WikiIslam:Sandbox/List of Genocides

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This article is a dynamic list of genocides, cultural genocides and acts of ethnic cleansing under Muslim regimes from the origin of Islam to present day.

Mutual population exchanges, massacres and war crimes involving non-Muslims and Muslims (such as Greece–Turkey, India–Pakistan or Israel–Palestine) are excluded from this list.

No. Victims Region Country Who was Responsible Period Notes
1 Arab polytheists Arabian peninsula Saudi Arabia Flag of Saudi Arabia.png 600s AD
2 Jews Arabian peninsula 600s AD
3 Christians Arabian peninsula 600s AD
Traditional Berber religion North Africa Arab Muslims 647 onwards
Berber Christians Algeria Umayyad Caliphate[1] 647 onwards
Zoroastrians Persia Iran Flag of Iran.png, Iraq Flag of Iraq.png Arab and Persian Muslims 642-early 10th century [2][3][4]
Hindus Afghanistan Flag of Afghanistan.png
Buddhists Kabul valley, Bamiyan etc. Afghanistan Flag of Afghanistan.png Saffarid dynasty 9th century AD [5]
Dards Kashmir and northern Pakistan India Flag of India.png, Pakistan Flag of Pakistan.png Arab invaders, Swat princely state c. 700 AD and 1858-1969 Most Dards were converted to Islam[6][7]
Turgesh Turks, Sogdians Transoxiana Uzbekistan Flag of Uzbekistan.png, Tajikistan Flag of Tajikistan.png, Kyrgyzstan Flag of Kyrgyzstan.png Umayyad Caliphate 721 onwards The culture and heritage of the Sogdians was destroyed so thoroughly that it is almost impossible to reconstruct their history.[8] In the post-Umayyad period, Islam had firmly penetrated here.
Buddhists, proto-Iranian Hindus, Shamanists, Manichaeans Xinjiang province Western China Flag of China.png Kara Khanids[9] 900s to 1500s There were centuries-long attacks in this region.[10] Buddhist monuments and artefacts were also destroyed on a large scale. The area was largely Islamized.
Hindus and Buddhists Gandhara Afghanistan Flag of Afghanistan.png Mahmud of Ghazni 998-1030 Mass conversions and coercions.[11]
Hindus India Flag of India.png Various Muslim invaders and rulers 1000-1525 The Hindu population of India fell by an estimated 60 to 80 million in this period.[12][13][14] Detailed analyses of this event and the casualties are rare.
Jews Siege of Cordoba Spain Flag of Spain.png Berber Muslims led by Umayyad ruler 1013 The inhabitants of Cordoba including Jews were massacred and looted. It is said that 2000 of them were killed.[15][16][17][18]
Jews Fez Morocco Flag of Morocco.png Berber soldiers 1033 In this pogrom, Muslims killed more than 6000 Jews and took away their women and belongings.[19][20][21][22]


Ismaili Shias Sindh, in the Indian subcontinent present-day Pakistan Flag of Pakistan.png Mahmud of Ghazni 1025 Mahmud defeated the Shia ruler and slaughtered many Ismailis.[23][24]
Serer religion Tekrur Senegal Flag of Senegal.png Gambia Flag of Gambia.png and nearby areas King War Jabi, his Almoravid allies and many other African Muslims 1035-1867 The Serer were under pressure to embrace Islam for centuries. An unknown number of them died in these jihads but many of them scattered.[25][26][27][28][29]
Armenian Christians Ani Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Seljuk Turks under Alp Arslan 1064 Part of the Muslim conquest of Anatolia.[30][31]
Jews Granada Spain Flag of Spain.png 1066 Muslims crucified the Jewish vizier and massacred most of the Jewish population of the city.[32][33]
Jews Maghreb and Andalusia Morocco Flag of Morocco.png, Spain Flag of Spain.png (southern), Portugal Flag of Portugal.png, Tunisia Flag of Tunisia.png Almohad Caliphate 1126-1269 Jews were expelled, killed or forced to convert to Islam.[34][35][36]
Buddhists Bihar India Flag of India.png Bakhtiyar Khilji c.1197-1203 Famous Buddhist monasteries and universities were also destroyed[37][38][39]
Christians Anatolia Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Muslim Turks
Buddhists Maldives Flag of Maldives.png c. 1200s onwards
Kanuri people Kanem empire Chad Flag of Chad.png, Nigeria Flag of Nigeria.png, Cameroon Flag of Cameroon.png Dunama Dabbalemi 1203 to 1243 All Kanuris converted to Islam as a result of a jihad.[40][41]
Mongol converts to Islam[42] Delhi India Flag of India.png Alauddin Khilji 1298 15,000-30,000 were killed
Syriac Christians south India Flag of India.png 1330 [43][44]
Hindus Kashmir India Flag of India.png, Pakistan Flag of Pakistan.png Sikandar Butshikan 1389-1413 [45][46]
Coptic Christians Egypt Flag of Egypt.png Mamluk Sultanate 1300s-1517 Rampant discrimination and persecution under the Pact of Umar forced a majority of Copts to convert to Islam.[47]
Maronites and Greek Orthodox Christians Coast of the Levant Lebanon Flag of Lebanon.png, Syria Flag of Syria.png Mamluk Sultanate 1300s These communities were expelled and their settlements were destroyed.[48]
Nestorian Christians Iraq Flag of Iraq.png, Iran Flag of Iran.png, Uzbekistan Flag of Uzbekistan.png Timur 1380s-1405 Timur's raids and slaughters nearly exterminated the followers of the Nestorian Church in the Near East.[49]
Jews Fez Morocco Flag of Morocco.png 1465 Muslim subjects overthrew the last Marinid ruler who had appointed many Jews to high positions. This had angered many Muslims and was one of the main pretexts for them to massacre the entire Jewish community of Fez.[50][51]
Jews Songhai Empire Mali Flag of Mali.png Askia Mohammad I 1492 Askia decreed that Jews must convert to Islam or leave. He destroyed their synagogue. Most of the Jews converted to Islam, and intolerance by Malians towards them was reported as recently as the 20th century.[52]
Zoroastrians Persia Iran Flag of Iran.png Persian Muslims under the Safavid dynasty 1502-1747
Sunnis Persia Iran Flag of Iran.png , Iraq Flag of Iraq.png[53] Azerbaijan Flag of Azerbaijan.png[54] Safavid dynasty 1502-1722
Takkalu tribe Persia Shah Ismail


Shias Kashmir India Flag of India.png 1500s to 1800s [55]
Yazidis Baghdad, Mosul, Diyarbakir, etc. Iraq Flag of Iraq.png, Syria Flag of Syria.png, Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Ottoman Empire 1500s to 1800s A large Yazidi community existed in Syria, but they declined due to persecution by the Ottoman Empire. Several expeditions were launched against the Yazidis by the Ottoman governors (Wāli) of Diyarbakir, Mosul and Baghdad. The aim of these attacks was forced conversion of Yazidis to Sunni Hanafi Islam.[56][57][58]
Jews Safed present-day Israel Flag of Israel.png Retreating Mamluk army of Egypt and Arab civilians 1517 Jews were evicted from their homes, robbed and plundered, and they fled naked to the villages.[59][60][61][62][63]
Greek Cypriots Nicosia Cyprus Flag of Cyprus.png Ottoman army 1570 20,000 Nicosians were put to death, and every church, public building, and palace was looted. Only women and boys who were captured to be sold as slaves were spared.[64][65][66]
Portuguese India Flag of India.png Shah Jahan 1632 [4] [5] When negotiations with Portuguese merchants broke down, Shah Jahan massacred their men and enslaved 4000 women and children at Hughli in Bengal.[67][68]
Sikhs Punjab India Flag of India.png, Pakistan Flag of Pakistan.png Aurangzeb[69] 1658 onwards Aurangzeb's frequent persecution of the Sikhs forced their peaceful community to transform into a warrior community.[70][71]
Jews Yemen Flag of Yemen.png Imam of Yemen (Rassid dynasty) 1679–1680 The Jews of nearly all cities and towns in Yemen were exiled to a remote desert and left to die. Their property was also confiscated.[72][73][74][75]
Sikhs India Flag of India.png, Pakistan Flag of Pakistan.png Mughal Empire vassals and Afghan soldiers 1746-62 [76]


Kashmiri Pandits Kashmir valley India Flag of India.png Afghans 1764-1820s [77]
Mangalorean Catholics Kingdom of Mysore India Flag of India.png Tipu Sultan 1784-1799 This community were driven out of their homes, forced on a death march and kept as captives for 15 years. Many faced tortures, killings and forced conversions. Out of about 60,000 Catholics, at least 30,000 died en route or in captivity.[78] Only 15,000–20,000 made it out as Christians.[79]
Zoroastrians Persia Iran Flag of Iran.png Persian Muslims under the Qajar dynasty 1796-1925 Zoroastrians regard this period as one of their worst. They were frequently massacred, taken as captives, robbed, overtaxed, and denied basic rights.[80][81]
Mandaeans Iran Flag of Iran.png Qajar dynasty of Persia 18th and 19th centuries.[82]
Bektashis Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II 1826 The Bektashi order was outlawed and 4,000 to 7,500 of them were executed. Their shrines were destroyed.[83]
Assyrian Christians Bohtan and Hakkari Iraq Flag of Iraq.png, Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Badr Khan and Nurallah of Hakkari 1843-47 More than 1000 Christians were killed.[84] The Muslim armies destroyed several villages and took prisoners as war booty.[85]
Jews Throughout the Middle East and North Africa 1840-1908 Following the Damascus affair, riots and massacres of Jews occurred in Aleppo (1850, 1875), Damascus (1840, 1848, 1890), Beirut (1862, 1874), Dayr al-Qamar (1847), Jerusalem (1847), Cairo (1844, 1890, 1901–02), Mansura (1877), Alexandria (1870, 1882, 1901–07), Port Said (1903, 1908), Damanhur (1871, 1873, 1877, 1891), Istanbul (1870, 1874), Buyukdere (1864), Kuzguncuk (1866), Eyub (1868), Edirne (1872), Izmir (1872, 1874).[86]
Jews Mashhad, Barfurush Iran Flag of Iran.png 1839, 1867 Mashhad witnessed forced conversions of Jews to Islam to avert a massarce. In Barfurush, Jews were massacred.[86][87]
Polytheists Kafiristan Afghanistan Flag of Afghanistan.png 1890s
Armenians and Assyrians Eastern Turkey Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Ottoman Empire
Kurdish and Turkoman irregulars
1894–1896 100,000–300,000 were killed.[88]
Ahmediyyas Afghanistan Flag of Afghanistan.png Kings of Afghanistan 1900-1924 Ahmediyyas, a small minority in Afghanistan, were exterminated from there by killings and forced conversions to Sunni Islam.[89][90][91][92]
Armenians Adana Vilayet Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Young Turk government under the Ottoman Empire 1909 15,000–30,000 were killed.[93][94]
Maronite Christians Mount Lebanon Lebanon Flag of Lebanon.png Ottoman Empire 1915-1918 The Ottomans deliberately cut off food supplies to the Maronites in order to feed their military.[95]
Assyrian Christians Turkey Flag of Turkey.png, Iran Flag of Iran.png[96] 1914-1918 200,000 to 275,000 were killed.[97][98] About half of the Assyrian population in the Ottoman Empire perished.[99]
Armenians Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Ottoman Empire, Young Turks 1915-1918 or 1923 An estimated 600,000–1,800,000 Armenians were systematically massacred.[100][101] The Turkish government currently denies the genocide. Considered the first modern genocide by scholars.
Jews Thrace Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Turkish mobs 1934 The Thrace pogroms of Jews occurred in four cities. 1500 Jews fled the region and many soon left Turkey. Casualties unknown.[102][103]
Alevi Kurds Dersim Turkey Flag of Turkey.png 1937-38 13,000-40,000 killed.[104]
Tibetans Qinghai Province China Flag of China.png Ma Bufang and his Muslim soldiers 1932-41 The motive was ethnic cleansing of Tibetans and destruction of their culture, resulting in thousands of casualties.[105][106][107][108][109]


Hindus Pakistan Flag of Pakistan.png 1947-present
Hindus Bangladesh Flag of Bangladesh.png 1947-present


Christians[110] Pakistan Flag of Pakistan.png Pakistani Muslim civilians and terrorists 2000s-present In recent decades, Pakistani Christians have increasingly become victims of riots, bombings, church demolitions and imprisonment on mere allegations of blasphemy.
Egyptian Jews Egypt Flag of Egypt.png 1948-1957
Iraqi and Kurdish Jews Iraq Flag of Iraq.png 1950s-1969 [111]
Bihari Muslims and West Pakistanis Bangladesh Flag of Bangladesh.png Mukti Bahini militias and other Bengali Muslims 1971-72 About 30,000-200,000 were killed, during and after the war of independence of Bangladesh.[112][113][114][115]
East Timor Flag of East Timor.png Indonesia Flag of Indonesia.png 1975-1999 Described as a genocide
Chakma, Marma, Tripuri and other indigenous people Chittagong Hill Tracts Bangladesh Flag of Bangladesh.png Bangladeshi army and Muslim settlers 1977-1997 [116][117]
Kashmiri Pandits and other Hindus Kashmir valley India Flag of India.png Kashmiri Muslim mobs and Pakistani terrorists 1989-2001
Kurds Iraqi Kurdistan Iraq Flag of Iraq.png Saddam Hussein 1986-89 50,000-182,000 civilians killed.[118][119]
Isaaq clan (Muslim) of Somalis Somalia Flag of Somalia.png Siad Barre 1988-1990 50,000-100,000 killed (possibly up to 200,000)[120][121][122][123]
Bantu people (Christians, Muslims and Traditional African religion) Jubba Valley Somalia Flag of Somalia.png Somali militias 1991 onwards [124]
Serbian Christians Kosovo Flag of Kosovo.png 1999-2004 Many Serbs were expelled from entire villages and churches and symbols of Serb heritage were destroyed in this period.[125][126][127]
Muslim Roma, Ashkalis and purported Egyptians Kosovo Flag of Kosovo.png Albanian Muslims 1999 onwards The persecution of these communities began during the Yugoslav wars but escalated after 1999. Most of them were expelled from Kosovo and their houses were destroyed.[128][129]
Non-Arab and Black tribes (Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa) Darfur Sudan Flag of Sudan.png Omar al-Bashir and janjaweed militias 2003-present
Christians Somalia Flag of Somalia.png Al Shabab 2005 onwards [130]


Christians Palestine Flag of Palestine.png Hamas, Muslim mobs, Islamic terorrist groups 2002 onwards Muslims targeted Christians frequently in West Bank and Gaza, burning churches and grabbing properties. The Christian population fell from about 3,000 in 2007 to 1,400 in 2011. They were also the target of bomb attacks, murders and discrimination under Hamas rule.[131][132][133][134][135][136][137][138]
Mandaeans Iraq Flag of Iraq.png 2003 onwards [139]


Assyrian Christians Iraq Flag of Iraq.png 1933-2014 [140][141][142]


Yazidis Iraqi Kurdistan Iraq Flag of Iraq.png ISIS 2014-
Arab Christians, Levantines, Armenians, Arameans, Assyrians (Syriacs or Chaldeans) and Copts Iraq Flag of Iraq.png, Syria Flag of Syria.png, Libya Flag of Libya.png ISIS 2014- At least 1000 casualties.[143] Described as a genocide by EU.[144][145][146][147]
Shias (including ethnic Turkmen and Shabak) Iraq Flag of Iraq.png, Syria Flag of Syria.png ISIS 2014-Present [148][149]


Christians and Muslims Nigeria Flag of Nigeria.png Boko Haram 2014-present [150][151]
Coptic Christians North Sinai Egypt Flag of Egypt.png ISIS Feb 2017-present [152][153][154]



Key:

  • No color: Non-Muslims targeted
  • Light green: Predominantly Muslims targeted
  • Orange: Both Muslims and Non-Muslims targeted

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See also