Umar ibn al-Khattab

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'Umar was the second rightly guided caliph following Abu Bakr. A stern and convinced convert to Islam, he is sometimes compared to Christianity's St. Paul due to his history of persecuting the religion before converting to it and having great influence upon it. According to the Islamic tradition, he fought hard with Muhammad during his war against the Meccan pagans and was a man interested in military science. As caliph, he presided over the caliphate during its spectacular victories over the Byzantines and Sassanians at Yarmouk and Qadissiya, and oversaw the tremendous expansion of the caliphate into Egypt, the Levant, and Iraq. He also instituted a number of religious reforms and institutions such as the office of the qadi. He was succeeded in his office by Uthman following his death.

Born 'Umar ibn Al-Khattaab
c. 584
Mecca, Hijaz, Arabia (present day Saudi Arabia)
Died c. 3 November 644 (age 61)
Other names Khalifat Rasul Allah (Viceroy to the Apostle of Allah)
Successor 'Umar bin Al-Khattaab
Spouse Zaynab bint Madhun

Umm Kulthum bint Jarwal

Qurayba bint Abi Umayya

Jamila bint Thabit

Atiqa bint Zayd

Umm Hakim bint al-Harith

Umm Kulthum bint Ali

Early Life

Opposition to Islam and Conversion

Time with the Prophet in Medina

In the hadith

Narrated Ibn 'Umar: "The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: 'I saw that I was brought a cup of milk, so I drank from it, and I gave my leftover to 'Umar bin Al-Khattab.' They said: 'So what did you interpret it as O Messenger of Allah?' He said: '(It is) Knowledge.'"
Grade: Sahih (Darussalam)
Narrated Anas: that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: "I entered Paradise and it was as if I was in a palace of gold. So I said: 'Whose palace is this?' They said: 'A youth's, from the Quraish.' So I thought that I was him. I said: 'And who is he?' They said: "'Umar bin Al-Khattab."
Grade: Sahih (Darussalam)

Death of the Prophet

In the hadith

Narrated 'Uqbah bin 'Amir: that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "If there was to have a Prophet after me, it would have been 'Umar bin Al-Khattab."
Grade: Hasan (Darussalam)

Succession to Abu Bakr

Caliphate and the Jihad State

Religious Reforms and Ordinances