time, it is binding on Allah that He will give him tinat al-khabal to drink.

He was asked: What is tinat al-khabal, Apostle of Allah? He replied: Discharge of wounds, flowing from the inhabitants of Hell. If anyone serves it to a minor who does not distinguish between the lawful and the unlawful, it is binding on Allah that He will give him to drink the discharge of wounds, flowing from the inhabitants of Hell.
Narrated Daylam al-Himyari: I asked the Prophet (peace be upon him) and said: Apostle of Allah! we live in a cold land in which we do heavy work and we make a liquor from wheat to get strength from if for our work and to stand the cold of our country. He asked: Is it intoxicating? I replied: Yes. He said: You must avoid it. I said: The people will not abandon it. He said: If they do not abandon it, fight with them.
Narrated Buraydah ibn al-Hasib: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: I forbade you three things, and now I command (permit) you for them. I forbade you to visit graves, now you may visit them, for in visiting them there is admonition. I forbade you drinks except from skin vessels, but now you may drink from any kind of vessels, but do not drink an intoxicant. I forbade you to eat the meat of sacrificial animals after three days, but now you may eat and enjoy it during your journeys.
Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As: The Prophet (peace be upon him) forbade wine (khamr), game of chance (maysir), drum (kubah), and wine made from millet (ghubayrah), saying: Every intoxicant is forbidden.
Narrated Umm Salamah, Ummul Mu'minin:

The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) forbade every intoxicant and everything which produces languidness.


Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:

I heard the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) say: Every intoxicant is forbidden; if a faraq of anything causes intoxication, a handful of it is forbidden.


Narrated Ali ibn AbuTalib: A man of the Ansar called him and AbdurRahman ibn Awf and supplied them wine before it was prohibited. Ali then led them in the evening prayer, and he recited; "Say: O ye who reject faith." He was confused in it. Then the following verse came down: "O ye who believe! approach not prayers with a mind befogged until you can understand all that ye say.
Narrated Umar ibn al-Khattab:

When the prohibition of wine (was yet to be) declared, Umar said: O Allah, give us a satisfactory explanation about wine.

So the following verse of Surat al-Baqarah revealed; "They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. Say: In them is great sin...." Umar was then called and it was recited to him.

He said: O Allah, give us a satisfactory explanation about wine.

Then the following verse of Surat an-Nisa' was revealed: "O ye who believe! approach not prayers with a mind befogged...." Thereafter the herald of the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) would call when the (congregational) prayer was performed: Beware, one who is drunk should not come to prayer. Umar was again called and it was recited to him).

He said: O Allah, give us a satisfactory explanation about wine. This verse was revealed: "Will ye not then abstain?" Umar said: We abstained.

Malik's Muwatta[edit]

Yahya related to me from Malik from Thawr ibn Zayd ad-Dili that Umar ibn al-Khattab asked advice about a man drinking wine. Ali ibn Abi Talib said to him, "We think that you flog him for it with eighty lashes. Because when he drinks, he becomes intoxicated, and when he becomes intoxicated, he talks confusedly, and when he talks confusedly, he lies." (80 lashes is the same amount as for slandering) Umar gave eighty lashes for drinking wine.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that some men from Iraq said to him, "Abu Abd ar-Rahman, we buy the fruit of the palm and grapes and we squeeze them into wine and we sell it." Abdullah ibn Umar said, "I call on Allah and His angels and whoever hears of jinn and men to testify to you that I order you not to buy it nor sell it nor to press it nor to drink it nor to give it to people to drink. It is something impure from the work of Shaytan."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that as-Sa'ib ibn Yazid informed him that Umar ibn al-Khattab came out to them. He said, "I have found the smell of wine on so-and-so, and he claimed that it was the drink of boiled fruit juice, and I am inquiring about what he has drunk. If it intoxicates, I will flog him." Umar then flogged him with the complete hadd.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said that he heard Said ibn al-Musayyab say, "There is nothing that Allah does not like to be pardoned as long as it is not a hadd." Yahya said that Malik said, "The sunna with us is that the hadd is obliged against anyone who drinks something intoxicating whether or not he becomes drunk."
Yahya related to me from Malik from ibn Shihab from Abu Salama ibn Abd ar-Rahman that A'isha, the wife of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about mead, and he replied, 'Every drink which intoxicates is haram.' "
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said "Whoever drinks wine in this world and does not turn from it in tawba, it is haram for him in the Next World."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam that Ibn Wala al-Misri asked Abdullah ibn Abbas about what is squeezed from the grapes. Ibn Abbas replied, "A man gave the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, a small water-skin of wine. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said to him, 'Don't you know that Allah has made it haram?' He said, 'No.' Then a man at his side whispered to him. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, asked what he had whispered, and the man replied, 'I told him to sell it.' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The One who made drinking it haram has made selling it haram.' The man then opened the water-skins and poured out what was in them ."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Zayd ibn Aslam from Ata ibn Yasar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was asked about al-Ghubayra. He said, "There is no good in it," and forbade it. Malik said, "I asked Zayd ibn Aslam, 'What is al-Ghubayra?' He said, 'It is an intoxicant.' "
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ishaq ibn Abdullah ibn Abi Talha that Anas ibn Malik said, "I was serving wine to Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah and Abu Talha al-Ansari and Umayy ibn Kab. The wine had been prepared from crushed ripe dates and dried dates. Someone came to them and said, 'Wine has been made haram.' Abu Talha ordered me to go and take the jugs and break them. I stood up and went to a mortar of ours and I struck them with the bottom of it until they broke."
Yahya related to me from Malik that Abu'z-Zinad informed him that a governor of Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz took some people in battle and had not killed any of them. He wanted to cut off their hands or kill them, so he wrote to Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz about that Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz wrote to him, "Better to take less than that."

Yahya said that he heard Malik say, "What is done among us about a person who steals the goods of people which are placed under guard in the markets, and their owners put them in their containers and store them together is that if anyone steals any of that from where it is kept, and its value reaches that for which cutting off the hand is obliged, his hand must be cut off, whether or not the owner of the goods is with his goods and whether it is night or day."

Malik said about some one who stole something for which cutting off the hand was obliged and then what he stole was found with him and he returned it to its owner, "His hand is cut off."

Malik said, "If someon says, 'How can his hand be cut off when the goods have been taken from him and returned to their owner?', it is because he is in the same position as the wine drinker when the smell of the wine is found on his breath and he is not drunk. He is flogged with the hadd.

"The hadd is imposed for drinking wine even if it does not make the man intoxicated. That is because he drank it to become intoxicated. It is the same as that with cutting off the hand of the thief for theft when it is taken from him, even if he has not profited from it and it was returned to its owner. When he stole it, he stole it to take it away." [...]

Al Tirmidhi[edit]

Narrated byMu'adh ibn Jabal: Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him) instructed me to do ten things saying: 1. Do not associate anything with Allah even if you are killed and burnt on that account. 2. Don't be disobedient to your parents even if they command you to abandon your family and your property. 3. Do not deliberately neglect to observe a prescribed prayer for he who neglects the prescribed prayer deliberately will become out of the protection of Allah. 4. Do not drink wine for it is the height of every obscenity. 5. Shun evil, for with evil there descends the wrath of Allah. 6. Beware of running away from the battle-field even if the people perish. 7. And when the death overtakes the people (in a plague or disaster) and you are one amongst them, show steadfastness. 8. Spend on your children according to your means. 9. Do not refrain from using pressure (of punishment) with a view to training them. 10. Inculcate in them the fear of Allah. (Transmitted by Ahmad)
Al-Tirmidhi Hadith No. 61

Ibn Majah[edit]

It was narrated that Anas bin Malik said: “The Messenger of Allah used to beat (offenders) for drinking wine with sandals and date-palm stalks.” (Sahih)
Hudain bin Mundhir said: “When Walid bin `Uqbah was brought to `Uthman, they had testified against him. He said to 'Ali: 'You are close to your uncle's son, so carry out the legal punishment on him.' So 'Ali whipped him. He said: 'The Messenger of Allah gave forty lashes, and Abu Bakr gave forty lashes, and 'Umar gave eighty all are Sunnah.'” (Sahih)
It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said: “If he gets drunk, then whip him. If he does it again, then whip him. If he does it again, then whip him.' And he said concerning the fourth time: 'If he does it again, then strike his neck (i.e., execute him).' ” (Sahih)
It was narrated from Mu`awiyah bin Abu Sufyan that the Messenger of Allah said: “If they drink (again), then whip them. If they drink (again), then whip them. If they drink (again), then whip them. If they drink (again), then kill them.” (Hasan)

Scholars[edit]

Ibn Kathir[edit]

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Maysarah said that `Umar once said, "O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr!" Allah sent down the Ayah of Surat Al-Baqarah:

[يَسْـَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَآ إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ]

(They ask you (O Muhammad ) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: "In them is a great sin...)

`Umar was then summoned and the Ayah was recited to him. Yet, he still said, "O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr." Then, this Ayah that is in Surat An-Nisa' was revealed:

[يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلَوةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَـرَى]

(O you who believe! Approach not As-Salah (the prayer) when you are in a drunken state.) (4:43)

Then, when the prayer was called for, a person used to herald on behalf of Allah's Messenger, "No drunk person should attend the prayer." Umar was summoned again and the Ayah was recited to him. Yet, he still said, "O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr." Then, the Ayah that is in Surat Al-Ma'idah was revealed, Umar was again summoned and the Ayah was recited to him. When he reached:

[فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُّنتَهُونَ]

(So, will you not then abstain) (5:91) he said, "We did abstain, we did abstain." This is also the narration that Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasai collected in their books. `Ali bin Al-Madini and At-Tirmidhi said that the chain of narrators for this Hadith is sound and authentic. We will mention this Hadith again along with what Imam Ahmad collected by Abu Hurayrah Allah's saying in Surat Al-Ma'idah:

[إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالاٌّنصَابُ وَالاٌّزْلاَمُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَـنِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ]

(Intoxicants and gambling, and Al-Ansab, and Al-Azlam are an abomination of Satan's handiwork. So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful.) (5:90)

Allah said:

[يَسْـَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ]

(They ask you (O Muhammad ) concerning alcoholic drinks and gambling.)

As for Al-Khamr, `Umar bin Khattab, the Leader of the faithful, used to say, "It includes all what intoxicates the mind." We will also mention this statement in the explanation of Surat Al-Ma'idah, along with the topic of gambling.

Allah said:

[قُلْ فِيهِمَآ إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَـفِعُ لِلنَّاسِ]

(Say: In them is a great sin, and (some) benefits for men.)

As for the harm that the Khamr and gambling cause, it effects the religion. As for their benefit, it is material, including benefit for the body, digesting the food, getting rid of the excrements, sharpening the mind, bringing about a joyous sensation and financially benefiting from their sale. Also, (their benefit includes) earnings through gambling that one uses to spend on his family and on himself. Yet, these benefits are outweighed by the clear harm that they cause which affects the mind and the religion. This is why Allah said:

[وَإِثْمُهُمَآ أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا]

(...but the sin of them is greater than their benefit.)

This Ayah was the beginning of the process of prohibiting Khamr, not explicity, but it only implied this meaning. So when this Ayah was recited to `Umar, he still said, "O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr." Soon after, Allah sent down a clear prohibition of Khamr in Surat Al-Ma'idah:

[يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالاٌّنصَابُ وَالاٌّزْلاَمُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَـنِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ - إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَـنُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَآءَ فِى الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَعَنِ الصَّلَوةِ فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُّنتَهُونَ ]

(O you who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), and gambling, and Al-Ansab, and Al-Azlam are an abomination of Shaytan's handiwork. So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful. Shaytan wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants (alcoholic drinks) and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from As-Salah (the prayer). So, will you not then abstain) (5:90, 91)

We will mention this subject, by the will of Allah, when we explain Surat Al-Ma'idah.

Ibn `Umar, Ash-Sha`bi, Mujahid, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and `Abdur-Rahman bin Aslam stated that the first Ayah revealed about Khamr was:

[يَسْـَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَآ إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ]

(They ask you about Khamr and gambling. Say: "In them there is great sin.") (2:219)

Then, the Ayah in Surat An-Nisa' was revealed (on this subject) and then the Ayah in Surat Al-Ma'idah which prohibited Khamr.

The Gradual Prohibition of Khamr (Alchoholic Drink)

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Maysarah said that `Umar once said, "O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr!" Allah sent down the Ayah of Surat Al-Baqarah:

[يَسْـَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَآ إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ]

(They ask you (O Muhammad ) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: "In them is a great sin...)

`Umar was then summoned and the Ayah was recited to him. Yet, he still said, "O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr." Then, this Ayah that is in Surat An-Nisa' was revealed:

[يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلَوةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَـرَى]

(O you who believe! Approach not As-Salah (the prayer) when you are in a drunken state.) (4:43)

Then, when the prayer was called for, a person used to herald on behalf of Allah's Messenger , "No drunk person should attend the prayer. `Umar was summoned again and the Ayah was recited to him. Yet, he still said, "O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr." Then, the Ayah that is in Surat Al-Ma'idah was revealed, `Umar was again summoned and the Ayah was recited to him. When he reached:

[فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُّنتَهُونَ]

(So, will you not then abstain) (5:91) he said, "We did abstain, we did abstain." This is also the narration that Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasai collected in their books. `Ali bin Al-Madini and At-Tirmidhi said that the chain of narrators for this Hadith is sound and authentic. We will mention this Hadith again along with what Imam Ahmad collected by Abu Hurayrah Allah's saying in Surat Al-Ma'idah:

[إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالاٌّنصَابُ وَالاٌّزْلاَمُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَـنِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ]

(Intoxicants and gambling, and Al-Ansab, and Al-Azlam are an abomination of Satan's handiwork. So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful.) (5:90)

Allah said:

[يَسْـَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ]

(They ask you (O Muhammad ) concerning alcoholic drinks and gambling.)

As for Al-Khamr, `Umar bin Khattab, the Leader of the faithful, used to say, "It includes all what intoxicates the mind." We will also mention this statement in the explanation of Surat Al-Ma'idah, along with the topic of gambling.

Allah said:

[قُلْ فِيهِمَآ إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَـفِعُ لِلنَّاسِ]

(Say: In them is a great sin, and (some) benefits for men.)

As for the harm that the Khamr and gambling cause, it effects the religion. As for their benefit, it is material, including benefit for the body, digesting the food, getting rid of the excrements, sharpening the mind, bringing about a joyous sensation and financially benefiting from their sale. Also, (their benefit includes) earnings through gambling that one uses to spend on his family and on himself. Yet, these benefits are outweighed by the clear harm that they cause which affects the mind and the religion. This is why Allah said:

[وَإِثْمُهُمَآ أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا]

(...but the sin of them is greater than their benefit.)

This Ayah was the beginning of the process of prohibiting Khamr, not explicity, but it only implied this meaning. So when this Ayah was recited to `Umar, he still said, "O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding Al-Khamr." Soon after, Allah sent down a clear prohibition of Khamr in Surat Al-Ma'idah:

[يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالاٌّنصَابُ وَالاٌّزْلاَمُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَـنِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ - إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَـنُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَآءَ فِى الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَعَنِ الصَّلَوةِ فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُّنتَهُونَ ]

(O you who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), and gambling, and Al-Ansab, and Al-Azlam are an abomination of Shaytan's handiwork. So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful. Shaytan wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants (alcoholic drinks) and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from As-Salah (the prayer). So, will you not then abstain) (5:90, 91)

We will mention this subject, by the will of Allah, when we explain Surat Al-Ma'idah.

Ibn `Umar, Ash-Sha`bi, Mujahid, Qatadah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas and `Abdur-Rahman bin Aslam stated that the first Ayah revealed about Khamr was:

[يَسْـَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ قُلْ فِيهِمَآ إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ]

(They ask you about Khamr and gambling. Say: "In them there is great sin.") (2:219)

Then, the Ayah in Surat An-Nisa' was revealed (on this subject) and then the Ayah in Surat Al-Ma'idah which prohibited Khamr.

Al Jalalayn[edit]

They ask you about wine, and divinatory arrows, gambling, and what the ruling is regarding them. Say, to them: ‘In both, that is, in the partaking of both, is great sin (a variant reading [for kabīr, ‘great’] has kathīr, ‘much’) because of the fighting, cursing and swearing that ensue from it; and profit for men, by way of delight and enjoyment in wine, and acquiring money effortlessly from gambling; but the sin in them, that is, the degenerate behaviour in which they result, is greater, graver, than the usefulness’. When this verse was revealed, some gave up drinking, while others persisted, until the verse of sūrat al-Mā’ida [Q. 5:90-91] finally made it illicit. And they will ask you what, that is to say, how much, they should expend. Say, expend, ‘Comfortably’ (al-‘afwa [in the accusative] is also read in the nominative, al-‘afwu, implying a preceding huwa), that is, the surplus of your need, and do not expend what you need, ruining yourselves. So, just as He explained to you what has been mentioned, God makes clear His signs to you that you might reflect,
Surah 2 Ayah 219
Tafsir al-Jalalayn, trans. Feras Hamza, Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought
O you who believe, verily wine, that intoxicates and overcomes the mind, and games of chance, gambling, and idols, and divinatory arrows are an abomination, an evil deemed vile, of Satan’s work, which he adorns; so avoid it, this abomination consisting of the things mentioned, do not do it; so that you might prosper.

Satan desires only to precipitate enmity and hatred between you through wine and games of chance, when you partake of them, because of the evil and discord that result therefrom; and to bar you, by your being preoccupied with them, from the remembrance of God and from prayer — He has specifically mentioned it [prayer] so as to magnify it. So will you then desist?, from partaking of them? In other words: Desist!
Surah 5 Ayah 90-91
Tafsir al-Jalalayn, trans. Feras Hamza, Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought

Ibn Abbas[edit]

(They question thee about strong drink and games of chance). This was revealed about 'Umar Ibn al-Khattab who prayed: “O Allah! Show us Your judgement regarding alcoholic drinks!” So Allah said to Muhammad (pbuh): (Say) O Muhammad! (in both is great sin) this is after they were declared unlawful, (and (some) utility for men) by means of their trading, i.e. before they were unlawful; (but the sin of them) after their being declared unlawful (is greater than their usefulness) before they were made unlawful; and then both were prohibited. (And they ask thee what they ought to spend). This was revealed about 'Amr Ibn al-Jamuh who asked the Prophet (pbuh): “What should we spend from our wealth”. Allah told His Prophet: they ask you about what they should spend from their wealth. (Say: That which is superfluous) that which is in surplus to your sustenance requirements and of food for your dependents. But this was abrogated by those verses on the poor-due. (Thus Allah maketh plain to you (the) revelations) the commands and prohibitions and the insignificance of this world, (that ye may reflect) that it is evanescent.
Surah 2 Ayah 219
Tafsir Ibn 'Abbas, trans. Mokrane Guezzou, Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought
(O ye who believe! Strong drink) which intoxicates the mind (and games of chance) all types of games of chance (and idols) the worship of idols (and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan's handiwork) they are unlawful because they are instigated by order of the devil and his whispering. (Leave it aside) avoid it (in order that ye may succeed) in order that you may escape Allah's anger and punishment and be safe in the Hereafter. (Satan seeketh only to cast among you enmity and hatred by means of strong drink) when you become drunk (and games of chance) when you loose your money, (and to turn you from remembrance of Allah) He says: intoxicants drive you from the obedience of Allah (and from (His) worship) He says: it also prevents you from performing the five daily prayers. (Will ye then have done?) will you then stop from indulging in them.
Surah 5 Ayah 90-91
Tafsir Ibn 'Abbas, trans. Mokrane Guezzou, Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought

Al Wahidi[edit]

(O ye who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan’s handiwork) [5:90]. Abu Sa‘id ibn Abi Bakr al-Mutawwi’i informed us> Abu ‘Amr Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Hiri> Ahmad ibn ‘Ali al-Mawsili> Abu Khaythamah> al-Hasan ibn Musa> Zuhayr> Simak ibn Harb> Mus‘ab ibn Sa‘d ibn Abi Waqqas> his father who said: “I went to a group of Emigrants and Helpers and they said to me: ‘Let us feed you and give you wine to drink’, this was before intoxicants were made unlawful. So I went to a field where they had a roasted camel's head and a barrel of wine. I ate and drank with them. Then I mentioned the Emigrants and the Helpers and said: ‘The Emigrants are better than the Helpers’. One of the man grabbed one of the jawbones [of the head we ate] and hit me with it, severing my nose in the process. I went to the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, and informed him of what had happened, and Allah, exalted is He, revealed about me the matter of intoxicants (drink and games of chance)”. Narrated by Muslim from Abu Khaythamah.

‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Hamdan al-‘Adl informed us> Ahmad ibn Ja‘far ibn Malik> ‘Abd Allah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal> his father> Khalaf ibn al-Walid> Isra’il> Abu Ishaq> Abu Maysarah> ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab who made a supplication, saying: “O Allah, explain to us unequivocally the matter of intoxicants”, and so the verse of Surah al-Baqarah was revealed (They question thee about strong drink and games of chance) [2:219] ‘Umar was summoned and this verse was recited to him. But he prayed again: “O Allah, explain to us unequivocally the matter of intoxicants”, and so the verse of Surah al-Nisa’ was revealed (O ye who believe! Draw not near unto prayer when ye are drunken…). The crier of the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, used to say after announcing the beginning of any prayer: “Whoever is drunk should not approach the prayer”. Again ‘Umar was summoned and this verse was recited to him. Again he prayed: “O Allah, explain to us unequivocally the matter of intoxicants”. This verse was then revealed (Strong drink and games of chance). ‘Umar was summoned and the verse was recited to him and when it got to the words of Allah (Will ye then have done?), upon which ‘Umar said: “We refrain from it, we refrain from it”. There were things that happened due to the consumption of intoxicants, before they were made lawful, which the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, disliked. Of these is the story of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hamzah, may Allah be well pleased with them.

Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya informed us> Abu Bakr ibn Abi Khalid> Yusuf ibn Musa al-Marwazi> Ahmad ibn Salih> ‘Anbasah> Yusuf> Ibn Shihab> ‘Ali ibn al-Husayn> Husayn ibn ‘Ali who related that ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib said: “I had an old camel mare which was my share from the booty of Badr. Before that, the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, had given me an old camel mare from the quint (khums). And when I was going to marry Fatimah, I had an appointment with a goldsmith from Banu Qaynuqa‘ whom I wanted to travel with me to buy Bulrush (Idhkhir) from a goldsmith for my wedding ceremony. I went to gather some saddles, sacks and ropes — for my camels which were kneeled down close to a Helper’s room. When I came back, I found my two camels with their humps cut off, their haunches ripped open and their insides taken away. I could not believe what I saw, and asked: ‘Who did this?’ They said: ‘It was Hamzah ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib; he is now in the house drinking with some Helpers. They have a songstress who had sung: O Hamzah, proceed to the old fat camels Which are tied in the courtyard. Put the knife to their throat And, O Hamzah, smear blood on them. And feed us from their slices, meat on skewer attached together on glowing fire. For you are, O Abu ‘Umarah, our hope To relieve us from harm and affliction. So when he heard this, he jumped to his sword, cut off the camels’ humps, ripped open their haunches and took away their insides’. I proceeded until I entered in on the Prophet, Allah bless him and give him peace. He had with him Zayd ibn Harithah. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, knew why I went to see him. He said: ‘What’s the matter with you?’ I said: ‘O Messenger of Allah, I have not seen anything like what I saw today. Hamzah attacked my camels, cut off their humps, ripped open their haunches and he is still drinking until now in a certain house’. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, called for his outer garment and walked off. Zayd ibn Harithah and I followed him. He proceeded until he arrived to the house where Hamzah was drinking. He asked permission to enter and permission was granted. They were all drunk. The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, began reproaching Hamzah for what he did while Hamzah’s eyes were red from being completely drunk. Hamzah looked at the Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace; then he stared at him, looked at his knees, then stared at his face and said: ‘Are you not but the slaves of my father?’ The Messenger of Allah, Allah bless him and give him peace, realised that he was very drunk. He stepped back, left the house and we left after him”. Narrated by Bukhari from Ahmad ibn Salih. This incident was among the reasons which made incumbent the revelation of forbidding intoxicants.
Surah 5 Ayah 90
Asbab Al-Nuzul by Al-Wahidi , trans. Mokrane Guezzou, Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought

See Also[edit]

  • Alcohol - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Alcohol