Difference between revisions of "Organization of the Quran"

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==Present Organization ==
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It may appear to new eyes that , except for the first [[surah]], [[Al-Fatiha]], the remaining 113 Surahs of [[Qur'an]] are organized by descending length of the surah.
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==Present Organization==
But this can be easily refuted when you see that the longest surah is Surah 2 [[al-Baqarah]] and the shortest is Surah 108 [[Al-Kawthar]] and not 114 [[An-Nas]]. 
 
  
The order of the Surahs is not chronologic, it is according to Allah's instruction to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) at the end of the revelation of the [[Qur'an]] via Jibreel ( The Angel Gabriel).
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Except for the first [[surah]], [[Al-Fatiha]], the [[Qur'an]] is organized by descending length of the surah. That is to say that the longest surah is Surah 2 and the shortest is Surah 114.  This organization indicates nothing about the chronology of the material in any possible dating scheme.  
  
==Meccan and Medinan Surahs ==
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==Meccan and Medinan Surahs==
  
Muslims believe that the Qur'an was revealed in two phases: before and after the [[Islamic Lunar Calendar|hijrah]] from [[Mecca]] to [[Medina]]. Thus, the terms [[:Category:Meccan Surah|Meccan Surahs]] and [[:Category:Medinan Surah|Medinan Surahs]] arose.
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The traditional Islamic narrative postulates that the Qur'an was revealed in two phases: before and after the [[Islamic Lunar Calendar|hijrah]] from [[Mecca]] to [[Medina]]. Thus, the terms [[:Category:Meccan Surah|Meccan Surahs]] and [[:Category:Medinan Surah|Medinan Surahs]] arose.
  
===Meccan Surahs ===
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===Meccan Surahs===
  
Muslims believe that the Meccan suras were revealed while the Ummah was in Mecca, before the Hijrah, when the [[Ummah]] was weak. Non-Muslim scholars, such as Christoph Luxenberg believe these to be originally Christian, used by Aramaic-speaking Christian missionaries. Luxenberg, in particular, believes that many of these surahs are, in fact, Aramaic. Other surahs show Aramaic influence. The Meccan verses are generally peaceful, though some threats against unbelievers are made here and there.
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The traditional Islamic narrative postulates that the Meccan suras were revealed while the [[Ummah]] was in Mecca, before the Hijrah, when the [[Ummah]] was weak. The surahs classified by  the traditional scholars as "Meccan" are generally pacifist and tolerant, though some threats against unbelievers of hell fire are still made.  
  
===Medinan Surahs ===
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===Medinan Surahs===
  
After the Hijrah, Muslim history puts the Muslims in Medina. The Medinan Muslims were strong and willing to use force against any opponents. The Medinan Surahs reflect this in the harshness of their tone, with repeated threats of violence against unbelievers.
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After the Hijrah, Muslim history puts the Muslim community in Medina. The Medinan Muslims were strong and willing to use force against any opponents. The Medinan Surahs reflect this in the harshness of their tone, with repeated threats of and calls to physical violence against unbelievers in this world.
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==Secular Critical Scholarship==
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Recently, some critical scholars such as Christoph Luxenberg and Gabriel Said Reynolds have postulated that the original core material of the Quran was Christian, used by Aramaic-speaking Christian missionaries, priests and laity. Luxenberg, in particular, believes that many of these surahs were, in fact, originally written in a literay dialect of Aramaic known as Syriac, and that this Syriac material was later Arabacized. Other surahs show Syriac influence, having been apparently composes in an Aramaic-Arabic "Mischsprache" or mixed-language. The particulars of Luxenberg's thesis have been torn apart by scholars since he published it, but the general idea that a Christian Syriac "Qeryana" or lectionary was the core of the Quran has gained more respect in the scholarly community since that time. As such critical scholarship postulates that some of the surahs in the Quran may be very old indeed, perhaps older than Muhammad himself, while others may have been authored in the turbulent years following the death of the prophet and the Islamic civil wars which culminated in the rise of the Umayyad caliphate.  
  
 
{{Core Scripture}}
 
{{Core Scripture}}

Revision as of 04:15, 28 August 2020

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Present Organization

Except for the first surah, Al-Fatiha, the Qur'an is organized by descending length of the surah. That is to say that the longest surah is Surah 2 and the shortest is Surah 114. This organization indicates nothing about the chronology of the material in any possible dating scheme.

Meccan and Medinan Surahs

The traditional Islamic narrative postulates that the Qur'an was revealed in two phases: before and after the hijrah from Mecca to Medina. Thus, the terms Meccan Surahs and Medinan Surahs arose.

Meccan Surahs

The traditional Islamic narrative postulates that the Meccan suras were revealed while the Ummah was in Mecca, before the Hijrah, when the Ummah was weak. The surahs classified by the traditional scholars as "Meccan" are generally pacifist and tolerant, though some threats against unbelievers of hell fire are still made.

Medinan Surahs

After the Hijrah, Muslim history puts the Muslim community in Medina. The Medinan Muslims were strong and willing to use force against any opponents. The Medinan Surahs reflect this in the harshness of their tone, with repeated threats of and calls to physical violence against unbelievers in this world.

Secular Critical Scholarship

Recently, some critical scholars such as Christoph Luxenberg and Gabriel Said Reynolds have postulated that the original core material of the Quran was Christian, used by Aramaic-speaking Christian missionaries, priests and laity. Luxenberg, in particular, believes that many of these surahs were, in fact, originally written in a literay dialect of Aramaic known as Syriac, and that this Syriac material was later Arabacized. Other surahs show Syriac influence, having been apparently composes in an Aramaic-Arabic "Mischsprache" or mixed-language. The particulars of Luxenberg's thesis have been torn apart by scholars since he published it, but the general idea that a Christian Syriac "Qeryana" or lectionary was the core of the Quran has gained more respect in the scholarly community since that time. As such critical scholarship postulates that some of the surahs in the Quran may be very old indeed, perhaps older than Muhammad himself, while others may have been authored in the turbulent years following the death of the prophet and the Islamic civil wars which culminated in the rise of the Umayyad caliphate.

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See Also