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[[Shiite|Shi'ite]] Muslims may add "and Ali is the friend of Allah." (wa-‘Aliyun waliyu l-Lāh), but this is not obligatory.<ref>[http://www.mideastweb.org/Middle-East-Encyclopedia/shahada.htm Shahada] - Encyclopedia of the Middle East</ref>
 
[[Shiite|Shi'ite]] Muslims may add "and Ali is the friend of Allah." (wa-‘Aliyun waliyu l-Lāh), but this is not obligatory.<ref>[http://www.mideastweb.org/Middle-East-Encyclopedia/shahada.htm Shahada] - Encyclopedia of the Middle East</ref>
 
==="I testify that" (أشهد أن)===
 
==="I testify that" (أشهد أن)===
A new convert to Islam has to say that he ''testifies'' about Allah and Muhammad, but he has never seen Allah nor Muhammad, so it's a false testimony.
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A new convert to Islam has to say that he ''testifies'' about Allah and Muhammad, likely hearkening back to Greek Christian idiom of "testifying" to their faith, an idiom ultimately originating in the Roman persecution of Christians (see [[Shahid]]).  
    
==="No god but Allah" (لا إله إلا الله)===
 
==="No god but Allah" (لا إله إلا الله)===
Sometimes it's interpreted henotheistically as "No god ''is worthy of worship'' except Allah" and sometimes monotheistically "No god ''exists'' except Allah".
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A statement of absolute monotheism. Note that unusual difference between أله "'ilah" "a god" and the definite الله "'allah" "the God" where one would otherwise expect الإله "al-'ilah" "the god." This is likely under the influence of the Syriac Allaha for "god."
    
There is a grammatically analogous statement used by shia Muslims:
 
There is a grammatically analogous statement used by shia Muslims:
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Zulfiqar is the sword of Ali. Notice that it doesn't mean that other swords don't exist. It just means that his sword is the best.
 
Zulfiqar is the sword of Ali. Notice that it doesn't mean that other swords don't exist. It just means that his sword is the best.
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There is also a phrase Allahu Akbar - Allah is the greatest. The greatest what? The greatest god. So he is greater than other gods.
      
==In the Quran==
 
==In the Quran==
Since saying the shahada is considered the first pillar of Islam, we would expect that there would be a clear verse in the Quran saying: "This is the shahada that new Muslims must say" with the whole text cited. But the text of the shahada is actually not in the Quran. At least not in its full form.
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Since saying the shahada is considered the first pillar of Islam, one might expect that there would be a clear version of it in the Quran saying. Yet the text of the shahada actually does not appear in the Quran, at least not in its full form.
    
"No god but Allah" is mentioned in two verses. In one verse it was said to disbelievers:
 
"No god but Allah" is mentioned in two verses. In one verse it was said to disbelievers:
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48:28 It is He who sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth to manifest it over all religion. And sufficient is Allah as Witness.
 
48:28 It is He who sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth to manifest it over all religion. And sufficient is Allah as Witness.
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48:29 '''Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah''' (محمد رسول الله); and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in prayer], seeking bounty from Allah and [His] pleasure. Their mark is on their faces from the trace of prostration. That is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Gospel is as a plant which produces its offshoots and strengthens them so they grow firm and stand upon their stalks, delighting the sowers - so that Allah may enrage by them the disbelievers. Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds among them forgiveness and a great reward.
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48:29 '''Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah''' (محمد رسول الله); and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in prayer], seeking bounty from Allah and [His] pleasure. Their mark is on their faces from the trace of prostration. That is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Gospel is as a plant which produces its offshoots and strengthens them so they grow firm and stand upon their stalks, delighting the sowers - so that Allah may enrage by them the disbelievers. Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds among them forgiveness and a great reward.
 
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So the whole shahada is nowhere in the Quran. And although we can find pieces of the shahada in the Quran, none of them mentioned "I testify" and none of them says that new converts have to say it.
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The entire declaration, though, appears no where as such in our received rescension of the Quran.  
    
==In the hadith==
 
==In the hadith==
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