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Scientific Errors in the Quran

4,114 bytes added, 17:03, 30 October 2018
The Heavens can be Rolled Up
{{page_title|Scientific Errors in the Qur'an}}
Muslims believe that the [[Qur'an]] contains a A message from an all-powerful, all-knowing, infallible being. If this is true then it should not contain any [[Contradictions and Errors|errors, mistakes]], or information that contradicts known facts about the universe. If even one error exists in the text of [[Islam]]'s holy book then the claims of divine authorship and infallibility are not true. An objective evaluation of the [[Qur’an ]] shows that it contains numerous [[Islam and Science|scientific]] and historical errors and it reflects a pre-scientific, 7<sup>th</sup> century view of the natural world.
Some will contest these numerous scientific errors in the Qur'an by appealing to metaphor, alternative meanings, or [[w:Phenomenology (philosophy)|phenomenological]] interpretations of the text. Even if we suppose that supposing alternative explanations were possible in every case, the wording and content of the Qur'anic verses often mimic the popular mythology and unscientific misconceptions of the time in which they were recorded. The author of problem would remain that the Qur’an makes contains no obvious statements that attempts to differentiate his its understanding of the natural world and historical events from the common folklore and unscientific misconceptions of the people living in the 7<sup>th</sup> centuryArabia. If the Qur’an was delivered by an An all-powerful, all-knowing being then he , perfect communicator would have been able to foresee how such ambiguous and misleading statements would be understood by future generations and the doubts and confusions they would cause. This alone Such overwhelming weakness in the Qur'an when we should be expect perfection is already reason enough to reject any claims to its divine authorship.
==Astronomy==
Till, when he reached the rising-place of the sun, he found it rising on a people for whom We had appointed no shelter therefrom. }}
Centuries after Muhammad lived, people with better astronomical knowledge than him started had to come up with invent creative interpretations of these verses to say that Dhu'l-Qrnayn only traveled until he reached "the west" or to a spot "at the time" when the sun set and not the "place" where the sun set. Unfortunately, these alternative interpretations are severely undermined by the [[Dhul-Qarnayn_and_the_Sun_Setting_in_a_Muddy_Spring_-_Part_One#First_interpretation:_He_reached_the_west_and_east|context and Arabic words]] used in these verses, which instead point to a physical locationlocations where the sun did its setting and rising. There is plenty Plenty of evidence showing shows that the early Muslims understood the verse in this straightforward way. Again, we must ask why an all-knowing being would use such misleading verses that mimic the misconceptions and legends prevalent at the time if one of these the alternative explanations is correct.
===Meteors are Stars are Missiles Shot at Devils===
{{Main|Mistranslations of Quran 67-5|l1=Mistranslations of Qur'an 67:5}}
The Qur'an says that stars (kawakib ٱلْكَوَاكِبِ) / lamps (masabih مَصَٰبِيحَ) adorn the heavens and guard against devils.
The author of the Qur'an does not seem to know the difference between stars (giant balls of gas thousands of times larger than the earth) and meteors which are small rocky masses of debris which brighten up after entering the earth's atmosphere. Many ancient people confused the two, as meteors look like stars that are streaking across the sky; this is why there they were often called [[w:Meteoroid|shooting stars]] or falling stars. In the following verse, the Qur'an claims that Allah uses stars as missiles to ward away devils. This repeats a common Arab myth at the time the Qur'an was first recited.
{{Quote|{{Quran-range|37|6|10}}|
We have indeed decked the lower heaven with beauty (in) the stars, (For beauty) and for guard against all obstinate rebellious evil spirits, (So) they should not strain their ears in the direction of the Exalted Assembly but be cast away from every side, Repulsed, for they are under a perpetual penalty,Save him who snatcheth a fragment, Except such as snatch away something by stealth, and they are pursued by a flaming fire, of piercing brightness.}}
The same Arabic words are used at the start of verse 67:5 as in 37.6 (زَيَّنَّا ٱلسَّمَآءَ ٱلدُّنْيَا), except the stars are described as lamps. Clearly the lamps that 'beautify the heaven' refer to stars (and perhaps also the 5 visible planets), which are always there. Meteors are generally not much larger than grains of sand and are only visible for a second when they burn up, generating light in the Earth's atmosphere after millions of years in darkness, but the author of the Qur'an believes that meteors (the 'missiles') are a kind of star.
The Earth first formed around 9 billion years after the Big Bang. The Qur'an, however, repeats the prevailing Middle-Eastern myth that the Earth and universe were formed in six days.
In the hundreds of other Qur'anic verses where the Arabic word 'yawm' appears, everyone understands it to mean day. Yet Islamic websites try and rescue the Qur'an by pointing to an alternative meaning of yawm, which almost always means 'day', but can sometimes mean 'time period'. Curiously, and rather conveniently, yawm is only claimed to mean time period rather than day in the verses about the creation of the world. Clearly, the predominant meaning of the word is day and when a specific number is used, in this case six, the word almost always means a literal day. Again, nothing in the context of the verses, nor the Qur'an in general, suggests awareness that the universe or Earth were formed over long time periods. The author makes precisely zero attempt to distingish his description from the prevailing Middle-Eastern creation myths in this regard, which feature six literal days of creation (for example in the Bible we have, "Evening came and morning came: The first day." - Genesis 1:5).
Secondly, neither the universe nor Earth were formed in six distinct long periods of time. It would have been trivial for an all-knowing diety to have poetically indicated the vast duration in which the universe has developed, which has taken place over the past [[w:Age of the universe|13.8 billion years]].
{{Quote|{{Quran|50|38}}|
Some websites attempt to reconcile the Qur'anic description with modern science by denying that the word 'Then' in the verses above indicate sequence, and instead claim that it means 'moreover'. They claim this despite the fact that these words (thumma in 41:11 and 2:29, and fa in 41:12 - all translated as 'Then') generally are used to indicate sequence. In other contexts thumma was sometimes used to mean 'moreover', which is generally clear from those contexts, but the passages quoted above describe a process - the creation of the heavens and Earth, and it would be ludicrous to use these words when describing such a process if they were not indicating sequence.
====Earth and Heavens were Ripped Torn Apart====
Some websites claim that the following verse is compatible with the [[w:Big Bang|Big Bang]] theory. But according to this theory, the Universe was formed about 13.8 billion years ago due to a [[w:Chronology of the universe|rapid expansion]] from singularity. The earth was formed 4.54 billion years ago from [[w:History of the Earth|accretion]] of debris that surrounded the precursor of the Sun. There was no "separation" of the "joined" earth and heavens as this verse suggests. It is, in fact, a repetition of [[w:World egg|cosmic egg]] myths in which an egg-like structure was split into two halves, the lower half forming the earth and the upper half forming the heaven.
Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe? }}
This separation can be read in the context of verses that mention something "between" the fully formed earth and the heavens (which seems to be occupied by the clouds {{Quran|2|164}} and birds {{Quran|24|41}}). {{Quote|{{Quran|50|38}}|And verily We created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, in six Days, and naught of weariness touched Us.}} There is no scientific theory in which the Earth and heavens were split torn apart from each other. To imagine that this verse 21:30 describes the big bang, the atomic particles that would later form the Earth would at the beginning have to be separated from those that would go on to form everything else in the universe. This bears no resemblance to scientific cosmology, wherein the material that forms the Earth passed through at least one earlier generation of star, and more recently was part of various asteroids, comets and planetesimals orbiting the sun (which could all be described as being in the 'heavens') that sometimes collided and merged with each other, sometimes split apart, and gradually coalesced under gravity to form the Earth and other planets.
Moreover, the very next verse {{Quran|21|31}} speaks of mountains being placed on the Earth. Here 'the Earth' clearly means an actual world, so how do the Islamic websites expect anyone to believe that in the previous verse 'the Earth' refers merely to atomic particles at the time of the big bang that would billions of years later form the Earth?
{{Main|Cosmology of the Quran|l1=Cosmology of the Qur'an}}
The universe consists of hundreds of billions of galaxies, each with hundreds of billions of stars. There While the Qur'anic notion that the heaven of stars is no such thing as seven layers to covered by six further heavens might currently be unfalsifiable, the universe. This myth of [[w:Seven Heavens|seven heavens ]] was a common idea prevalent in the Middle East during the time when the Qur'an was first recited.
{{Quote|{{Quran|71|15}}|
See ye not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another}}
Some Islamic websites claim that these are seven layers of the atmosphere, despite the fact that verse 37:6 (see next section) says that stars are in the nearest heaven. There are only 5 not 7 principal layers to the [[W:Atmosphere of Earth|Earth's atmosphere]], and likewise only 5 not 7 major layers to the Earth itself. ===Stars are Located in the Nearest Heaven=== Stars are spread throughout the Universe and there is no such thing as the "nearest" heaven or layer. Also, this verse is in keeping with the author's claim (Quran 71:15 as described above) that the seven heavens are arranged one above the other.
{{Quote|{{Quran|37|6}}| Surely We have adorned the nearest heaven with an adornment, the stars}}
===Sky can Fall Down on People===
The Qur'an author thought that the sky /heaven is like a ceiling held up by Allah that can fall to earth or fragments break off and fall on someone while the earth can swallow someone too. This is obviously impossible as the earth's atmosphere is simply made of gasand outer space is not a solid object. {{Quote|{{Quran|52|44}}|And if they were to see a fragment of the heaven falling, they would say: A heap of clouds.}}
{{Quote|{{Quran|34|9}}|See they not what is before them and behind them, of the sky and the earth? If We wished, We could cause the earth to swallow them up, or cause a piece of the sky to fall upon them. Verily in this is a Sign for every devotee that turns to Allah (in repentance).}}
{{Quote|{{Quran|34|9}}|Hast thou not seen how Allah hath made all that is in the earth subservient unto you? And the ship runneth upon the sea by His command, and He holdeth back the heaven from falling on the earth unless by His leave. Lo! Allah is, for mankind, Full of Pity, Merciful.}} ===Sky The Heavens can be Rolled Up===
This is another verse implying These verses imply that the sky or heaven is something solidheavens have two dimensional surfaces.
{{Quote|{{Quran|21|104}}|The Day when We shall roll up the heavens as a recorder rolleth up a written scroll. }}
 
{{Quote|{{Quran|39|67}}|No just estimate have they made of Allah, such as is due to Him: On the Day of Judgment the whole of the earth will be but His handful, and the heavens will be rolled up in His right hand: Glory to Him! High is He above the Partners they attribute to Him!}}
===The Stars Will Fall===
{{Main|Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Creation}}
The Qur’an and Hadith contains stories concerning the 'first humans' and how all people are descended from these two earliest ancestors. It states that humans were created in a garden (paradise) and then brought to earth fully formed. This view of the origins of human life is clearly contradicted by DNA evidence and the numerous fossils of pre-homosapien species that lived on earth for millions of years before modern humans first evolved.[http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence]
{{Quote|{{Quran|7|189}}|
"He it is Who created you from a single being, and of the same (kind) did He make his mate," }} Another verse is clear on literal descent of humanity from one man by sexual means (i.e. semen) after Allah had created him out of clay.
{{Quote|{{BukhariQuran-range|432|557|5488}}| Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah 's Apostle said, "Treat women nicely, for '''a women is Who made all things good which He created from a rib''', and He began the most curved portion creation of the rib man from clay; Then He made his seed from a draught of despised fluid;}}The word translated “seed” in Pickthall’s translation is its upper portion[http://www.studyquran.org/LaneLexicon/Volume8/00000286.pdf nasl] نسل, so, if you should try to straighten it, it will break, but if you leave it as it is, it will remain crookedwhich means progeny (i.e. So treat women nicelydescendants)." }}
Some Muslim creationists will claim the view of two ancestral “parents” is consistent with recent scientific findings that show a common female and male ancestor of all modern humans. They often exploit the confusion caused by scientists referring to these genetic ancestors as [[W:Mitochondrial Eve|Mitochondrial Eve]] and [[W:Y-chromosomal Adam|Y-chromosomal Adam]]. These two individuals bear little resemblance to the Quranic account as they are simply the last common male and female ancestors of everyone alive today, not of all humans in history. The Qur'an clearly states Eve was created later than Adam, however [[W:Mitochondrial Eve|Mitochondrial Eve]] lived some 50,000 to 80,000 years earlier than [[W:Y-chromosomal Adam|Y-chromosomal Adam]].[http://biologos.org/blog/does-genetics-point-to-a-single-primal-couple] Genetic evidence overwhelmingly indicates that humans diverged from earlier species as a population, not a single couple. [http://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2011/09/18/how-big-was-the-human-population-bottleneck-not-anything-close-to-2/].
{{Main|Quran and Semen Production|l1=Qur'an and Semen Production}}
The Qur'an states, incorrectly, that semen originates from a spot somewhere between the backbone and ribs. Today we know sperm comes from the [[w:testicle|testicles]] and semen from various glands behind and below the bladder, which is not between the spine backbone and ribs.
{{Quote|{{Quran-range|86|6|7}}|
{{Main|Greek and Jewish Ideas about Reproduction in the Quran and Hadith}}
The author of the Qur'an describes the initial formation of a human embryo out of fluid emanating from the man (and possibly also of the woman), which is stored placed in the womb. This reflects the contemporary, but incorrect, view that semen is the material for from which the embryo is initially formed out of semen, as taught by Hippocrates, Galen, and the Jewish Talmud. In fact, semen is the vehicle for the sperm cells, one of which fuses with a woman's [[w:ovum|ovum]] in her [[w:fallopian tube|fallopian tube]], and the resulting cell divides and travels back into the womb for implantation.
While English translations mention a "drop of seed", or "drop of sperm", the Arabic word in question is nutfah, which literally means a small amount of liquid, a euphemism for semen.
{{Main|Embryology in the Quran|l1=Embryology in the Qur'an}}
The Qur'an and Hadith depict that humans are formed from a clot of bloodafter an initial semen stage. There was never a is no stage in embryonic development where humans are formed into from a clot of blood. This description is likely influenced by an unscientific and primitive understanding of human reproduction based on observations from an early-term miscarriage and a woman's menstrual cycle. While in modern times some Muslims seek to use alternative meanings for the relevant word, the mere fact that it certainly can mean clotted blood (as also is the consensus of interpretation in the classical tafsirs), in a passage about a biological process (formation of a baby), is a major weakness in what should be a perfect description. {{Quote|{{Quran|23|14}}|Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood...}}
{{Quote|{{Quran|96|2}}|
====Gender of a Baby is Decided After it Becomes a Clot====
The Qur'an says that an embryo is transformed from a sperm to semen into a clot, then it is shaped, and then the male or female sex is determined. Modern genetics has shown that the sex of a human is decided at the moment of conception.<ref>{{cite book|first=eds.: Anthony S. Fauci [et al.] ; eds. of previous ed.: T. R. Harrison [et al.]|title=Harrison's principles of internal medicine.|date=2008|publisher=McGraw-Hill Medical|location=New York [etc.]|isbn=978-0-07-147693-5|pages=2339–2346|edition=17th ed.}}</ref>
{{Quote|{{Quran-range|75|37|39}}|Was he not a drop of fluid which gushed forth? Then he became a clot; then (Allah) shaped and fashioned And made of him a pair, the male and female.}}
{{Quote|{{Quran-range|20|105|107}}|They will ask thee of the mountains (on that day). Say: My Lord will break them into scattered dust. And leave it as '''an empty plain''', Wherein thou seest neither curve nor ruggedness.}}
 
===Earth has Seven Atmospheric Layers===
{{Main|Science and the Seven Earths}}
 
Some websites claim that the Qur'an describes the layers of the earth's atmosphere when it refers to the seven heavens and of the earth, the like thereof, even though another verse (36:7) says that the stars are in the lowest heaven. However, scientists have determined that there are [[w:Atmosphere_of_Earth#Structure_of_the_atmosphere|five principal layers]] in the atmosphere and not seven.
 
{{Quote|{{Quran|65|12}}|
Allah it is who hath created seven heavens, and of the earth the like thereof. The commandment cometh down among them slowly, that ye may know that Allah is Able to do all things, and that Allah surroundeth all things in knowledge.}}
===Permanent Barrier between Fresh and Salt Water===
{{Quote|{{Quran|17|68}}|
Do ye then feel secure that He will not cause you to be swallowed up beneath the earth when ye are on land, or that He will not send against you a violent tornado (with showers of stones) so that ye shall find no one to carry out your affairs for you}}
 
===Rainwater is Pure===
 
The Qur'an says rainwater is pure, though in some industrial areas rainwater can contain significant amounts of pollution and acidity. Called [[w:Acid Rain|acid rain]] this type of rain causes harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and buildings.
 
{{Quote|{{Quran|25|48}}|
And He it is Who sends the winds as good news before His mercy; and We send down pure water from the cloud, }}
===No Evaporation in Water Cycle===
{{Main|Responses_to_Zakir_Naik#Water_Cycle_in_the_Qur.27an|l1=Water Cycle in the Qur'an}}
Every verse about rain in the Qur'an implies that rain comes either directly from the sky or from Allah. However the crucial step of evaporation of water into the air is conspicuously never mentioned, despite apologetics claiming that the water cycle is described in the Qur'an.
{{Quote|{{Quran|43|11}}|
That sends down (from time to time) rain from the sky in due measure;- and We raise to life therewith a land that is dead; even so will ye be raised (from the dead)}}
===Mountains of Hail Comes from Mountains in the Sky===
Hail forms in cumulonimbus clouds when updrafts raise water droplets to an altitude where they freeze. However, the Qur'an mistakenly ascribed the formation anic author seems to have imagined mountain-like masses of hail to invisible mountains in the sky/ heaven.
{{Quote|{{Quran|24|43}}|
Do you Hast thou not see that God moves seen how Allah wafteth the clouds gently, brings then gathereth them together, piles then maketh them uplayers, and then you can see thou seest the rain coming come forth from between them. ; '''He sends sendeth down hailstones from the heaven mountains in the skywherein is hail'''. With them , and smiteth therewith whom He strikes or protects will, and averteth it from them whomever whom He wantswill. The lightening can almost take flashing of His lightning all but snatcheth away the sight.}}
'''Transliteration:''' wayunazzilu (and he sends down) mina (from) alssamai (the sky) min (from) jibalin (mountains) feeha (in it ['it' is feminine here so must refer to the sky]) min (of) baradin (hail)}}
Tafsirs such as Jalalayn and the one attributed to Ibn Abbas say that this means mountains in the sky. Ibn Kathir notes two views, that these are literally mountains of hail in the sky, or that they are a metaphor for clouds. Yet we should rightly wonder whether Clouds could poetically be described as mountains in the sky, but for the author verse to literally say "mountains of hail in the Qur'an really meant mountains as metaphors for clouds, given that he mentions clouds explicitly earlier sky" strongly suggests large masses of ice (in the verseclouds or otherwise), and we can see that the word mountains was it being understood literally in this literal way as evidenced in tafsirs.
===Allah Uses Thunderbolts to Smite People===
And the thunder declares His glory with His praise, and the angels too for awe of Him; and He sends the thunderbolts and smites with them whom He pleases, yet they dispute concerning Allah, and He is mighty in prowess.}}
Muslim tafsirsMore light on this verse comes in the following hadith, such as al Jalalayn and the tafsir graded hasan (attributed togood) Ibn Abbas, explain this verse clearly, even indicating that by Dar-us-Salam. Muhammad believed the author sound of the Qur'an believed that thunder was not an impersonal natural phenomenonangel striking the clouds, but an angel:which he drives along with a piece of fire. {{Quote|1=[http://altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?tMadhNo=2&tTafsirNo=73&tSoraNo=13&tAyahNo=13&tDisplay=yes&UserProfile=0 Tafsir {{Al Tirmidhi|44|5|44|3117}}|Narrated Ibn-'Abbas]|2=:"The Jews came to the Prophet (The thunder hymneth His praise) by His command; ''and said: 'O Abul-Qasim! Inform us about the thunder, what is it is an angel?'''; it is also He said: it is the voice of the sky (and (so do) 'An angel among the angels) and also the angels hymn His praise (, who is responsible for awe of Him) the angels have awe towards Allahclouds. (He launcheth has a piece of fire wherever that he drives the thunder bolts) iclouds wherever Allah wills.e. fire (and smiteth with them whom ' They said: 'Then what is this noise we hear?' He will) He destroys by means of fire whoever He willsaid: 'It is him, referring here to Zayd Ibn Qays whom Allah destroyed by fire, along with his friend ‘Amir Ibn al-Tufayl who was killed as a result of being stabbed in his waist (while they dispute (in doubt) concerning Allah) while they dispute with Muhammad (pbuh) concerning striking the Religion of Allahclouds when he drives them on, (and He until it goes where it is mighty in wrath) His chastisement is severe ordered.' They said: 'You have told the truth.'}}
==Zoology==
At length, when they came to a (lowly) valley of ants, '''one of the ants said: "O ye ants, get into your habitations, lest Solomon and his hosts crush you (under foot) without knowing it." So he smiled, amused at her speech;''' and he said: "O my Lord! so order me that I may be grateful for Thy favours, which thou hast bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may work the righteousness that will please Thee: And admit me, by Thy Grace, to the ranks of Thy righteous Servants." }}
===Only Four / Eight Types of Cattle===
While the Qur'an states that there are eight Allah has provided four kinds of cattle (eight including male and female) for use by humansand for eating, In in fact there are more than a dozen kinds of cattle. The word "cattle" in 39:6 is [http://www.studyquran.org/LaneLexicon/Volume8/00000289.pdf al-ana'ami], meaning pasturing (i.e. grazing) animals. The word [http://www.studyquran.org/LaneLexicon/Volume3/00000432.pdf azwajin] ("kinds" in the translation of 39:6 below) generally means mate or member of a pair. {{Quran|6|143-144}} clarifies that these refer this refers to male and female pairs of sheep, goats, oxes and camels, so in fact the author of the Qur'an is aware only of four kinds of cattle useful for humans(horses, mules and donkeys are considered distinct from cattle in {{Quran-range|16|5|8}}). This neglects other types of cattle from the regions outside of Arabia such as reindeer, which are important to people in northern latitudes.
{{Quote|{{Quran|39|6}}|
{{Quote|{{Quran|67|3}}|
Who hath created seven heavens in harmony. Thou (Muhammad) canst see no fault in the Beneficent One's creation; then look again: Canst thou see any flaw?}}
 
===Poisonous Sea Life is Edible===
 
A number of sea creatures are deadly and fatal to humans if consumed. This includes the [[w:puffer fish|puffer fish]], [[w:poison dart frog|poison dart frong]], marbled cone snail, [[w:blue ringed octopus|blue ringed octopus]] and [[w:stonefish|stonefish]]. The Qur'an, however, makes no prohibition against eating l-ṣayda l-baḥri (game of the sea) even though it goes into lengthy detail forbidding the consumption of pigs, which are safe for humans to eat.
 
{{Quote|{{Quran|5|96}}|
Lawful to you is the pursuit of water-game and its use for food,- for the benefit of yourselves and those who travel; but forbidden is the pursuit of land-game;- as long as ye are in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb. And fear Allah, to Whom ye shall be gathered back. }}
==History==
{{Quote|{{Quran-range|5|72|75}}|They surely disbelieve who say: Lo! Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary. The Messiah (himself) said: O Children of Israel, worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord. Lo! whoso ascribeth partners unto Allah, for him Allah hath forbidden paradise. His abode is the Fire. For evil-doers there will be no helpers. '''They surely disbelieve who say: Lo! Allah is the third of three'''; when there is no Allah save the One Allah. If they desist not from so saying a painful doom will fall on those of them who disbelieve. Will they not rather turn unto Allah and seek forgiveness of Him? For Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. '''The Messiah, son of Mary, was no other than a messenger''', messengers (the like of whom) had passed away before him. '''And his mother was a saintly woman. And they both used to eat (earthly) food.''' See how We make the revelations clear for them, and see how they are turned away!}}
It is particularly noteworthy that no other entity is mentioned (i.e. the holy spirit, which is the 3rd member of the trinity in actual Christian doctrine). Verse 75 even uses the fact statement that the Messiah and Marium both ate food to demonstrate that they are normal humans and not a part of a divine trinity with Allah.
=== Samaritans existing in ancient Egypt ===
===Coat of Mail was Invented during the Reign of David===
There is no evidence that Coats coats of mail chainmail (as distinct from scale armour) existed during the time of David (10th century BCE). The earliest example of a coat of mail was Celtic.<ref>Rusu, M., "Das Keltische Fürstengrab von Ciumeşti in Rumänien", Germania 50, 1969, pp. 267–269</ref> Its and its invention is commonly credited to the Celts in the 3rd century BCE.<ref name="books.google.com">Richard A. Gabriel, [http://books.google.com/books?id=HscIwvtkq2UC&pg=PA79&dq=laminar+armor&hl=en&ei=nOMGTqrNNfGv0AGWpbi6Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=laminar%20armor&f=true ''The ancient world'', Richard A. Gabriel], Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007 P.79</ref>. Mail has also been found in a 5th century BCE Scythian grave, and there is a cumbersome Etruscan pattern mail artifact from the 4th century BCE.<ref>Robinson, H. R., [https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=BaDMDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA10 ''Oriental Armour''], New York:Dover Publications, 1995, pp.10-12</ref> Such artifacts would have been easily preserved and found by archeologists if they had existed much earlier. Some older translations of the Bible mention Goliath and David wearing a "coat of mail" in 1 Samuel 17:5 and 17:38 respectively. This is a [http://myarmoury.com/feature_mail.html#Origins well known mistranslation] for a word meaning armour in general.
In the Qur'an, David is taught by Allah how to make coats of iron chainmail ([http://www.studyquran.org/LaneLexicon/Volume4/00000022.pdf sabighatin] سَٰبِغَٰتٍ) and to measure the chainmail links ([http://www.studyquran.org/LaneLexicon/Volume4/00000071.pdf as-sardi] ٱلسَّرْدِ) thereof. It says people should be thankful for this knowledge which has been passed down from him.
===Crucifixions in Ancient Egypt===
There are no references from any culture anywhere in the world to crucifixion as a method of execution before 500 BCE, where they started to appear in several middle eastern cultures, and it is not clear that their crucifixions were the same as what we know (the Roman crucifixion)/they are the same type. Ancient Egypt has been extensively studied in archaeology as well. However, the Qur’an Qur'an tells of crucifixions at the time of Joseph (approximately 2000 BCE) and Moses (approximately 1500 BCE).
Not only thatAncient Egypt has been extensively studied in archaeology. While there is hieroglyphic evidence of people impaled through upright stakes in ancient Egypt, but crucifixions are often mentioned in this is a very casual way distinct execution method from the crucifixion on palm trees in the QuQur'rananic story. Palm trees are far too thick to be used as upright stakes for impaling a person from above, so no-one would choose palm trees for such a purpose. Rather, the practice must Egyptians would have been widespread enough to be understood by common people, as common people are being addressed impale the victim to the side of the palm tree trunk in these surasthe Qur'an's anachronistic tale.
{{Quote|{{Quran|12|41}}|
O two companions of prison, as for one of you, he will give drink to his master of wine; but as for the other, he will be crucified, and the birds will eat from his head. The matter has been decreed about which you both inquire." }}
{{Quote|{{Quran-range|7|12321|12471}}|Said (Pharaoh) said: "Believe ye Ye put faith in Him him before I give you permission? Surely this leave. Lo! he is a trick which ye have planned in the city to drive out its people: but soon shall ye know (the consequences)your chief who taught you magic. Be sure Now surely I will shall cut off your hands and your feet alternately, and '''I shall crucify you on opposite sidesthe trunks of palm trees''', and ye shall know for certain which of us hath sterner and more lasting punishment.}} ===Noah's Flood=== Islamic websites try to escape the embarrassment that the Qur'an contains an un-historical, world-wide flood story as found in the Bible and ancient near-Eastern mythology. They claim instead that the textual evidence supports nothing more than a regional flood in the Qur'anic story of Noah. There are many severe weaknesses in this claim. If the flood was not world-wide then why was Noah instructed to spend time building a boat at all when he could have just taken his family out of the flood region with sufficient warning? Animals in the region could have done likewise by the same kind of miracle needed to bring them all to an ark.  {{Quote|{{Quran|11|40}}|At length, behold! there came Our command, and the fountains of the earth gushed forth! '''We said: "Embark therein, of each kind two, male and female''', and your family - except those against whom the word has already gone forth,- and the Believers." but only a few believed with him.}}Why would Noah have to put every kind of animal on the ark to save them when there would have been more members of most species elsewhere in the world, unaffected by the regional flood? {{Quote|{{Quran|11|43}}|The son replied: "I will cause you all betake myself to die some mountain: it will save me from the water." Noah said: '''"This day nothing can save''', from the command of Allah, any but those on whom He hath mercy! "And the waves came between them, and the son was among those overwhelmed in the Flood.}}A mountain, or simply fleeing the crossregion would be enough to save someone from a regional flood, but this verse says nothing can save them{{Quote|{{Quran|71|26}}|And Noah, said: " O my Lord! Leave not of the Unbelievers, a single one on earth!}}"The Earth" here could also be translated "the land", but why would Noah only care about a single region of disbelievers? The story of Noah was a [[w:Flood myth|famous myth]] of a ''world-wide'' flood. At very least it is a major weakness that the Qur'an makes no attempt to distinguish itself from the same world-wide flood myth that its listeners were familiar with.
===Noah's Ark holds Every Species===
===Pharaoh or Pharaohs===
Geographically, the Coptic land of Egypt was adjacent to Arabia. Thus, most Arabs were aware of the preservation method applied by the ancient Egyptian to their Pharaohs. They were preserved intact using methods such as salt to dry the body (hence salt in the body of Ramesses II is not evidence that he drowned in the sea). There were so many Pharaohs ranging from numerous dynasties, many of them who were preserved intact. But in this way, but the Qur'an merely narrated one un-named Pharaoh that was who would be preservedas a sign.
{{Quote|{{Quran|10|92}}|
===Supernatural Destruction of Cities===
The author of the Qur'an thought that outside the vicinity of Arabia there were cities and tribes destroyed by Allah for rejecting his messengers and Islam. In each specific example in the Qur'an (A'ad, Thamud, Midian, the people of Lot, Pharoah's army), the destruction of the disbelievers is sudden and total. Thanks to today's scientific progress, historical cities and tribes are known to have been destroyed by natural disasters, famine, wars, migration, or neglect, often taking years or decades to unfold. But the Qur'an merely repeats a common myth of the ancient Near East whereby these incidents are treated as swift and sudden punishments by God for people's sins.
The Qur'an author thought that outside the vicinity of Arabia there were cities and tribes {{Quote|{{Quran|22|45}}|And how many a township have We destroyed by Allah. He acquired this information through hearsay from Arabian folklore as well as other legends. Those cities because it had been immersed in evildoing - and tribes probably were destroyed by natural disastersnow they [all] lie deserted, faminewith their roofs caved in! And how many a well lies abandoned, wars, migration or neglect. and how many a castle that [once] stood high!}}
{{Quote|{{Quran|40|82}}|Do they not travel through the earth and see what was the End The suddenness of those before them? They were more numerous than these and superior Allah's punishment is stressed many times in strength and in the traces (they have left) in the landSurah al-A'raf: Yet all that they accomplished was of no profit to them. }}
{{Quote|{{Quran|7|4}}|How many a township have We destroyed! As a raid by night, or while they slept at noon, Our terror came unto them.}}
 
{{Quote|{{Quran|7|34}}|And every nation hath its term, and when its term cometh, they cannot put it off an hour nor yet advance (it).}}
 
{{Quote|{{Quran-range|7|97|98}}|Are the people of the townships then secure from the coming of Our wrath upon them as a night-raid while they sleep? Or are the people of the townships then secure from the coming of Our wrath upon them in the daytime while they play?}}
 
In the Qur'an, the people of Thamud were killed instantly by an earthquake {{Quran|7|78}} or thunderous blast {{Quran|11|67}}, {{Quran-range|41|13|17}}, {{Quran|51|44}}, {{Quran|69|5}}. The people of A'ad were killed by a fierce wind for 7 days {{Quran-range|41|13|16}},{{Quran-range|46|24|35}},{{Quran|51|41}}, {{Quran-range|69|6|7}}. The people of Midian (Midyan) were killed overnight by an earthquake {{Quran|7|91}}, {{Quran|29|36}}. The towns of Lot were destroyed by a storm of stones from the sky {{Quran|54|32}}, {{Quran|29|34}}. The actual locations of these towns or tribes are currently unknown, and Midian was a wide geographical area, so claims about their sudden demise may always be unfalsifiable. Many other polytheist towns throughout the world certainly did not experience any sudden destruction.
===Humans can Live for a Thousand Years===
===Requirement to Learn in Arabic===
There are over 5,000 languages and dialects in the world, with less than 4% of the world's population being native Arabic speakers. Moreover, even native speakers of modern Arabic in its various dialects need additional study to be able to understand well the Qur'anic Arabic from which the modern language developed. Even then, both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars acknowledge that the meaning of certain words, and historical allusions in the Qur'an have become lost or have always been uncertain (as indeed anyone familiar with the discussions of competing interpretations in the tafsirs will be aware). However, it is incumbent upon Muslims to pray in Arabic, recite the Qur'an in Arabic, and understand commentaries and the traditions of Muhammad in classical Arabic. We are left wondering why an all-knowing being would not provide a more efficient way to send his message to all people on earth and why he does not account for the immense diversity of languages.
{{Quote|{{Quran|43|3}}|
{{Quote|{{Quran|20|88}}|So he brought forth for them a calf, a (mere) body, which had a mooing sound, so they said: This is your god and the god of Musa, but he forgot.}}
===Tribe Tribes Trapped Behind a Wall===
{{Main|Dhul-Qarnayn}}
The story of Dhul-Qarnayn says that a tribe is two tribes are trapped behind a massive wall of Iron. According to the Qur'an, these two beast tribes concealed themselves were trapped by Dhul-Qarnayn behind this metal wall and will only be let free on the day of Judgement. Obviously, no such wall has ever been found nor is are there a tribe tribes somewhere on earth trapped behind it.
{{Quote|{{Quran|21|96}}|
The Qur'an states Mary received food sent down from heaven. There have never been any scientifically verified accounts of fully cooked food falling from the sky.
{{Quote|{{Quran|5|115114}}|
Jesus, son of Mary, said: O Allah, Lord of us! '''Send down for us a table spread with food from heaven, that it may be a feast for us''', for the first of us and for the last of us, and a sign from Thee. Give us sustenance, for Thou art the Best of Sustainers.}}
On the Day when their tongues, their hands, and their feet will bear witness against them as to their actions. }}
===The Ocean Sea Split in Half===
Moses and the Israelites crossed an ocean a sea that was split into two halves.
{{Quote|{{Quran|2|50}}|
Then We subjected the wind to his power, to flow gently to his order, Whithersoever he willed }}
{{Quote|Tafsir Ibn-Kathir on 21:81 | A flying carpet made from wood, on top of which he could carry everything in his kingdom including chairs, to wherever Solomon wants to go, whilst flocks of birds would fly over to give shade }}
===A Dead Man Testified against his Killer===
Allah told some people to hit a murder victim with a piece of cow to temporarily resurrect him.
{{Quote|{{Quran|2|7273}}|
And We said: Smite him with some of it. Thus Allah bringeth the dead to life and showeth you His portents so that ye may understand. }}
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