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→‎Jizyah in History: the replacement tax on kafirs
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{{Quote|[http://www.himalmag.com/apr2001/commentary.html Idolatry and the Taliban]|Once Muhammad Bin Qasim had established himself in Sindh he sent a letter to the Muslim Caliph in Damascus, seeking instruction as to how he should deal with the Hindus and Buddhists of the conquered area. The reply came that they be treated in accordance with the Quranic commandments relating to the People of the Book (Ahl-i-Kitab), the Jews and the Christians. Accordingly, the Buddhists and the Hindus of Sindh were to be given full freedom to practise their faiths, and their lives and property, including temples, were to be protected. In return, they were to pay a tax, the jizya. The old, the sick, children and priests were to be exempted from the tax. The non-Muslims were not obliged to perform military service, unlike the Muslims. Following these dictates, Muhammad Bin Qasim thus set a precedent which several other Muslim rulers after him followed.}}
 
{{Quote|[http://www.himalmag.com/apr2001/commentary.html Idolatry and the Taliban]|Once Muhammad Bin Qasim had established himself in Sindh he sent a letter to the Muslim Caliph in Damascus, seeking instruction as to how he should deal with the Hindus and Buddhists of the conquered area. The reply came that they be treated in accordance with the Quranic commandments relating to the People of the Book (Ahl-i-Kitab), the Jews and the Christians. Accordingly, the Buddhists and the Hindus of Sindh were to be given full freedom to practise their faiths, and their lives and property, including temples, were to be protected. In return, they were to pay a tax, the jizya. The old, the sick, children and priests were to be exempted from the tax. The non-Muslims were not obliged to perform military service, unlike the Muslims. Following these dictates, Muhammad Bin Qasim thus set a precedent which several other Muslim rulers after him followed.}}
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The Ottoman empire imposed jizya on its Jewish and Christian subjects. Jizya collected from these communities was one of the main sources of income of the Ottoman treasury.<ref>Oded Peri; Gilbar (Ed), Gad (1990). ''Ottoman Palestine, 1800-1914 : Studies in economic and social history''. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 287. ISBN 978-90-04-07785-0. "The jizya was one of the main sources of revenue accruing to the Ottoman state treasury as a whole."</ref>
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The Ottoman empire imposed jizya on its Jewish and Christian subjects. Jizya collected from these communities was one of the main sources of income of the Ottoman treasury.<ref>Oded Peri; Gilbar (Ed), Gad (1990). ''Ottoman Palestine, 1800-1914 : Studies in economic and social history''. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 287. ISBN 978-90-04-07785-0. "The jizya was one of the main sources of revenue accruing to the Ottoman state treasury as a whole."</ref> The empire abolished it in 1856, but this action was dubbed as "cosmetic" because they replaced it with ''bedel-i askeri'', a tax on non-Muslims in return for their exemption from military services.<ref>Stillman, Norman. The Jews of Arab lands: a history and source book. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-8276-0198-7.</ref><ref>Gribetz, Jonathan Marc. ''Defining Neighbors: Religion, Race, and the Early Zionist-Arab Encounter''. Princeton University Press. 22-09-2014. ISBN 140085265X.</ref>
    
==Jizyah in the Modern World==
 
==Jizyah in the Modern World==
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